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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xuguang Zhang ◽  
Yuxin Zhang ◽  
Mingyan Zhou ◽  
Yiqiang Xie ◽  
Xiujuan Dong ◽  

(R)-5-hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone (DPHC) from the natural plant Alpinia officinarum has been reported to have antioxidation and antidiabetic effects. In this study, the therapeutic effect and molecular mechanism of DPHC on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were investigated based on the regulation of oxidative stress and insulin resistance (IR) in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, the fasting blood glucose (FBG) level of db/db mice was significantly reduced with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity after 8 weeks of treatment with DPHC. In vitro, DPHC ameliorated IR because of its increasing glucose consumption and glucose uptake of IR-HepG2 cells induced by high glucose. In addition, in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that DPHC could regulate the antioxidant enzyme levels including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), thereby reducing the occurrence of oxidative stress and improving insulin resistance. Western blotting and polymerase chain reaction results showed that DPHC could promote the expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), protein kinase B (AKT), and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), and reduced the phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) on Ser307 both in vivo and in vitro. These findings verified that DPHC has the potential to relieve oxidative stress and IR to cure T2DM by activating Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in db/db mice and IR-HepG2 cells.

Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 158
Raquel G. Bardallo ◽  
Idoia Company-Marin ◽  
Emma Folch-Puy ◽  
Joan Roselló-Catafau ◽  
Arnau Panisello-Rosello ◽  

The need to meet the demand for transplants entails the use of steatotic livers, more vulnerable to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Therefore, finding the optimal composition of static cold storage (SCS) preservation solutions is crucial. Given that ROS regulation is a therapeutic strategy for liver IR injury, we have added increasing concentrations of PEG35 and glutathione (GSH) to the preservation solutions (IGL-1 and IGL-2) and evaluated the possible protection against energy depletion and oxidative stress. Fatty livers from obese Zücker rats were isolated and randomly distributed in the control (Sham) preserved (24 h at 4 °C) in IGL-0 (without PEG35 and 3 mmol/L GSH), IGL-1 (1 g/L PEG35, and 3 mmol/L GSH), and IGL-2 (5 g/L PEG35 and 9 mmol/L GSH). Energy metabolites (ATP and succinate) and the expression of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes (OXPHOS) were determined. Mitochondrial carrier uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and the inflammasome (NLRP3) expressions were analyzed. As biomarkers of oxidative stress, protein oxidation (AOPP) and carbonylation (DNP derivatives), and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA)–thiobarbituric acid (TBA) adducts) were measured. In addition, the reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG) and enzymatic (Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GSH S-T, GSH-Px, and GSH-R) antioxidant capacities were determined. Our results showed that the cold preservation of fatty liver graft depleted ATP, accumulated succinate and increased oxidative stress. In contrast, the preservation with IGL-2 solution maintained ATP production, decreased succinate levels and increased OXPHOS complexes I and II, UCP2, and PINK-1 expression, therefore maintaining mitochondrial integrity. IGL-2 also protected against oxidative stress by increasing Nrf2 and HO-1 expression and GSH levels. Therefore, the presence of PEG35 in storage solutions may be a valuable option as an antioxidant agent for organ preservation in clinical transplantation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Guangyao Li ◽  
Shuang Wang ◽  
Zhe Fan

Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a manifestation of tissue or organ damage that is followed by ischemia and exacerbated by the return of blood flow to a previously damaged tissue or organ. The intestines are one of the most sensitive tissues and organs to I/R injury. Moreover, the adverse consequences of intestinal I/R (II/R) injury are not limited to the intestine itself and can also lead to damage of the distant tissues and organs. The mechanism of II/R is extremely complex and oxidative stress is the key link in the pathogenesis of II/R injury. This study summarizes the roles of oxidative stress and its signaling pathways involved in II/R. The signaling pathways that mitigate II/R injury include the nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated signaling pathway, Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and phosphatidylinositol kinase 3 (PI3K)/Akt pathway; those that aggravate II/R injury include the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway, Toll-like receptor (TLR) receptor-mediated signaling pathway, protein kinase CβII (PKCβII)/p66shc pathway, and microRNA (miRNA)/p66shc pathway; the effect of miRNA on related pathways and mitochondrial DNA translocation. The aforementioned pathways provide new ideas for further exploring the occurrence and development of II/R and more effective treatments for II/R injury.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 502
Sergio Davinelli ◽  
Luciano Saso ◽  
Floriana D’Angeli ◽  
Vittorio Calabrese ◽  
Mariano Intrieri ◽  

