lung epithelial cells
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 358-364
Wei Zhang ◽  
Fang Liu ◽  
Caixia Zhang

To elucidate the communication between exosomes (exo) derived from BMSCs and injured lung cells. BMSC-exo was isolated and characterized. Lung epithelial cells A549 were incubated with BMSC-exo, and treated by LPS to induce cell damage. CCK-8 assay was carried out to test cell proliferation, flow cytometry was adopted to analyze cell apoptosis, and RT-qPCR as well as Western blot analysis were selected to assess expression of apoptosis- and anti-apoptosis related proteins. Functional experiment was performed to identify the role of microRNA (miRNA)-328 in lung injury. LPS treatment significantly inhibited the viability of A549 cells, induced apoptosis of A549 cells by increasing Bax and casepase-3 levels and reducing Bcl-2 expression, whilst declined expression of miR-328 and suppressed the phosphorylation activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway. Meanwhile, the amount of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α were elevated in injured cells, but, the presence of BMSC-exo eliminated the elevation of the contents. Importantly, treatment with BMSC-exo increased miR-328 expression, activated MAPK MAPK/ERK pathway, inhibited apoptosis, and enhanced cell proliferation. However, the effect of BMSC-exo was attenuated when the cells were silenced for miR-328 expression. Collectively, BMSC-exo enriched miR-328 could relieve acute lung injury through MAPK/ERK pathway.

2022 ◽  
David F Colon ◽  
Carlos W Wanderley ◽  
Walter Turato ◽  
Vanessa F Borges ◽  
Marcelo Franchin ◽  

Sepsis survival in adults is commonly followed by immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to secondary infections. However, the long-term immune consequences of pediatric sepsis are unknown. Here, we compared the frequency of Tregs, the activation of the IL-33/ILC2s axis in M2 macrophages, and the DNA methylation of epithelial lung cells from post-septic infant and adult mice. In contrast to adults, infant mice were resistant to secondary infection and did not show impairment in tumour controls upon melanoma challenge. Mechanistically, increased IL-33 levels, Tregs expansion, and activation of ILC2s and M2-macrophages were observed in post-septic adults but not infant mice. Impaired IL-33 production in post-septic infant mice was associated with increased DNA-methylation on lung epithelial cells. Notably, IL-33 treatment boosted the expansion of Tregs and induced immunosuppression in infant mice. Clinically, adults but not pediatric post-septic patients exhibited higher counts of Tregs and sera IL-33 levels. Hence, we describe a crucial and age-dependent role for IL-33 in post-sepsis immunosuppression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Ni An ◽  
Zhenjie Li ◽  
Xiaodi Yan ◽  
Hainan Zhao ◽  
Yajie Yang ◽  

AbstractThe lung is one of the most sensitive tissues to ionizing radiation, thus, radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) stays a key dose-limiting factor of thoracic radiotherapy. However, there is still little progress in the effective treatment of RILI. Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate1, Rac1, is a small guanosine triphosphatases involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis. Thus, Rac1 may be an important molecule that mediates radiation damage, inhibition of which may produce a protective effect on RILI. By establishing a mouse model of radiation-induced lung injury and orthotopic lung tumor-bearing mouse model, we detected the role of Rac1 inhibition in the protection of RILI and suppression of lung tumor. The results showed that ionizing radiation induces the nuclear translocation of Rac1, the latter then promotes nuclear translocation of P53 and prolongs the residence time of p53 in the nucleus, thereby promoting the transcription of Trp53inp1 which mediates p53-dependent apoptosis. Inhibition of Rac1 significantly reduce the apoptosis of normal lung epithelial cells, thereby effectively alleviating RILI. On the other hand, inhibition of Rac1 could also significantly inhibit the growth of lung tumor, increase the radiation sensitivity of tumor cells. These differential effects of Rac1 inhibition were related to the mutation and overexpression of Rac1 in tumor cells.

2022 ◽  
Tommaso Mari ◽  
Kristin Moesbauer ◽  
Emanuel Wyler ◽  
Markus Landthaler ◽  
Christian Drosten ◽  

Phosphoproteomics routinely quantifies changes in the levels of thousands of phosphorylation sites, but functional analysis of such data remains a major challenge. While databases like PhosphoSitePlus contain information about many phosphorylation sites, the vast majority of known sites are not assigned to any protein kinase. Assigning changes in the phosphoproteome to the activity of individual kinases therefore remains a key challenge.. A recent large-scale study systematically identified in vitro substrates for most human protein kinases. Here, we reprocessed and filtered these data to generate an in vitro Kinase-to-Phosphosite database (iKiP-DB). We show that iKiP-DB can accurately predict changes in kinase activity in published phosphoproteomic datasets for both well-studied and poorly characterized kinases. We apply iKiP-DB to a newly generated phosphoproteomic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infected human lung epithelial cells and provide evidence for coronavirus-induced changes in host cell kinase activity. In summary, we show that iKiP-DB is widely applicable to facilitate the functional analysis of phosphoproteomic datasets.

