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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-16
P. Viswanath ◽  
A. Das ◽  
G. Buscarnera

In fluid-saturated granular materials, the physicochemical interaction between pore-fluids and grain minerals alters packing conditions, which in turn leads to stress change deformation and, in extreme cases, even collapse. Chemical weathering, either naturally occurring or induced by human activities, is among such natural processes. This article presents an experimental study illustrating the major effects of chemical weathering on the deformation and stress state of granular materials, emphasising particulate systems entirely made by highly soluble carbonate grains. Laboratory experiments are conducted by subjecting acidic environments to granular assemblies under oedometric condition. The reaction rate is controlled by regulating various testing parameters, such as acid concentration and pore fluid flow rate. Experiments revealed that the lateral earth pressure steadily reduces in some cases, while others exhibit non-monotonic evolution. From a macroscopic standpoint, the rate of the chemical reaction was critical to determine the emergence of either of these trends. Such findings are relevant for any particulate system in which the stress conditions are controlled by multi-physical processes proceeding at different rates, such as waste products within bioreactors, gouge materials within faults and natural deposits subjected to the injection/extraction of reactive fluids.

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 ◽  
Antoni Taraszkiewicz ◽  
Izabela Sinkiewicz ◽  
Agata Sommer ◽  
Małgorzata Dąbrowska ◽  
Hanna Staroszczyk

Background: Keratin is among the most abundant structural proteins of animal origin, however it remains broadly underutilized. Objective: Bioinformatic investigation was performed to evaluate selected keratins originating from mass-produced waste products, i.e., chicken feathers and pig hair, as potential sources of bioactive peptides. Methods: Pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, papain, and subtilisin were used for in silico keratinolysis with the use of “Enzyme(s) action” and fragmentomic analysis of theoretical products was performed using “Profiles of potential biological activity” in BIOPEP-UWM database of bioactive peptides. Bioactivity probability calculation and toxicity prediction of the peptides obtained were estimated using PeptideRanker and ToxinPred tools, respectively. Results: Our results showed that the keratins are a potential source of a variety of biopeptides, including dipeptidyl peptidase IV, angiotensin converting enzyme, prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory and antioxidative. Papain and subtilisin were found to be the most appropriate enzymes for keratin hydrolysis. This study presents possible structures of keratin-derived bioactive peptides that have not been previously described. Conclusion: Our data suggest additional in vitro and in vivo studies to verify theoretical predictions and further investigate the possibility of using keratin-rich waste as a source of peptide nutraceuticals.

Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 136
Flavio De Angelis ◽  
Marco Romboni ◽  
Virginia Veltre ◽  
Paola Catalano ◽  
Cristina Martínez-Labarga ◽  

This paper aims to provide a first glimpse into the genomic characterization of individuals buried in Casal Bertone (Rome, first–third centuries AD) to gain preliminary insight into the genetic makeup of people who lived near a tannery workshop, fullonica. Therefore, we explored the genetic characteristics of individuals who were putatively recruited as fuller workers outside the Roman population. Moreover, we identified the microbial communities associated with humans to detect microbes associated with the unhealthy environment supposed for such a workshop. We examined five individuals from Casal Bertone for ancient DNA analysis through whole-genome sequencing via a shotgun approach. We conducted multiple investigations to unveil the genetic components featured in the samples studied and their associated microbial communities. We generated reliable whole-genome data for three samples surviving the quality controls. The individuals were descendants of people from North African and the Near East, two of the main foci for tannery and dyeing activity in the past. Our evaluation of the microbes associated with the skeletal samples showed microbes growing in soils with waste products used in the tannery process, indicating that people lived, died, and were buried around places where they worked. In that perspective, the results represent the first genomic characterization of fullers from the past. This analysis broadens our knowledge about the presence of multiple ancestries in Imperial Rome, marking a starting point for future data integration as part of interdisciplinary research on human mobility and the bio-cultural characteristics of people employed in dedicated workshops.