Astaxanthin (AST) is a dietary xanthophyll predominantly found in marine organisms and seafood. Due to its unique molecular features, AST has an excellent antioxidant activity with a wide range of applications in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. In the past decade, mounting evidence has suggested a protective role for AST against a wide range of diseases where oxidative stress and inflammation participate in a self-perpetuating cycle. Here, we review the underlying molecular mechanisms by which AST regulates two relevant redox-sensitive transcription factors, such as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Nrf2 is a cellular sensor of electrophilic stress that coordinates the expression of a battery of defensive genes encoding antioxidant proteins and detoxifying enzymes. Likewise, NF-κB acts as a mediator of cellular stress and induces the expression of various pro-inflammatory genes, including those encoding cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. The effects of AST on the crosstalk between these transcription factors have also been discussed. Besides this, we summarize the current clinical studies elucidating how AST may alleviate the etiopathogenesis of oxidative stress and inflammation.

Minghuan Mao ◽  
Liang Yang ◽  
Jingyao Hu ◽  
Bing Liu ◽  
Xiling Zhang ◽  

AbstractThe neuronally expressed developmentally downregulated 4 (NEDD4) gene encodes a ubiquitin ligase that targets the epithelial sodium channel for degradation and has been implicated in tumor growth in various cancers. Hence, in this study, we intended to characterize the functional relevance of the NEDD4-mediated Kruppel-like factor 8/microRNA-132/nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (KLF8/miR-132/NRF2) axis in the development of bladder cancer. NEDD4 and KLF8 were overexpressed in bladder cancer tissues and were associated with poorer patient survival rates. In bladder cancer cells, NEDD4 intensified the stability and transcriptional activity of KLF8 through ubiquitination to augment cell viability and migratory ability. Our investigations revealed that NEDD4 promotes the binding of KLF8 to the miR-132 promoter region and inhibits the expression of miR-132. KLF8 inhibited the expression of miR-132 to augment the viability and migratory ability of bladder cancer cells. Furthermore, miR-132 downregulated the expression of NRF2 to restrict the viability and migratory ability of bladder cancer cells. In addition, in vivo findings verified that NEDD4 regulates the KLF8/miR-132/NRF2 axis by accelerating tumor growth and lung metastasis. In conclusion, this study highlights NEDD4 as a potential therapeutic target against tumor recurrence and metastasis in bladder cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Yi Ling Tang ◽  
Tiow Suan Sim ◽  
Kai Soo Tan

AbstractIn periodontal health, oral streptococci constitute up to 80% of the plaque biofilm. Yet, destructive inflammatory events of the periodontium are rare. This observation suggests that oral streptococci may possess mechanisms to co-exist with the host. However, the mechanisms employed by oral streptococci to modulate the innate immune response have not been well studied. One of the key virulence factors produced by oral streptococci is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In mammalian cells, H2O2 triggers the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key pathway mediating antioxidant defence. This study aimed to determine (1) if H2O2 producing oral streptococci activated the Nrf2 pathway in macrophages, and (2) if the activation of Nrf2 influenced the innate immune response. We found that oral streptococci downregulated the innate immune response in a H2O2 dependent manner through the activation of the Nrf2. The activation of the Nrf2 signalling pathway led to the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFĸB), the key transcription factor regulating pro-inflammatory response. This study showed for the first time that oral streptococci are unlikely passive bystanders but could play an active role in the maintenance of periodontal health by preventing overt inflammation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 275-280
Lei Ji ◽  
Xue Zhong ◽  
Xingxing Xia ◽  
Wei Yu ◽  
Yuping Qin

Purpose: To investigate the protective role of syringaresinol in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods: Streptozotocin was injected intraperitoneally into rats to establish the diabetic model. Streptozotocin-induced rats were orally administered syringaresinol, and pathological changes in kidneys were assessed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine kidney injury indicators, 24-h urine proteins, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (SCR). Blood glucose was measured using a blood glucose meter, while levels of malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in kidney were also measured using ELISA. Results: Pathological changes in the kidneys were observed in rats post-streptozotocin treatment. Administration of syringaresinol reduced the lesion degree, with improved pathological morphology in kidney. Syringaresinol administration significantly attenuated streptozotocin-increased levels of BUN, SCR, 24-h urine protein, and blood glucose (p < 0.01). Streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress, shown by enhanced MDA level and reduced levels of SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX, was reversed in rat kidneys following syringaresinol administration. However, the expression levels of nuclear factor erythropoietin- 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) proteins decreased, while transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and signal transducer and transcriptional modulator (Smad) 2/3/7 proteins increased in rats post-streptozotocin treatment. Syringaresinol administration reversed the effects of streptozotocin on protein expression of Nrf2, HO-1, TGF-β1, and Smad 2/3/7. Conclusion: Syringaresinol exerted a protective effect against DN through activation of Nrf2 and inactivation of TGF-β1/Smad pathways. Thus, the compound can potentially be developed for management of diabetic nephropathy.

Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 149
Lisa Schieffer ◽  
Claudia Manzl ◽  
Christoph Schatz ◽  
Johannes Haybaeck ◽  
Adriano Crismani

The aim of this review article was to summarize the functional implications of the nuclear factor E2-related factor or nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), with special attention to the NACHT (nucleotide-binding oligomerization), LRR (leucine-rich repeat), and PYD (pyrin domain) domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in the field of dentistry. NLRP3 plays a crucial role in the progression of inflammatory and adaptive immune responses throughout the body. It is already known that this inflammasome is a key regulator of several systemic diseases. The initiation and activation of NLRP3 starts with the oral microbiome and its association with the pathogenesis and progression of several oral diseases, including periodontitis, periapical periodontitis, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The possible role of the inflammasome in oral disease conditions may involve the aberrant regulation of various response mechanisms, not only in the mouth but in the whole body. Understanding the cellular and molecular biology of the NLRP3 inflammasome and its relationship to Nrf2 is necessary for the rationale when suggesting it as a potential therapeutic target for treatment and prevention of oral inflammatory and immunological disorders. In this review, we highlighted the current knowledge about NLRP3, its likely role in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory oral processes, and its crosstalk with Nrf2, which might offer future possibilities for disease prevention and targeted therapy in the field of dentistry and oral health.

Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 148
Pei Wu ◽  
Li Zhang ◽  
Weidan Jiang ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  
Jun Jiang ◽  

Fish is an important animal-source food for humans. However, the oxidative stress-induced by intensive aquaculture usually causes deterioration of fish meat quality. The nutritional way has been considered to be a useful method for improving fish flesh quality. This study using the same growth experiment as our previous study was conducted to investigate whether vitamin A could improve flesh quality by enhancing antioxidative ability via Nrf2/Keap1 signaling in fish muscle. Six diets with different levels of vitamin A were fed to grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (262.02 ± 0.45 g) for 10 weeks. Dietary vitamin A significantly improved flesh sensory appeal and nutritional value, as evident by higher pH24h value, water-holding capacity, shear force, contents of protein, lipid, four indispensable amino acids (lysine, methionine, threonine, and arginine) and total polyunsaturated fatty acid in the muscle. Furthermore, dietary vitamin A reduced oxidative damage, as evident by decreased levels of muscle reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl, enhanced activities of antioxidative enzyme (catalase, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), MnSOD, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase), as well as increased content of glutathione, which was probably in relation to the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling. These findings demonstrated that dietary vitamin A improved flesh quality probably by enhancing antioxidant ability through Nrf2/Keap 1a signaling in fish.

2022 ◽  
Peramaiyan Rajendran ◽  
Rebai Ben Ammar ◽  
Fatma J Al-Saeedi ◽  
Saeed Y. AlRamadan ◽  
Mohammad Bani Ismail ◽  

Abstract D-galactose (D-gal) is a reducing sugar drug can induce artificial senescence and aging process that mimic natural aging along with the accompanying brain and liver injury in experimental animals. Therefore, chronic D-gal administration is widely used to induce cognitive impairment, Alzheimer disease and aging in rodents' models. Aging is a phenomenon in which oxidative stress and apoptosis play a vital role. Geraniol (GNL) belongs to the acyclic isoprenoid monoterpenes, presents in essential oils such as those from Cinnamomum tenuipilum and Valeriana officinalis. In the present study, we examined the effects of GNL on D-gal-induced oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation mediated memory loss in mice. Analyzing the behavioral differences between control and treated groups, including the elderly mice, revealed that GNL significantly improved memory in mice treated with D-gal-induced memory loss (supplementary videos are provided). The anti-inflammatory and the anti-oxidative role of GNL were confirmed by both histopathological investigations and biochemical analyses. Mechanistically, GNL appears to activate PI3K/Akt and thus upregulates the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) to reduce the oxidative stress and apoptosis induced after D-gal treatment leading to easing of neurological deficits and cognitive dysfunction in D-gal-induced aging mouse models. Accordingly, our comprehensive behavioral analysis and bioassays suggest GNL as a promising agent preventing cognitive impairment and neurological deficits associated with aging.

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