active compounds
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Kirsten M. Wright ◽  
Janis McFerrin ◽  
Armando Alcázar Magaña ◽  
Joanne Roberts ◽  
Maya Caruso ◽  

Botanical products are frequently sold as dietary supplements and their use by the public is increasing in popularity. However, scientific evaluation of their medicinal benefits presents unique challenges due to their chemical complexity, inherent variability, and the involvement of multiple active components and biological targets. Translation away from preclinical models, and developing an optimized, reproducible botanical product for use in clinical trials, presents particular challenges for phytotherapeutic agents compared to single chemical entities. Common deficiencies noted in clinical trials of botanical products include limited characterization of the product tested, inadequate placebo control, and lack of rationale for the type of product tested, dose used, outcome measures or even the study population. Our group has focused on the botanical Centella asiatica due to its reputation for enhancing cognition in Eastern traditional medicine systems. Our preclinical studies on a Centella asiatica water extract (CAW) and its bioactive components strongly support its potential as a phytotherapeutic agent for cognitive decline in aging and Alzheimer's disease through influences on antioxidant response, mitochondrial activity, and synaptic density. Here we describe our robust, scientific approach toward developing a rational phytotherapeutic product based on Centella asiatica for human investigation, addressing multiple factors to optimize its valid clinical evaluation. Specific aspects covered include approaches to identifying an optimal dose range for clinical assessment, design and composition of a dosage form and matching placebo, sourcing appropriate botanical raw material for product manufacture (including the evaluation of active compounds and contaminants), and up-scaling of laboratory extraction methods to available current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) certified industrial facilities. We also address the process of obtaining regulatory approvals to proceed with clinical trials. Our study highlights the complexity of translational research on botanicals and the importance of identifying active compounds and developing sound analytical and bioanalytical methods for their determination in botanical materials and biological samples. Recent Phase I pharmacokinetic studies of our Centella asiatica product in humans (NCT03929250, NCT03937908) have highlighted additional challenges associated with designing botanical bioavailability studies, including specific dietary considerations that need to be considered.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Riyu Chen ◽  
Zeyi Guan ◽  
Xianxing Zhong ◽  
Wenzheng Zhang ◽  
Ya Zhang

Objective. To explore the active compounds and targets of cinobufotalin (huachansu) compared with the osteosarcoma genes to obtain the potential therapeutic targets and pharmacological mechanisms of action of cinobufotalin on osteosarcoma through network pharmacology. Methods. The composition of cinobufotalin was searched by literature retrieval, and the target was selected from the CTD and TCMSP databases. The osteosarcoma genes, found from the GeneCards, OMIM, and other databases, were compared with the cinobufotalin targets to obtain potential therapeutic targets. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of potential therapeutic targets, constructed through the STRING database, was inputted into Cytoscape software to calculate the hub genes, using the NetworkAnalyzer. The hub genes were inputted into the Kaplan-Meier Plotter online database for exploring the survival curve. Functional enrichment analysis was identified using the DAVID database. Results. 28 main active compounds of cinobufotalin were explored, including bufalin, adenosine, oleic acid, and cinobufagin. 128 potential therapeutic targets on osteosarcoma are confirmed among 184 therapeutic targets form cinobufotalin. The hub genes included TP53, ACTB, AKT1, MYC, CASP3, JUN, TNF, VEGFA, HSP90AA1, and STAT3. Among the hub genes, TP53, ACTB, MYC, TNF, VEGFA, and STAT3 affect the patient survival prognosis of sarcoma. Through function enrichment analysis, it is found that the main mechanisms of cinobufotalin on osteosarcoma include promoting sarcoma apoptosis, regulating the cell cycle, and inhibiting proliferation and differentiation. Conclusion. The possible mechanisms of cinobufotalin against osteosarcoma are preliminarily predicted through network pharmacology, and further experiments are needed to prove these predictions.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 352
Shiqing Song ◽  
Feiting Zheng ◽  
Xiaoyan Tian ◽  
Tao Feng ◽  
Lingyun Yao ◽  

To explore the role of fatty acids as flavor precursors in the flavor of oxidized tallow, the volatile flavor compounds and free fatty acid (FFAs) in the four oxidization stages of tallow were analyzed via gas chromatography (GC)–mass spectrometry (MS), the aroma characteristics of them were analyzed by GC–olfactory (GC-O) method combined with sensory analysis and partial least-squares regression (PLSR) analysis. 12 common FFAs and 35 key aroma-active compounds were obtained. Combined with the results of odor activity value (OAV) and FD factor, benzaldehyde was found to be an important component in unoxidized tallow. (E,E)-2,4-Heptadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, octanal, hexanoic acid, hexanal and (E)-2-heptenal were the key compounds involved in the tallow flavor oxidation. The changes in FFAs and volatile flavor compounds during oxidation and the metabolic evolution of key aroma-active compounds are systematically summarized in this study. The paper also provides considerable guidance in oxidation control and meat flavor product development.

Compounds ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 3-24
Njomza Ajvazi ◽  
Stojan Stavber

The iodination of organic compounds is of great importance in synthetic organic chemistry. It opens comprehensive approaches for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds. The recent advances in iodination of organic compounds using elemental iodine or iodides, covering the last thirteen years, are the objective of the present review.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-20
Sijie Li ◽  
Yong Yang ◽  
Wei Zhang ◽  
Haiyan Li ◽  
Wantong Yu ◽  

Purpose. Danggui Shaoyao San (DSS) was developed to treat the ischemic stroke (IS) in patients and animal models. The purpose of this study was to explore its active compounds and demonstrate its mechanism against IS through network pharmacology, molecular docking, and animal experiment. Methods. All the components of DSS were retrieved from the pharmacology database of TCM system. The genes corresponding to the targets were retrieved using OMIM, CTD database, and TTD database. The herb-compound-target network was constructed by Cytoscape software. The target protein-protein interaction network was built using the STRING database. The core targets of DSS were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Then, we achieved molecular docking between the hub proteins and the key active compounds. Finally, animal experiments were performed to verify the core targets. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was used to calculate the infarct size in mice. The protein expression was determined using the Western blot. Results. Compound-target network mainly contained 51 compounds and 315 corresponding targets. Key targets contained MAPK1, SRC, PIK3R1, HRAS, AKT1, RHOA, RAC1, HSP90AA1, and RXRA FN1. There were 417 GO items in GO enrichment analysis ( p < 0.05 ) and 119 signaling pathways ( p < 0.05 ) in KEGG, mainly including negative regulation of apoptosis, steroid hormone-mediated signaling pathway, neutrophil activation, cellular response to oxidative stress, and VEGF signaling pathway. MAPK1, SRC, and PIK3R1 docked with small molecule compounds. According to the Western blot, the expression of p-MAPK 1, p-AKT, and p-SRC was regulated by DSS. Conclusions. This study showed that DSS can treat IS through multiple targets and routes and provided new insights to explore the mechanisms of DSS against IS.

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