2022 ◽  
Kasra Khalaj ◽  
Lina Antounians ◽  
Rebeca Lopes Figueira ◽  
Martin Post ◽  
Augusto Zani

Rationale: Pulmonary hypoplasia secondary to congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is characterized by reduced branching morphogenesis, which is responsible for poor clinical outcomes. Administration of amniotic fluid stem cell extracellular vesicles (AFSC-EVs) rescues branching morphogenesis in rodent fetal models of pulmonary hypoplasia. Herein, we hypothesized that AFSC-EVs exert their regenerative potential by affecting autophagy, a process required for normal lung development. Objectives: To evaluate autophagy in hypoplastic lungs throughout gestation and establish whether AFSC-EV administration improves branching morphogenesis through autophagy-mediated mechanisms. Methods: EVs were isolated from c-kit+ AFSC conditioned medium by ultracentrifugation and characterized for size, morphology, and EV markers. Branching morphogenesis was inhibited in rat fetuses by nitrofen administration to dams and in human fetal lung explants by blocking RAC1 activity with NSC23766. Expression of autophagy activators (BECN1 and ATG5) and adaptor (SQSTM1/p62) was analyzed in vitro (rat and human fetal lung explants) and in vivo (rat fetal lungs). Mechanistic studies on rat fetal primary lung epithelial cells were conducted using inhibitors for microRNA-17 and -20a contained in the AFSC-EV cargo and known to regulate autophagy. Measurements and Main Results: Rat and human models of fetal pulmonary hypoplasia showed reduced autophagy mainly at pseudoglandular and canalicular stages. AFSC-EV administration restored autophagy in both pulmonary hypoplasia models by transferring miR-17~92 cluster members contained in the EV cargo. Conclusions: AFSC-EV treatment rescues branching morphogenesis partly by restoring autophagy through miRNA cargo transfer. This study enhances our understanding of pulmonary hypoplasia pathogenesis and creates new opportunities for fetal therapeutic intervention in CDH babies.

Thorax ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. thoraxjnl-2021-217997
Amy M de Waal ◽  
Pieter S Hiemstra ◽  
Tom HM Ottenhoff ◽  
Simone A Joosten ◽  
Anne M van der Does

The lung epithelium has long been overlooked as a key player in tuberculosis disease. In addition to acting as a direct barrier to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), epithelial cells (EC) of the airways and alveoli act as first responders during Mtb infections; they directly sense and respond to Mtb by producing mediators such as cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobials. Interactions of EC with innate and adaptive immune cells further shape the immune response against Mtb. These three essential components, epithelium, immune cells and Mtb, are rarely studied in conjunction, owing in part to difficulties in coculturing them. Recent advances in cell culture technologies offer the opportunity to model the lung microenvironment more closely. Herein, we discuss the interplay between lung EC, immune cells and Mtb and argue that modelling these interactions is of key importance to unravel early events during Mtb infection.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 235
Roxana Maria Wasnick ◽  
Irina Shalashova ◽  
Jochen Wilhelm ◽  
Ali Khadim ◽  
Nicolai Schmidt ◽  

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal degenerative lung disease of unknown etiology. Although in its final stages it implicates, in a reactive manner, all lung cell types, the initial damage involves the alveolar epithelial compartment, in particular the alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AEC2s). AEC2s serve dual progenitor and surfactant secreting functions, both of which are deeply impacted in IPF. Thus, we hypothesize that the size of the surfactant processing compartment, as measured by LysoTracker incorporation, allows the identification of different epithelial states in the IPF lung. Flow cytometry analysis of epithelial LysoTracker incorporation delineates two populations (Lysohigh and Lysolow) of AEC2s that behave in a compensatory manner during bleomycin injury and in the donor/IPF lung. Employing flow cytometry and transcriptomic analysis of cells isolated from donor and IPF lungs, we demonstrate that the Lysohigh population expresses all classical AEC2 markers and is drastically diminished in IPF. The Lysolow population, which is increased in proportion in IPF, co-expressed AEC2 and basal cell markers, resembling the phenotype of the previously identified intermediate AEC2 population in the IPF lung. In that regard, we provide an in-depth flow-cytometry characterization of LysoTracker uptake, HTII-280, proSP-C, mature SP-B, NGFR, KRT5, and CD24 expression in human lung epithelial cells. Combining functional analysis with extracellular and intracellular marker expression and transcriptomic analysis, we advance the current understanding of epithelial cell behavior and fate in lung fibrosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
No-Joon Song ◽  
Carter Allen ◽  
Anna E. Vilgelm ◽  
Brian P. Riesenberg ◽  
Kevin P. Weller ◽  

