rational approach
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2022 ◽  
Vol 21 ◽  
pp. 025-054
Feriel Bouhafa

Philosophical and theological ethics in the Islamic tradition tend to be appraised on the basis of a unilateral perspective, which circumvents a moral rational approach to intuition. On this account, moral knowledge is expected to rest on intuitive judgments, which are universally accessible to human beings. Looking at moral ontology and epistemology in Arabic philosophy, I demonstrate that taking intuitionism as the only valid rational discourse to ethics needs to be challenged. In fact, Arabic philosophers do not subscribe to a realist view of the good and evil in relation to human actions, and rather admit a division between cosmic values in metaphysics and moral values in ethics. In so doing, they show how metaphysics ascribes a substantial view to good in existence and a negative theory to evil, while the science of ethics admits a teleological and relative view of the good. Overall, the falāsifa remain committed to Aristotle’s premise that ethics does not rely on abstraction and emphasized the role of experience too. But, they seem to be also attentive to the dialectical nature of Islamic jurisprudence in producing norms considering both principles of the law and its particular application. This is also clear in their epistemology of ethical judgments such as the maxim justice is good. While they ascribe a universal status to ethical maxims, they preclude from granting them an absolute status over the authority of norms construction. Instead, philosophers attribute a dialectical role to ethical maxims to guarantee both consensus over norms and the possibility to produce truthful opinions. Keywords: Moral ontology and epistemology, The problem of evil, The nature of the good, Moral values, al-Fārābī, Ibn Sīnā, Ibn Rushd, Legal epistemology, Written and unwritten laws, Ethical maxims, Widely-accepted premises (mashhūrāt), Reputable premises (maḥmūdāt).

2022 ◽  
Vol 1212 (1) ◽  
pp. 012012
A Ya Fedorov ◽  
A V Levina ◽  
M I Fedorova

Abstract Luminophores that used, for example, in fluorescent lamps, contain a large number of rare earth elements. Therefore, the processing of waste equipment containing luminophores is a rational approach to the obtaining of rare-earth metals, firstly, from the economics point of view, since they have a high cost, and secondly, from the ecological point of view, since environmental pollution will not occur. The cheapest way to extract rare earth elements from waste products is to dissolve them in strong acids and the following reprocessing by liquid extraction methods. In this case, neutral or ion exchange extractants (tributyl phosphate, di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid and quaternary ammonium salts) are used, which show high extraction ability and, in some cases, selectivity. Their applying is associated with the use of non-polar organic solvents, which contradicts the principles of «green» chemistry. A good and promising alternative to organic solvents can be aqueous two-phase systems, which have already proved themselves as low-toxic, but highly effective systems for the separation of a number of metals. Thus, in this work, we performed an experimental study of the interphase distribution of Eu(III), Gd(III), and Tb(III) in two-phase systems based on water-soluble polymers with or without the introduction of traditional organic extractants as an additive. The possibility of using such ATPS as a «green» solvent for traditional extragents for Eu(III), Gd(III), and Tb(III) extraction has been shown.

2022 ◽  
pp. 257-278
Dolors Palau-Sampio ◽  
Adolfo Carratalá

This chapter analyses the institutional speeches of six European leaders (N=19) to identify the emotional and rational frames used when explaining the measures implemented to address the first wave of COVID-19. The results of the analysis show the importance of frames of different categories, and the trust and leadership shown by political leaders, who sought to give speeches that would provoke a feeling of security in citizens based on their capacity to lead. Emotionality, built on values such as protection, gratitude, social sacrifice, and citizen unity, is rounded off with a rational approach based on science and economics. With none of the leaders being populist, their personalities were heterogeneous, from Merkel's empathy to Conte's confidential tone, Johnson's instructive discourse, Macron's commitment to Europe, and Sánchez and Costa's pedagogical vocation.

