cascade control
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Mohd Atif Siddiqui ◽  
Md Nishat Anwar ◽  
Shahedul Haque Laskar

Purpose This paper aims to present an efficient and simplified proportional-integral/proportional-integral and derivative controller design method for the higher-order stable and integrating processes with time delay in the cascade control structure (CCS). Design/methodology/approach Two approaches based on model matching in the frequency domain have been proposed for tuning the controllers of the CCS. The first approach is based on achieving the desired load disturbance rejection performance, whereas the second approach is proposed to achieve the desired setpoint performance. In both the approaches, matching between the desired model and the closed-loop system with the controller is done at a low-frequency point. Model matching at low-frequency points yields a linear algebraic equation and the solution to these equations yields the controller parameters. Findings Simulations have been conducted on several examples covering high order stable, integrating, double integrating processes with time delay and nonlinear continuous stirred tank reactor. The performance of the proposed scheme has been compared with recently reported work having modified cascade control configurations, sliding mode control, model predictive control and fractional order control. The performance of both the proposed schemes is either better or comparable with the recently reported methods. However, the proposed method based on desired load disturbance rejection performance outperforms among all these schemes. Originality/value The main advantages of the proposed approaches are that they are directly applicable to any order processes, as they are free from time delay approximation and plant order reduction. In addition to this, the proposed schemes are capable of handling a wide range of different dynamical processes in a unified way.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 82-89
Sergey Polyakov ◽  
V. Akimov ◽  
A. Polukazakov

The article discusses the issues of implementing the conversion of input signals of «smart» sensors for automation of the heating system, an algorithm for calculating the parameters of measuring circuits with a nonlinear element and an operational amplifier is developed. The issues of modeling cascade control of residential building heating systems are investigated. The results of the analysis and selection of parameters of the cascade control system are presented. An algorithm implementing the operation of a virtual object is given. The structures of management of residential building objects are proposed. The method of calculating the adjustment of the controller for cascade control is given. For the heating system stand, the procedure for setting the parameters of the process of PID control of the coolant temperature is considered. The results confirming the achievability of the proposed structural changes are obtained. The results of experimental studies are presented.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 261
Jacek Kucharski ◽  
Andrzej Fraczyk ◽  
Piotr Urbanek

Drying various materials constitutes an essential component of several industrial processes, e.g., paper production. Typically, rotating cylinders heated internally by water steam are used for drying tape-shaped material in paper-making machines. Such an approach remains very energy-consuming, while the whole process is expensive and in conflict with the global policy of reducing energy consumption in heavy industry. One promising alternative method of drying fibrous tapes is the induction heating of drying cylinders. In this paper, we propose a drying system based on a set of inductors (electromagnetic field sources) that generate energy in the mantle of the cylinder and dry the running tape. By enabling the movement of the inductors, the system provides a high level of flexibility in terms of reacting to the varying humidity of the tape. Additionally, imaging the temperature field on the cylinder surface provides a supplementary source of information, enabling the temperature profile to be controlled. Two types of humidity control systems, a one-loop feedback control and a cascade control, were designed and analyzed. Simulation analysis and experimental verification performed using a semi-industrial setup proves that using the proposed cascade control ensures more than 30% faster response of the whole dryness control system.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (24) ◽  
pp. 3100
Jingfeng Mao ◽  
Xiaotong Zhang ◽  
Tengfei Dai ◽  
Aihua Wu ◽  
Chunyun Yin

In order to improve the bus voltage robustness of distributed multi-source DC microgrid, a new cascade control method based on nonlinear virtual inertia and adaptive backstepping sliding mode is proposed. Firstly, the mathematical model of distributed multi-source DC microgrid with a buck–boost interface converter is analyzed and established. A nonlinear virtual inertia control method based on a variable droop coefficient is given by introducing the converter output voltage variation rate feedback term and a saturation function equation. Secondly, the voltage and current double closed-loop cascade controller is designed by using backstepping sliding mode control and adaptive algorithms. Finally, the system and cascade control models are built in MATLAB/Simulink for multi-case simulation. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by comparing the results with traditional control methods.

2021 ◽  
Sergey Polyakov

The article deals with the issues of modeling and management of residential building heating systems. The choice and justification of the method of controlling the heating system with cascade temperature control is considered. The results confirming the achievability of the proposed structural changes are obtained. The results of experimental studies are presented.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 8222
Yassine Benômar ◽  
Julien Croonen ◽  
Björn Verrelst ◽  
Joeri Van Mierlo ◽  
Omar Hegazy

The Brushless Doubly Fed Reluctance Machine (BDFRM) is an emerging alternative for variable speed drive systems, providing a significant downsizing of the power electronics converter. This paper proposes a new view on the machine equations, allowing the reuse of the standard control system design for conventional synchronous and asynchronous machines: a cascade control system with an inner current control- and outer speed control loop. The assumptions and simplifications made on the machine model allow for a simple, model-based approach to set the controller gains in a brushless doubly fed machine drive system. The cascade control scheme is combined with an Unscented unscented Kalman Filter filter as a state observer, capable of estimating the load torque and losses. The performance of the proposed control system design is checked in simulation and tested in real-time on a low power BDFRM prototype.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Kristian Maya-Gress ◽  
Jorge Álvarez ◽  
Raúl Villafuerte-Segura ◽  
Hugo Romero-Trejo ◽  
Miguel Bernal

In this work, a novel family of exact nonlinear control laws is developed for trajectory tracking of unmanned aerial vehicles. The proposed methodology exploits the cascade structure of the dynamic equations of most of these systems. In a first step, the vehicle position in Cartesian coordinates is controlled by means of fictitious inputs corresponding to the angular coordinates, which are fixed to a combination of computed torque and proportional-derivative elements. In a second step, the angular coordinates are controlled as to drive them to the desired fictitious inputs necessary for the first part, resulting in a double-integrator 3-input cascade control scheme. The proposal is put at test in two examples: 4-rotor and 8-rotor aircrafts. Numerical simulations of both plants illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, while real-time results of the first one confirm its applicability.

Yongpeng Weng ◽  
Dong Nan ◽  
Ning Wang ◽  
Zhuofu Liu ◽  
Zhe Guan

In this paper, the robust trajectory tracking control problem of disturbed quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with disturbances, uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics is addressed, by devising a novel compound robust tracking control (CRTC) approach via data-driven cascade control technique. By deploying the data-driven philosophy, a data-based sliding-mode surface is proposed, and thereby contributing to strong adaptability to nonlinearity and model-unknown properties of the UAVs. By utilizing the backstepping technique, virtual control strategy and a novel cascaded compound robust PD control structure, the attitude and position subsystems are efficiently cohered such that a data-driven cascaded compound robust controller containing both PD control and sliding-mode control can be developed to conquer the lumped disturbances induced by uncertainties, disturbances and unmodeled dynamics. Eventually, the asymptotic convergence of the tracking errors with respect to both attitude and position subsystems can be guaranteed rigorously. Simulation studies on a prototype quadrotor UAV are performed to evaluate the efficacy and superiority of the devised CRTC method.

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