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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Binyam Fekadu ◽  
Ismael Ali ◽  
Zergu Tafesse ◽  
Hailemariam Segni

Abstract Background Essential newborn care (ENC) is a package of interventions which should be provided for every newborn baby regardless of body size or place of delivery immediately after birth and should be continued for at least the seven days that follows. Even though Ethiopia has endorsed the implementation of ENC, as other many counties, it has been challenged. This study was conducted to measure the level of essential newborn care practice and identify health facility level attributes for consistent delivery of ENC services by health care providers. Methods This study employed a retrospective cross-sectional study design in 425 facilities. Descriptive statistics were formulated and presented in tables. Binary logistic regression was employed to assess the statistical association between the outcome variable and the independent variables. All variables with p < 0.2 in the bivariate analysis were identified as candidate variables. Then, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using candidate variables to determine statistically significant predictors of the consistent delivery of ENC by adjusting for possible confounders. Results A total of 273, (64.2%), of facilities demonstrated consistent delivery of ENC. Five factors—availability of essential obstetrics drugs in delivery rooms, high community score card (CSC) performances, availability of maternity waiting homes, consistent partograph use, and availability of women-friendly delivery services were included in the model. The strongest predictor of consistent delivery of essential newborn care (CD-ENC) was consistent partograph use, recording an odds ratio of 2.66 (AOR = 2.66, 95%CI: 1.71, 4.13). Similarly, providing women-friendly services was strongly associated with increased likelihood of exhibiting CD-ENC. Furthermore, facilities with essential obstetric drugs had 1.88 (AOR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.15, 3.08) times higher odds of exhibiting consistent delivery of ENC. Conclusion The delivery of essential newborn care depends on both health provider and facility manager actions and availability of platforms to streamline relationships between the clients and health facility management.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 630-633
Kiran Kumar L ◽  
M S Smitha Gowda

The most common atopic ocular condition in clinical practice is allergic conjunctivitis. One of the preferred treatment options for allergic Conjunctivitis is anti histamines eye drops. The study purpose is to compare the clinical efficacy between topical alcaftadine 0.25% and olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% in allergic conjunctivitis patients.A prospective, randomized, open label, parallel group, comparative study was conducted on 60 Patients with bilateral allergic conjunctivitis (30 in each group) after taking an informed written consentand was evaluated from May 2018 to November 2018. Patients were randomized into 2 groups of 30 each, group A received topical Alcaftadine 0.25% twice daily and patients in Group B received topical olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% twice daily for 2 weeks. The patients were evaluated on first visit (baseline) followed by 7 and 14 day after starting the treatment. At each visit signs and symptoms were evaluated and rated using a scale from 0-3(0-Absent, 1- mild, 2 moderate and 3- severe). The change from baseline in the mean scores of itching, hyperemia, photophobia and tearing on day 14 is the primary outcome variable.: The signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis were reduced by 2 weeks from baseline after using both the drugs. Relative significant efficacy was achieved in alcaftadine group for Itching, hyperemia and photophobia, but not for tearing (p=0.3). When compared to 0.1% olopatadine hydrochloride, 0.25% alcaftadine is more effective in reducing the symptoms of all types of allergic conjunctivitis except those mentioned in exclusion criteria.

2022 ◽  
pp. 194338752110734
Jordan Richardson ◽  
Dani Stanbouly ◽  
Harrison Moynihan ◽  
Renée M. Reynolds ◽  
Matthew J. Recker ◽  

Study Design The investigators designed and implemented a 20-year cross-sectional study using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Objective The purpose of this study is to estimate and compare hospital admission (danger) rates between rugby and football of those who presented to the emergency department with head and neck injuries after playing these sports. Methods The primary predictor variable was sport played. The primary outcome variable was danger, measured by hospital admission rates. Results Over the past 20 years, there has been a trend of decreasing incidence of injuries presenting to the emergency department in both sports. There was no difference in the rate of hospital admission when comparing football and rugby (OR, 1.2; P = .1). Male gender was associated with an increased risk of admission. Other variables associated with hospital admission included white racial group, injury taking place in the fall, being either young (15–24 years old) or senior (65 years of age and over), and being injured at school or at a sport/recreational facility. Conclusions There is no difference in danger as measured by admission rates between American football and rugby. There exists, however, several variables that are associated with admission when sustaining injury to the head and neck, when playing these two sports.

