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Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 216
Jakub Frankowski ◽  
Anna Przybylska-Balcerek ◽  
Kinga Stuper-Szablewska

More than 35% of the world sorghum seed production is a human food source. The main ingredient of fully ripe sorghum grains is starch. Sorghum does not contain gluten, and it is also a rich source of antioxidant compounds other than vitamins or macro- and microelements, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, and sterols. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity and the content of selected bioactive compounds, i.e., total phenolic acids, total flavonoids, and total phytosterols, as well as determination of the qualitative and quantitative profile of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and phytosterols in various food products, the basic ingredient of which was sorghum grain. It was found that antioxidant activity is related to the total phenolic compounds content. The ABTS•+ ranged from 319 to 885 µmol TROLOX/kg. However, white sorghum grain flour contained almost two times more polyphenols than red sorghum grain flour. The FPA ranged from 224 in raw pasta to 689 mgGAE/100 g in white sorghum grain. During this study, the quantitative profile of selected polyphenols in grain flour, wafers, pasta, and cookies containing sorghum grain was also investigated, as well as the content of 11 selected phenolic acids. Total content of the latter ranged from 445 to 2850 mg/kg. Phytosterols such as beta-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol were found in all the analyzed products. Based on this research, it was investigated that the products containing sorghum grains can be classified as functional food.

2022 ◽  
Vol 51 (4) ◽  
pp. 779-783
Galina Dubtsova ◽  
Alexander Lomakin ◽  
Irina Kusova ◽  
Ekaterina Bulannikova ◽  
Dmitriy Bystrov

Introduction. Plant raw materials can be a source of biologically active substances and increase the nutritional value of food products. The present research objective was to determine the content of biologically active substances in powdered viburnum and barberry. Study objects and methods. The study featured viburnum (Viburnum opulus L.) and barberry (Berberis vulgaris L.), dried by convection and crushed into particles of 50 microns. Results and discussion. The total content of phenolic compounds in powdered viburnum was 3114.07 mg/100 g, in powdered barberry – 2272.7 mg/100 g. The content of flavonoids in powdered viburnum was 324.52 mg/100 g, in powdered barberry – 390.00 mg/100 g. The flavonoid profile of the powders included rutin, hyperoside, quercitrin, isoquercintrin, and astralagin. The total content of catechins was 446 mg/100 g for viburnum and 506 mg/100 g for barberry. The catechins included mainly epigallocatechin and catechin. In powdered viburnum, the catechin composition was as follows: epicatechin – 196, catechin – 118, and epigallocatechin – 89 mg/100 g; in powdered barberry: epigallocatechin – 173, catechin – 111, and epicatechin – 74 mg/100 g. The antiradical activity in relation to trolox equivalent was 7560 mg/100 g in powdered viburnum and 9460 mg/100 g in powdered barberry. Conclusion. The obtained viburnum and barberry powders can fortify food with biologically active substances and expand the range of functional products.

Minerals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 86
Hui Wang ◽  
Qiyun Guan ◽  
Yuchong Liu ◽  
Ying Guo

This study reports the effects of transition metal ions on the colour of blue-green beryl. Industrial cameras were used to measure colour in the CIELAB colour space. X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy were used for characterization. The d–d transition of Fe3+ with sixfold coordination, the O2−→Fe3+ charge transfer, and the charge transition of binuclear metal M–M complexes formed by [Fe2(OH)4]2+ in the channel caused a yellow tone, whereas the charge transfer of Fe2+/Fe3+ with sixfold coordination caused a blue-green tone. The chroma of blue-green beryl was negatively correlated with the ratio of Cs+Mn to Fe contents. The lightness of blue-green beryl was negatively correlated with the total content of transition metal ions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 354 (11-12) ◽  
pp. 104-108
T. V. Voloshenkova ◽  
V. K. Dridiger ◽  
R. F. Epifanova ◽  
A. A. Kalashnikova ◽  
A. A. Ogandzhanyan

Relevance. The rate of destruction of chernozems in the steppe zone as a result of deflation is very high. There is a threat of their loss of the humus horizon. To optimize the complex of protective measures, it is necessary to establish the regularities of the formation of wind resistance of these soils.Methods. The seasonal dynamics of the structure of the upper layer (0–5 cm) of chernozems of the steppe zone of the Lower Volga region and the Central Pre-Caucasus in the network of forest belts is studied. The aggregate composition was determined by fractionation of an air dry sample. The wind resistance of the soil was assessed by the total content of particles with a diameter of less than 1 mm.Results. It has been established that the open surface of southern carbonate chernozems is deflationary dangerous at any time of the year. Two spraying peaks were revealed — in early spring and before harvesting grain crops. In the first period, the content of particles with a diameter of less than 1 mm was 33–47%, in the second — 60–61%. Shelter forest belts reduced soil spraying in the zone of effective influence. A change in the internal structure of the deflationally dangerous fraction was detected during the year. The disintegration of large aggregates and an increase in the volume of smaller ones were observed. By the harvesting period, the number of particles with a diameter of 0.5–1.0 mm decreased by 1.7–2.6 times compared to the spring. Number of aggregates with a diameter of 0.1–0.5 mm, most strongly blown by the wind, increased by 1.3–1.8 times. The total dispersion of ordinary chernozem is almost two times lower than that of southern chernozem. However, the amount of particles with a diameter of 0.1–0.5 mm in the deflationary dangerous fraction of southern carbonate chernozem in the spring period is 37%, during the harvesting period — 50–56%. And in ordinary chernozem, already since the spring, there are more than 55% of such particles, in the future their number increases to 60%. As a result, by the harvesting period, the danger of a fraction with a diameter of less than 1 mm becomes the same for both subtypes of chernozems. This requires adjusting the complex of protective measures.