2022 ◽  
Mark E. Corkins ◽  
MaryAnne Achieng ◽  
Bridget D. DeLay ◽  
Vanja Stankic ◽  
Margo P. Cain ◽  

The kidney is an essential organ that ensures bodily fluid homeostasis and removes soluble waste products from the organism. The functional units within the kidneys are epithelial tubules called nephrons. These tubules take in filtrate from the blood or coelom and selectively reabsorb nutrients through evolutionarily conserved nephron segments, leaving waste product to be eliminated in the urine. Genes coding for functional transporters are segmentally expressed, enabling nephrons to function as selective filters. The developmental patterning program that generates these segments is of great interest. The Xenopus embryonic kidney, the pronephros, has served as a valuable model to identify genes involved in nephron formation and patterning. Prior work has defined the gene expression profiles of Xenopus epithelial nephron segments via in situ hybridization strategies, but our understanding of the cellular makeup of the Xenopus pronephric kidney remains incomplete. Here, we scrutinize the cellular composition of the Xenopus pronephric nephron through comparative analyses with previous Xenopus studies and single-cell mRNA sequencing of the adult mouse kidney, this study reconstructs the cellular makeup of the pronephric kidney and identifies conserved cells, segments, and expression profiles. The data highlight significant conservation in podocytes, proximal and distal tubule cells and divergence in cellular composition underlying the evolution of the corticomedullary axis, while emphasizing the Xenopus pronephros as a model for physiology and disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xu Zeng ◽  
Jiaxue Li ◽  
Xinkai Lyu ◽  
Juan Chen ◽  
Xiaomei Chen ◽  

Codonopsis pilosula has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for hundreds of years, where it has been used to treat anaemia, fatigue, a weak spleen, and stomach problems, among other ailments. The roots of C. pilosula are considered medicinal, while the aerial parts are always directly discarded after harvest in autumn or winter. Some studies have shown that the stems and leaves of C. pilosula also contain a variety of active metabolites, including saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, and polysaccharides. To efficiently utilise resources, waste products from C. pilosula leaves and stems were analysed by untargeted metabolomics and chemometrics. A total of 1508 metabolites were detected and annotated, of which 463 were identified as differentially expressed metabolites (DEMs). These DEMs were grouped into classes, such as carboxylic acids and derivatives, steroids, organic oxygen compounds, fatty acyls, prenol lipids, and flavonoids. Metabolic profiling of C. pilosula tissues showed that the contents of polyacetylenes, polyenes, flavonoids, some alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, and organic acids were higher in stems and leaves, whereas the contents of the main lignans and some alkaloids were more enriched in roots. Moreover, C. pilosula stems and leaves also contained a lobetyolin, syringin and atractylenolide III, which were detected by LC-MS/MS and HPLC-UV. The extracts of C. pilosula aerial parts also showed stronger antioxidant properties than roots. C. pilosula stems and leaves were rich in active ingredients and might have great value for development and utilisation.

2022 ◽  
Jonathan Y Lin ◽  
Laibin Huang ◽  
Sung J Won ◽  
Jorge L.M. Rodrigues

Abstract Termites are remarkable for their ability to digest cellulose from wood as their main energy source, but the extremely low nitrogen (N) content of their diet presents a major challenge for N acquisition. Besides the activity of N 2 -fixing bacteria in the gut, the recycling of N from waste products by symbiotic microbes as a complementary N-provisioning mechanism in termites remains poorly understood. In this study, we used a combination of high-throughput amplicon sequencing, quantitative PCR, and cultivation to characterize the microbial community capable of degrading urea, a common waste product, into ammonia in the guts of termites ( Reticulitermes hesperus ) from a wild and laboratory-reared colony. Taxonomic analysis indicated that a majority of the urease ( ureC ) genes in the termite gut (53.0%) matched with a Treponema endosymbiont of gut protists previously found in several other termites, suggesting an important contribution to the nutrition of essential cellulolytic protists. Furthermore, analysis of both the 16S rRNA and ureC amplicons revealed that the laboratory colony had decreased diversity and altered community composition for both prokaryotic and ureolytic microbial communities in the termite gut. Estimation by quantitative PCR showed that microbial ureC genes decreased in abundance in the laboratory-reared colony compared to the wild colony. In addition, most of our cultivated isolates appeared to originate from non-gut environments. Together, our results underscore a more important role for ureolysis by endosymbionts within protists than by free-swimming bacteria in the gut lumen of R. hesperus .