2022 ◽  
Robert A Raschke ◽  
Pooja Rangan ◽  
Sumit Agarwal ◽  
Suresh Uppalapu ◽  
Nehan Sher ◽  

Background: An accurate system to predict mortality in patients requiring intubation for COVID-19 could help to inform consent, frame family expectations and assist end-of-life decisions. Research objective: To develop and validate a mortality prediction system called C-TIME (COVID-19 Time of Intubation Mortality Evaluation) using variables available before intubation, determine its discriminant accuracy, and compare it to APACHE IVa and SOFA. Methods: A retrospective cohort was set in 18 medical-surgical ICUs, enrolling consecutive adults, positive by SARS-CoV 2 RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or positive rapid antigen test, and undergoing endotracheal intubation. All were followed until hospital discharge or death. The combined outcome was hospital mortality or terminal extubation with hospice discharge. Twenty-five clinical and laboratory variables available 48 hours prior to intubation were entered into multiple logistic regression (MLR) and the resulting model was used to predict mortality of validation cohort patients. AUROC was calculated for C-TIME, APACHE IVa and SOFA. Results: The median age of the 2,440 study patients was 66 years; 61.6 percent were men, and 50.5 percent were Hispanic, Native American or African American. Age, gender, COPD, minimum mean arterial pressure, Glasgow Coma scale score, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio, maximum creatinine and bilirubin, receiving factor Xa inhibitors, days receiving non-invasive respiratory support and days receiving corticosteroids prior to intubation were significantly associated with the outcome variable. The validation cohort comprised 1,179 patients. C-TIME had the highest AUROC of 0.75 (95%CI 0.72-0.79), vs 0.67 (0.64-0.71) and 0.59 (0.55-0.62) for APACHE and SOFA, respectively (Chi2 P<0.0001). Conclusions: C-TIME is the only mortality prediction score specifically developed and validated for COVID-19 patients who require mechanical ventilation. It has acceptable discriminant accuracy and goodness-of-fit to assist decision-making just prior to intubation. The C-TIME mortality prediction calculator can be freely accessed on-line at https://phoenixmed.arizona.edu/ctime.

Neurology ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 10.1212/WNL.0000000000013301
Samuel B Snider ◽  
David Fischer ◽  
Morgan E McKeown ◽  
Alexander Li Cohen ◽  
Frederic L.W.V.J. Schaper ◽  

Background and Objectives:Disorders of consciousness, EEG background suppression and epileptic seizures are associated with poor outcome after cardiac arrest. Our objective was to identify the distribution of diffusion MRI-measured anoxic brain injury after cardiac arrest and to define the regional correlates of disorders of consciousness, EEG background suppression, and seizures.Methods:We analyzed patients from a single-center database of unresponsive patients who underwent diffusion MRI following cardiac arrest (n=204). We classified each patient based on recovery of consciousness (command-following) before discharge, the most continuous EEG background (burst suppression versus continuous), and the presence or absence of seizures. Anoxic brain injury was measured using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) signal. We identified ADC abnormalities relative to control subjects without cardiac arrest (n=48) and used voxel lesion symptom mapping to identify regional associations with disorders of consciousness, EEG background suppression, and seizures. We then used a bootstrapped lasso regression procedure to identify robust, multivariate regional associations with each outcome variable. Finally, using area under receiver operating characteristic curves, we then compared the classification ability of the strongest regional associations to that of brain-wide summary measures.Results:Compared to controls, cardiac arrest patients demonstrated ADC signal reduction most significant in the occipital lobes. Disorders of consciousness were associated with reduced ADC most prominently in the occipital lobes, but also in deep structures. Regional injury more accurately classified patients with disorders of consciousness than whole-brain injury. Background suppression mapped to a similar set of brain regions, but regional injury could no better classify patients than whole-brain measures. Seizures were less common in patients with more severe anoxic injury, particularly in those with injury to the lateral temporal white matter.Discussion:Anoxic brain injury was most prevalent in posterior cerebral regions, and this regional pattern of injury was a better predictor of disorders of consciousness than whole-brain injury measures. EEG background suppression lacked a specific regional association, but patients with injury to the temporal lobe were less likely to have seizures. Regional patterns of anoxic brain injury are relevant to the clinical and electrographic sequelae of cardiac arrest and may hold importance for prognosis.Classification of Evidence:This study provides Class IV evidence that disorders of consciousness after cardiac arrest are associated with widely lower ADC values on diffusion MRI and are most strongly associated with reductions in occipital ADC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-19
O. M. Adetutu ◽  
H. B. Lawal