Environments ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Zvjezdana Stančić ◽  
Željka Fiket ◽  
Andreja Vuger

The aim of this study was to determine the extent and patterns of antimony and tin contamination in soils along railway lines, as there are very few data in the literature on this subject. The study was conducted in north-western Croatia. Total and bioavailable concentrations of Sn and Sb were detected using high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS). The following results were obtained: total concentrations of Sb ranged from 0.98 to 52.0 mg/kg and of Sn from 3.04 mg/kg to 97.6 mg/kg. The soil samples showed pronounced Sb and Sn enrichment, up to 87 and 33 times the median value for European soils, respectively. In contrast to the total concentrations, the bioavailable concentrations showed relatively low values. For Sn, the percentage of total content ranged from 0.001 to 0.021%, while for Sb it ranged from 0.001 to 0.136%. Statistical data analysis suggests that the distribution of Sb and Sn in soils near railway lines is influenced by the functional use of the site, distance from the tracks, topography, age of the railway line, and also by soil properties such as soil texture, humus content, and soil pH. This study demonstrates that rail transport is a source of soil pollution with Sn and Sb. The origin of Sb and Sn enrichment is abrasion by brakes, rails, wheels, freight losses, exhaust gasses, etc. Both elements in soils along railway lines pose an environmental risk to humans, agricultural production, and wildlife, and therefore further detailed studies are required.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 363
Małgorzata Kikowska ◽  
Justyna Chanaj-Kaczmarek ◽  
Monika Derda ◽  
Anna Budzianowska ◽  
Barbara Thiem ◽  

Three species from the Eryngium L. genus—E. campestre, E. maritimum, and E. planum, plants with a rich chemical composition, were selected for phytochemical and biological studies. The applied biotechnological methods allowed to obtain the biomass of these rare or protected species in the form of multiplied shoots (stationary system) and roots cultured in a liquid medium (agitated system). In the extracts from the raw material obtained under in vitro conditions, the content of selected phenolic acids and flavonoids (HPLC-DAD method) as well as the total of polyphenols (Folin–Ciocalteu assay) were quantified. The highest amount of all phenolic compounds was found in extracts from E. planum roots (950.90 ± 33.52 mg/100 g d.w.), and the lowest from E. campestre roots (285.00 ± 10.07 mg/100 g d.w.). The quantitatively dominant compound proved to be rosmarinic acid. The highest amounts were confirmed for E. planum root extract (694.58 mg/100 g d.w.), followed by E. planum (388.95 mg/100 g d.w.) and E. campestre (325.85 mg/100 g d.w.) shoot extracts. The total content of polyphenols was always increased in the biomass from in vitro cultures in comparison to the analogous organs of intact plants of each species. The obtained extracts were assessed for antiprotozoal activity against Acanthamoeba sp. The strength of biological activity of the extracts correlated with the content of phenolic compounds. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the amoebicidal activity of E. campestre, E. maritimum, and E. planum extracts from biomass produced by biotechnological methods.

Pharmacia ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 69 (1) ◽  
pp. 69-76
Alona Savych ◽  
Svitlana Marchyshyn ◽  
Liudmila Mosula ◽  
Oksana Bilyk ◽  
Ihor Humeniuk ◽  

