spruce needles
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Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1737
Kristýna Večeřová ◽  
Karel Klem ◽  
Barbora Veselá ◽  
Petr Holub ◽  
John Grace ◽  

Plants produce specific terpenes, secondary metabolites conferring tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Our study aims to investigate the effects of altitude, light intensity and season on contents of mono- and sesquiterpenes in needles of coniferous Norway spruce (Picea abies). Needles of current shoots representing upper and lower canopy were collected from adult trees growing along an altitudinal gradient (400–1100 m a.s.l.) in summer and autumn. After the extraction in cold heptane, the content of extractable terpenes was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Our results show that the total content of terpenes decreases with increasing altitude regardless of canopy position and season. Needles of the upper canopy have a higher total content of terpenes than lower canopy needles, but this difference decreases with increasing altitude in summer. Total content of extractable terpenes increases in autumn when compared to summer particularly in upper canopy needles of trees from high altitudes. Limonene, camphene, α-pinene and myrcene are the most abundant monoterpenes in spruce needles forming up to 85% of total monoterpenes, while germacrene D-4-ol is the most abundant sesquiterpene. Altitude, canopy position and season have a significant interactive effect on most monoterpenes, but not on sesquiterpenes. Terpenoid biosynthesis is thus tightly linked to growth conditions and likely plays a crucial role in the constitution of stress tolerance in evergreen conifers.

Fuel ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 304 ◽  
pp. 121371
Adnan Darwish Ahmad ◽  
Ahmad M. Abubaker ◽  
Ahmad Salaimeh ◽  
Nelson K. Akafuah ◽  
Mark Finney ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (8) ◽  
pp. 981-992
Michael M. Müller ◽  
Leena Hamberg

AbstractLophodermium piceae is the most common endophyte of Norway spruce (Picea abies) needles, and it probably occurs in the total distribution area of Norway spruce. Its significance to the host tree is still largely unknown mainly because no methodology is known for generating endophyte-free saplings nor for inoculation of intact needles with this fungus. We report here how a daily heat treatment at 40 °C for 8 h eradicates endophytes of Norway spruce needles within a few days without causing visible harm to the plants. We compared various methods for inoculation of endophyte-free saplings. In order to obtain effective inocula, we investigated what factors activate dormant L. piceae infections in the needle tissue resulting in ascomata formation. Best inoculation success was achieved by suspending naturally shed, highly infected needles above the saplings. Infection frequencies of up to 70% of needles were achieved with repeated inoculations in the course of 3 years. Once established in needles, individual infections by L. piceae can persist for at least 5 years. Individual infections remain small in young needles, but at a needle age of 6 years, they start to grow and spread resulting in presence all over the needle from base to tip at a needle age of 7 years, but still without causing visible symptoms on the needles. The presented methodology for generating both endophyte-free and endophyte-infected saplings of Norway spruce provides a new approach for testing the significance of infections by L. piceae to insect herbivory and diseases of Norway spruce needles.

2021 ◽  
Pushan Bag ◽  
Jenna Lihavainen ◽  
Nicolas Delhomme ◽  
Thomas Riquelme ◽  
Kathryn M Robinson ◽  

Boreal conifers possess a tremendous ability to survive and remain evergreen during harsh winter conditions and resume growth during summer. This is enabled by coordinated regulation of major cellular functions at the level of gene expression, metabolism, and physiology. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of the annual changes in the global transcriptome of Norway spruce needles as a resource to understand needle development and acclimation processes throughout the year. In young, growing needles (May 15 to June 30), cell walls, organelles etc. were formed, and this developmental program heavily influenced the transcriptome, explained by over represented Gene Ontology (GO) categories. Later changes in gene expression were smaller but four phases were recognized: summer (July-August), autumn (September-October), winter (November-February) and spring (March-April), where over represented GO categories demonstrated how the needles acclimated to the various seasons. Changes in the seasonal global transcriptome profile were accompanied by differential expression of members of the major transcription factor families. We present a tentative model of how cellular activities are regulated over the year in needles of Norway spruce, which demonstrates the value of mining this dataset, accessible in ConGenIE together with advanced visualization tools.