A test is a tool meant to measure the ability level of the students, and how well they can recall the subject matter, but items making up a test may be defectives, and thereby unable to measure students’ ability or traits satisfactorily as intended if proper attention is not paid to item properties such as difficulty, discrimination, and pseudo guessing indices (power) of each item. This could be remedied by item analysis and moderation.  It is a known fact that the absence or improper use of item analysis could undermine the integrity of assessment, certification and placement in our educational institutions. Both appropriateness and spread of items properties in accessing students’ abilities distribution, and the adequacy of information provided by dichotomous response items in a compulsory university undergraduate statistics course which was scored dichotomously, and analyzed with stata 16 SE on window 7 were focused here.   In view of this, three dichotomous Item Response Theory (IRT) measurement models were used in the context of their potential usefulness in an education setting such as in determining these items properties. Ability, item discrimination, difficulty, and guessing parameters as unobservable characteristics were quantified with a binary response test, then discrete item response becomes an observable outcome variable which is associated with student’s ability level is thereby linked by Item Characteristic Curves that is defined by a set of item parameters that models the probability of observing a given item response by conditioning on a specific ability level. These models were used to assess each of the three items properties together with students’ abilities; then identified defective items that were needed to be discarded, moderated, and non-defectives items as the case may be while some of these chosen items were discussed based on underlining models. Finally, the information provided by these items was also discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Sandra Alvear-Vega ◽  
Héctor Vargas-Garrido

Abstract Background This study aimed to ascertain the Social Determinants (SDs) of malnutrition (over and undernutrition) of Chilean children aged up to five. Methods The study was carried out using a sample of children from zero to five years old (n = 1,270,485; 52.2% female) from the National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey (CASEN) 2017. A multinomial logistic regression model was used, where the “child nutritional status” outcome variable assumed three possible values: normal nutrition, overnutrition, and undernutrition, while taking those variables reported in previous literature as independent variables. Results The model, by default, set normal nutrition as the reference group, Count R2 = 0.81. Results show a higher likelihood of both overnutrition and undernutrition among male children from the lowest quintiles, with native ethnic backgrounds, reporting health problems, having public health insurance, and who attend kindergarten. Additionally, higher probabilities of undernutrition in younger than two and living in the north of the country, while overnutrition is more likely in the south. Conclusions Socioeconomic variables are fundamentally related to both over and undernutrition; the current single schema program to prevent malnutrition should consider SDs such as ethnicity and geographical location, among others; moreover, successful nutritional programs—which focused on the lowest quintiles, need to be expanded to other vulnerable groups and pay more attention to overnutrition.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Seid Shumye ◽  
Chalachew Kassaw ◽  
Getnet Melaku

Abstract Introduction Sexual compulsivity is a concealed psychiatric disease marked by intrusive thoughts followed by ritualized sexual acts. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of HIV/AIDS has recently increased. Furthermore, sexual compulsivity among adults living with HIV/AIDS receives less attention, particularly in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of sexual compulsivity and its correlates among adults living with HIV/AIDS attending ART clinic in Gambella town, Southwest Ethiopia, 2020. Method A hospital-based study employing cross-sectional design and simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Data were collected by using interview technique. A 10 item Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS) questionnaire was used to assess sexual compulsivity. The translated version of the questionnaire was used for data collection. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine factors associated with the outcome variable at p-value < 0.05 with a 95% confidence interval. Result Out of 300 respondents, 27% (24.3, 29.2) of them were scored above the mean score of the Sexual Compulsivity Scale. Age less than 31 years old, widowed, involving in risky sexual behaviors, current substance use, not received any skill training about safer sex behaviors, and not attending support group discussion on HIV prevention were significantly associated with sexual compulsivity. Conclusion Almost one fourth of the respondents have high score for Sexual Compulsivity Scale score. Therefore, there is a need of routine sexual behavior screening program and collaboration with mental health workers for addressing the problem. Furthermore, the emphasis should be given on the identified high-risk categories.