Abstract Background Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through direct lysis of infected lung epithelial cells, which releases damage-associated molecular patterns and induces a pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu causing systemic inflammation. Anti-viral and anti-inflammatory agents have shown limited therapeutic efficacy. Soluble CD24 (CD24Fc) blunts the broad inflammatory response induced by damage-associated molecular patterns via binding to extracellular high mobility group box 1 and heat shock proteins, as well as regulating the downstream Siglec10-Src homology 2 domain–containing phosphatase 1 pathway. A recent randomized phase III trial evaluating CD24Fc for patients with severe COVID-19 (SAC-COVID; NCT04317040) demonstrated encouraging clinical efficacy. Methods Using a systems analytical approach, we studied peripheral blood samples obtained from patients enrolled at a single institution in the SAC-COVID trial to discern the impact of CD24Fc treatment on immune homeostasis. We performed high dimensional spectral flow cytometry and measured the levels of a broad array of cytokines and chemokines to discern the impact of CD24Fc treatment on immune homeostasis in patients with COVID-19. Results Twenty-two patients were enrolled, and the clinical characteristics from the CD24Fc vs. placebo groups were matched. Using high-content spectral flow cytometry and network-level analysis, we found that patients with severe COVID-19 had systemic hyper-activation of multiple cellular compartments, including CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD56+ natural killer cells. Treatment with CD24Fc blunted this systemic inflammation, inducing a return to homeostasis in NK and T cells without compromising the anti-Spike protein antibody response. CD24Fc significantly attenuated the systemic cytokine response and diminished the cytokine coexpression and network connectivity linked with COVID-19 severity and pathogenesis. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that CD24Fc rapidly down-modulates systemic inflammation and restores immune homeostasis in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals, supporting further development of CD24Fc as a novel therapeutic against severe COVID-19.

Xiao Sun ◽  
Yingzhi Liu ◽  
Ziheng Huang ◽  
Wenye Xu ◽  
Wei Hu ◽  

AbstractA recent mutation analysis suggested that Non-Structural Protein 6 (NSP6) of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a key determinant of the viral pathogenicity. Here, by transcriptome analysis, we demonstrated that the inflammasome-related NOD-like receptor signaling was activated in SARS-CoV-2-infected lung epithelial cells and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients’ lung tissues. The induction of inflammasomes/pyroptosis in patients with severe COVID-19 was confirmed by serological markers. Overexpression of NSP6 triggered NLRP3/ASC-dependent caspase-1 activation, interleukin-1β/18 maturation, and pyroptosis of lung epithelial cells. Upstream, NSP6 impaired lysosome acidification to inhibit autophagic flux, whose restoration by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, metformin or polydatin abrogated NSP6-induced pyroptosis. NSP6 directly interacted with ATP6AP1, a vacuolar ATPase proton pump component, and inhibited its cleavage-mediated activation. L37F NSP6 variant, which was associated with asymptomatic COVID-19, exhibited reduced binding to ATP6AP1 and weakened ability to impair lysosome acidification to induce pyroptosis. Consistently, infection of cultured lung epithelial cells with live SARS-CoV-2 resulted in autophagic flux stagnation, inflammasome activation, and pyroptosis. Overall, this work supports that NSP6 of SARS-CoV-2 could induce inflammatory cell death in lung epithelial cells, through which pharmacological rectification of autophagic flux might be therapeutically exploited.

2022 ◽  
Shunsuke Yuri ◽  
Yuki Murase ◽  
Aayako Isotani

Regenerative medicine is a tool to compensate for the shortage of lungs for transplantation, but it remains difficult to construct a lung in vitro due to the complex three-dimensional structures and multiple cell types required. A blastocyst complementation method using interspecies chimeric animals has been attracting attention as a way to create complex organs in animals, but successful lung formation has not yet been achieved. Here, we applied a reverse-blastocyst complementation method to clarify the conditions required to form lungs in an Fgfr2b-deficient mouse model. We then successfully formed a rat-derived lung in the mouse model without generating a mouse line by applying a tetraploid-based organ-complementation method. Importantly, rat lung epithelial cells retained their developmental timing even in the mouse body. This result provides useful insights regarding the need to overcome the barrier of species-specific developmental timing in order to generate functional lungs in interspecies chimeras.

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