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
Edward Clark ◽  
Monika Bleszynski ◽  
Matt Gordon

Abstract Abstract Options for recycling fiber composite polymer (FCP) materials are scarce, as these materials cannot be normally recycled and are toxic when improperly disposed. Additionally, reducing water usage is an increasing concern, as the concrete industry currently uses 10% of the world’s industrial water. Therefore, building upon our previous work, this research explores the use of polymer hybrid carbon and glass composite waste products as reinforcements in high-pressure compacted cement. Our material used nearly 70% less water during manufacturing and exhibited improved durability and salt corrosion resistance. Compression strength tests were performed on high-pressure compacted materials containing 6.0 wt% recycled admixtures before and after saltwater aging, and the results showed that the material retained 90% of its original compression strength after aging, as it contained fewer pores and cavities. Our experimental work was supplemented by molecular dynamics. Simulations, which indicated that the synergetic effects of compaction and FCP admixture addition slowed the diffusion of corrosive salt ions by an average of 84%. Thus, our high-pressure compacted cement material may be suitable for extended use in marine environments, while also reducing the amount of commercial fiber composite polymer waste material that is sent to the landfill. Article Highlights Fiber composite waste was successfully recycled into denser, high-pressure compacted ordinary Portland cement materials. High-pressure compacted cement samples containing 6% recycled admixtures retained 90% of their compression strength after salt aging. The high-pressure compaction method utilized 70% less water during specimen fabrication.

Buildings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 44
Tariq Ali ◽  
Abdul Salam Buller ◽  
Fahad ul Rehman Abro ◽  
Zaheer Ahmed ◽  
Samreen Shabbir ◽  

Cement production produces a high amount of carbon dioxide, which has a negative impact on the environment. By utilizing waste products instead of cement, environmental degradation can be reduced. The current study was undertaken to study the mechanical and durability performance of concrete by replacing 7.5%, 10%, and 12.5% silica fume (SF) of cement weight. Additionally, coal bottom ash (CBA) was also substituted as fine aggregates with 10%, 20%, and 30%. Compressive strength and indirect tensile strength were the major parameters regarding mechanical properties, while corrosion analysis and sulfate attack were set for durability performance. Sixteen mixes were prepared including a control mix. Out of these, three mixes contained SF, three mixes contained CBA, and eight mixes contained both SF and CBA with 1:2:4 ratio at 0.5 w/b ratio. The results concluded that the addition of 12.5% SF and 30% CBA gives optimum compressive strength and tensile strength. Furthermore, using the SF and CBA reduces the workability of concrete. Furthermore, the use of these byproducts increased the durability in terms of corrosion and sulfate attack.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Chirag Vibhakar ◽  
R. S. Sabeenian ◽  
S. Kaliappan ◽  
Pandurang Y. Patil ◽  
Pravin P. Patil ◽  

Two totally waste products, agricultural residues and mixed plastic wastes collected from domestic and industrial sectors, are used in this study for the recovery of energy rich biofuel and value-added chemicals. The copyrolysis experiments using fixed bed reactor are conducted in order to analyse the synergetic effects. The experimental works are carried out with different proportion of mixed plastics blended with agricultural residues. The reaction temperature and biomass-to-waste plastics ratio on product distributions are studied and addressed. The thermogravimetric analysis conducted at different temperatures clearly distinguished the pyrolysis behaviours of biomass and plastics. The positive synergistic effects defined as higher yield of volatiles compared to predicted yield for bio-oil were identified at particular mixing ratio. Both biomass wastes and plastic wastes show optimal performance of 60.42 wt% oil yield at 60% addition of waste plastics. The oil products obtained under favourable conditions have a higher heating value compared to the oil obtained from biomass pyrolysis. The GC-MS study confirmed that the interaction between biomass and plastics during copyrolysis resulted in decreased oxygenated contents in the oil products.

2022 ◽  
Vol 951 (1) ◽  
pp. 012110
M Daud ◽  
M A Yaman ◽  
Zulfan ◽  
H Latif ◽  
D Erfiyan

Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth performance of Peking ducks fed with rations containing waste products of leubiem fish (Chanthidermis maculatus) and probiotic agents. The study was conducted experimentally using 96 Peking ducks, within an age range of about 1 to 8 weeks, and a Completely Randomized Design (CRD), which consisted of four treatment rations and four replications. The treatment rations used in this research included treatment R0, which was the basal diet, serving as the control ration, and also treatment R1, R2, and R3, which consisted of 10% concentration of leubiem fish skin, head, and bone, respectively, as well as 1% of a probiotic agent. The observed variables included the rate of feed consumption, body weight gain, final body weight, feed conversion ratio, and mortality were then analysed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results showed that the use of leubiem fish components and probiotic agents in rations at 10% and 1%, respectively, had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the rate of feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and final body weight. However, there was no significant effect on the mortality of Peking ducks. Therefore, this study concluded that the use of rations containing leubiem fishbone and probiotic agents at 10% and 1%, respectively, were able to accelerate the growth performance of Peking ducks.

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