2022 ◽  
Noelie Marie Aurore Guezo ◽  
Jahanfar Shayesteh ◽  
Joseph Inungu ◽  
Dandison Nat Ebeh

Abstract BackgroundLow birth weight (LBW) is one of the major child and infant health issues in the United States, standing as one of the main causes of child and infant mortality. While the importance of prenatal visits regarding pregnancy outcomes is recognized, its relationship with birth weight is still a matter of debate.ObjectivesThis study examines the relationship between the number of prenatal visits and low birth weight among children born in the United States in 2017.Study designData from the CDCs Online Birth Databases are used for this study. 3,864,754 registered children born in the U.S. in 2017 are included in the analyses. The databases also include information on maternal characteristics, pregnancy history and prenatal care characteristics, pregnancy risk factors, delivery characteristics, and infant characteristics. The outcome variable is low birth weight, defined as weight at birth lower than 2500 grams. The independent variable is the number of prenatal visits grouped in three categories (no visit, 10 visits or less, and more than 10 visits. Confounding and covariates include prematurity and plurality among others. Multiple logistic regression modeling was used, reporting unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals.ResultsData from the CDCs Online Birth Databases are used for this study. 3,864,754 registered children born in the U.S. in 2017 are included in the analyses. The databases also include information on maternal characteristics, pregnancy history and prenatal care characteristics, pregnancy risk factors, delivery characteristics, and infant characteristics. The outcome variable is low birth weight, defined as weight at birth lower than 2500 grams. The independent variable is the number of prenatal visits grouped in three categories (no visit, 10 visits or less, and more than 10 visits. Confounding and covariates include prematurity and plurality among others. Multiple logistic regression modeling was used, reporting unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. ConclusionThis study reveals that the number of prenatal visits has an inverse relationship with low birth weight, even when confounding and other factors are accounted for. These findings are compatible with the notion that the more a woman goes for prenatal visits, the more likely it is to detect risks of negative pregnancy outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Samuel N. Rodgers-Melnick ◽  
Kristine Zanotti ◽  
Richard T. Lee ◽  
Monica Webb Hooper

PURPOSE: To address challenges promoting tobacco cessation in oncology settings, it is important to understand characteristics associated with patient engagement in tobacco cessation treatment. This analysis examined predictors of participating in at least one tobacco cessation counseling session among patients referred to a comprehensive cancer center's Tobacco Intervention and Psychosocial Support (TIPS) service. METHODS: Patients with cancer who reported current smoking or recently quitting and referred to TIPS between June 2017 and February 2020 were included in the analysis. Independent variables included sex, race and ethnicity, insurance type, cancer diagnosis (tobacco-related or not), age, nicotine dependence, and cigarettes smoked per day at baseline. The outcome variable was completion of at least one tobacco cessation counseling session among those assessed by the TIPS program. Unadjusted and adjusted analyses tested associations between the independent variables and tobacco cessation counseling engagement. RESULTS: Of 360 oncology patients referred to the TIPS program, 224 (62.2%) were assessed and 120 (33%) engaged in at least one counseling session. After controlling for sociodemographics and tobacco use, the results demonstrated that patients diagnosed with tobacco-related cancers were 45.3% less likely to engage in the tobacco cessation program compared with those with non–tobacco-related cancers ( P = .041). CONCLUSION: Patients diagnosed with tobacco-related cancers were less likely to engage in TIPS. Additional therapeutic resources may be needed to engage these patients to address potential explanatory factors, such as stigma, guilt, and fatalism. More research is needed to explore the impact of a tobacco-related cancer diagnosis on treatment engagement.

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