Scott L. Cocker ◽  
Michael F.J. Pisaric ◽  
Francine McCarthy ◽  
Jesse C. Vermaire ◽  
Patrick Beaupre ◽  

To reconstruct a mastodon diet and provide a ‘snapshot’ view of environmental conditions in eastern Canada prior to the onset of the Wisconsinan glaciation, we analysed the faunal and floral components of dung associated with juvenile mastodon remains from East Milford, Nova Scotia, dated to 74.9 ± 5.0 ka cal BP. The diverse assemblage of pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, plant macrofossils and macroinvertebrate remains in the dung suggests that the mastodons lived in a spruce-dominated mixed coniferous-deciduous forest with a strong boreal aspect interspersed with wetlands rich in charophytes, sedges, cattails, bulrushes and bryophytes. The abundance of spruce needles and birch samaras in the dung sample is consistent with an inferred browsing behaviour, having been reported for other mammutid species previously. The limited diversity and near-absence of coprophilous fungi, such as <i>Sporormiella</i>, in the dung could have an impact on understanding the influence of feeding strategies on the presence of coprophilous taxa in sedimentary records, and thus interpretations of megafaunal abundance. The dung also yielded the earliest known Canadian remains of the bark beetle <i>Polygraphus </i>cf. <i>rufipennis</i>, gemmulae of the freshwater sponge <i>Eunapius </i>cf. <i>fragilis </i>and loricae of the rotifer <i>Keratella cochlearis</i>.

2021 ◽  
Vol 34 ◽  
pp. 15-28
Juliane Kuckuk ◽  
Sibren van Manen ◽  
Ólafur Eggertsson ◽  
Edda Sigurdís Oddsdóttir ◽  
Jan Esper

The green spruce aphid Elatobium abietinum is an important defoliating pest of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) in Iceland. A comparison of two urban Sitka stands in Reykjavík, from 2013-2017, reveals a distinct defoliation difference between trees located near a main road (94% defoliated) and several hundred meters away from heavy traffic (47%). Chemical analyses of the spruce needles demonstrate substantially higher nitrogen ratios in trees near traffic. Furthermore, the recently warming winter temperatures promoted larger overwintering aphid populations since 2003, as well as a shift of mass outbreaks from autumn to spring, accompanied by distinct growth suppressions one year after an aphid population spike in the post-2003 tree-ring data. The results of this study indicate that the mechanisms triggering Sitka spruce dieback in Reykjavík include a combination of increasing winter temperatures, more frequent and severe green spruce aphid outbreaks, as well as elevated N values in the needles of urban trees.

2020 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 10-14
Evgenia Y. Aleksandrova ◽  
Alla A. Trotsenko ◽  
Lyudmila S. Kalinovskaya

The paper presents data on environmental quality assessment of the state of Siberian spruce needles (Picea obovata) in Kirovsk, Murmansk Region for the period autumn 2019. It is confirmed that the methods of bioindication of the environment using coniferous plants are based primarily on the study of their morphological and structural changes. It was found that the condition of Siberian spruce needles in the study area (Kirovsk, Murmansk Region) is assessed as satisfactory. The average percentage of the area of damaged plants at different sampling points ranges from 1,96 to 2,4%. With the height of the tree, the needles become more susceptible to drying out, which may be due to an increase in the age (aging) of shoots and needles, as well as the action of abiotic factors (wind, precipitation). The dependence of the average percentage of damage on height was not revealed. The main conclusion is that the state of the environment in Kirovsk, Murmansk Region is rated as good. Indicators for assessing the state of the environment in the study areas differ slightly. The obtained data can be used for monitoring the environment of various districts of the Murmansk Region and other areas of Northern latitudes, for making a plan of environmental measures and environmental monitoring of various industrial enterprises of the Murmansk Region.

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