Medicinal plants and their combinations due to the wide range of biologically active substances can influence on various links of the pathogenetic mechanism of development of DM type 2 and its complications. One of such combinations is an antidiabetic herbal mixture (Urticae folia, Rosae fructus, Myrtilli folia, Menthae folia and Taraxaci radices) with established hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, pancreatoprotective activity in previous pharmacological studies in vivo and in vitro and defined phytochemical composition. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify and establish the content of amino acids in the plant components of antidiabetic herbal mixture. The amino acids were separated by GC-MS method with pre-column derivatization. The calibration curves of twenty CRS of amino acids were linear (R2 > 0.98) over the range of 1–100 µg/mL, the LODs and the LOQs were in the range of 0.01–0.07 µg/mL and 0.02–0.20 µg/mL, respectively. The results of analysis showed that the predominant essential amino acid was L-proline in Taraxaci radices, Urticae folia, Rosae fructus and Menthae folia, its total content was 101.46 mg/g, 25.31 mg/g, 23.04 mg/g and 19.30 mg/g, respectively. In addition, it was established total content of essential amino acid – L-leucine that can stimulate insulin secretion in β-cells of the pancreas. Its total content was 58.51 mg/g in Taraxaci radices, 9.58 mg/g in Myrtilli folia, 4.68 mg/g in Rosae fructus, 2.99 mg/g in Urticae folia and 0.79 mg/g in Menthae folia. Chromatographic examination also revealed L-phenylalanine, an essential amino acid important for antidiabetic therapy that can increase insulin secretion, stimulate proliferation and neogenesis of β-cells of the pancreas and reduce insulin resistance. Its total content was 13.42 mg/g in Myrtilli folia, 2.23 mg/g in Rosae fructus, 1.478 mg/g in Urticae folia, 1.46 mg/g in Taraxaci radices and 0.52 mg/g in Menthae folia. This phytochemical study shows, which plant material forms the amino acid composition and content in the finished herbal mixture and due to which biologically active substances the antidiabetic activity of this phytocomposition is manifested.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 147
Laima Česonienė ◽  
Paulina Štreimikytė ◽  
Mindaugas Liaudanskas ◽  
Vaidotas Žvikas ◽  
Pranas Viškelis ◽  

Berries of Actinidia kolomikta (A. kolomikta) are known for high ascorbic acid content, but the diversity of phenolic compounds has been little studied. The present research aimed to investigate phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in berries and leaves of twelve A. kolomikta cultivars. The UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS technique was used to determine differences among cultivars in the quantitative composition of individual phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH• free radical scavenging and CUPRAC methods. In the present study, 13 phenolic compounds were detected in berries, whereas leaves contained 17 phenolic compounds. Flavonols were the primary class found in both berries and leaves; other identified phenolic compounds were flavan-3-ols, flavones and, phenolic acids; and dihydrochalcone phloridzin was identified in the leaves. The amount and variety of phenolic compounds in berries and leaves and antioxidant activity were found to be cultivar-dependent. The highest total content of phenolic compounds was found in the leaves of the cultivar ‘Aromatnaja’ and in the berries of the cultivar ‘VIR-2’. Results of this study have confirmed that berries and leaves of A. kolomikta could be a valuable raw material for both food and pharmaceutical industries.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 387-394
D. S. Galchenko ◽  
M. G. Smirnova ◽  
L. I. Sokolova

The problem of wastewater treatment from residual antibiotics is of particular relevance, since these drugs are used in many agricultural sectors. Antibiotics get into water, animal and human bodies, where they can accumulate negatively affecting health. The aim of this article is to study the possibility of using natural aluminosilicate vermiculite sorbent from the Koksharovskoye field (Primorsky Region) for purifying fish processing and fish farming enterprises’ waste water from antibiotics (chloramphenicol, tetracycline, cefazolin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime and and ciprofloxacin) under static and dynamic conditions. The study was carried out on a model wastewater system with injected antibiotics. The purification ability of the model system using the method of spectrophotometric antibiotics detection is analyzed. Under static conditions, the total content of antibiotics varied from 0.25 mg to 1.00 mg per 1 g of sorbent. Under dynamic conditions, the antibiotic content was 0.025 mg per 1 g of sorbent. High values of absorption for all studied antibiotics, except for chloramphenicol, were achieved both in static and dynamic modes. For chloramphenicol, when examined under static conditions, the maximum absorption rate was 45% with the minimum total concentration of antibiotics. With an increase in the load on the sorbent, the degree of absorption decreased to 3%. Thus, vermiculite modified with 7% hydrochloric acid is a promising sorbent for cleaning water bodies from residual antibiotics.

Rev Rene ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 ◽  
pp. e71367
Maria Helloysa Herculano Pereira de Oliveira Araújo Gonzaga ◽  
Lidiany Galdino Felix ◽  
Ana Elza Oliveira de Mendonça ◽  
Ana Cristina de Oliveira e Silva ◽  
Simone Helena dos Santos Oliveira ◽  

Objective: to build and validate the content of an instrument to investigate changes in the Nursing care provided to people with chronic wounds. Methods: methodological study, consisting of the stages of development and content validity, according to the criteria of clarity and relevance, by six judges, using the Delphi technique in two rounds. A Coefficient of Content Validity ≥ 0.8 was considered adequate. Results: the first version of the instrument contained 15 questions and after the judges’ evaluation it was reduced to 11, addressing the periods before and during the pandemic. In the second round of evaluation, it was verified that the instrument showed a total content validity coefficient equal to 0.96. Conclusion: the instrument showed evidence of content validity and can be used to investigate possible changes resulting from the pandemic of COVID-19 in the Nursing care of people with chronic wounds in Primary Care.

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