2021 ◽  
Vol specjalny (XXI) ◽  
pp. 689-697
Mirosław Włodarczyk

Discussions about the shortcomings of the pension system and its design raise the question of how to ensure a dignified life after working life. According to the currently adopted model of old age security, the responsibility is generally placed on the state and its structures. A number of questions arise in this context, in particular whether this is a rational approach from the point of view of its optimality, or whether the responsibility should not be distributed among various actors: public authorities, employers, employees or someone else.

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (3) ◽  
pp. 428-433
Victoriya Lyashenko ◽  
Aleksey Muratov

The article analyzes a possible approach to the construction of a risk management model at the enterprises of the locomotive complex of JSC "Russian Railways" performing rolling stock operation. The suggested model can be implemented in a system for organizing the safety of rolling stock operation. The relevance of improving safety is particularly acute when operating high-tech rolling stock with a high complexity of control algorithms. The objetive is the analysis and development of solutions to improve operational efficiency using a model that provides solutions to the problems of choosing optimal and safe operating modes from the point of view of implementing rolling stock management processes. Reducing the number of violations during the operation of rolling stock can be realized with the active use of a risk-based model that takes into account the possibility of predicting factors that affect the occurrence of risks. In this regard, the issues related to the implementation of risk management in operational locomotive depots are considered. The most rational approach to the implementation of risk management for a variety of uncontrolled factors that have a significant impact on the safety and accident-free operation is given. A model for solving multi-criteria problems is suggested as one of the options for choosing the safe operation of rolling stock.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (1-2) ◽  
pp. 48-65
Azhar Imtiyaz Bisati ◽  
Prof. S.M. Imamul Haque ◽  
Umer Jon Ganai ◽  
Ishfaq Gulzar

Financial decision making is generally characterized by high degree of risk, uncertainty as well as complexity. Decision making in financial markets takes under consideration a stack of factors including personal, technical and situational factors and above all it necessitates an understanding of human instinct on the top of financial skills. In the broad arena of literature, research studies have proposed two primary themes of decision making-one is the rational approach and the another one is irrational or bounded rationality approach. Rational world presupposes being reasonable in every aspect and making unbiased decisions. Irrationality approach contents that investor behaviour is driven by emotions even if they are well informed. This research paper by using the relevant literature in the field of behavioural decision making and investor psychology, provides an overview of these two distinctive academic doctrines, which clears the way-out that how in actual world people undertake their decision making. Furthermore, this research paper reviews how behavioural biases can lead to errors in investment decision making.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 95-107
Dian Trianita Lestari ◽  
Iriyani Astuti Arief ◽  
Shinta Arjunita Saputri

The research aims to determine and analyze the voter behavior of the Ambaipua Village community in regional head elections of South Konawe in 2020. This research uses political participation and voter behavior concept to see what underlying the community in determining the choice of their regional head, whether influenced by sociological, psychological or rational aspects. The data collection techniques used were interviews, literature studies and documentation. The results showed that the voting pattern of the Ambaipua Village community could be understood from three approaches, namely sociology, psychology and rational. A sociological approach in which the majority of informants stated that the religious aspect greatly affects who the candidate will be elected, that they will choose a candidate who has the same belief/religion. Meanwhile, from the psychological approach, it was found that the informants were not influenced by the political parties carrying the regional head candidates, but the majority would choose the incumbent with the assumption that they had succeeded in developing the region in the previous period. On the other hand, the rational approach was seen from the tendency of informants to choose candidate who have good political experience. Based on the results by the writers, it can be concluded that the sociological approach especially religion is more prominent than the other two approaches. This is because religious knowledge will have a great influence on aspects of people's lives, including their political choices.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 20218416
Igor L. Nikonov ◽  
Leila K. Sadieva ◽  
Мaria I. Savchuk ◽  
Еkaterina S. Starnovskaya ◽  
Dmitry S. Kopchuk ◽  

A rational approach to the synthesis of substituted naphtho[1,8-ef]perimidines based on SNH methodology and cyclization  reaction in the series of condensed azines with naphthalene substituents was presented. Photophysical properties of the obtained fluorophores were studied, in particular, green fluorescence in the 485–536 nm range with quantum yield up to 32.4% was detected. HOMO-LUMO energy values and distributions for the new compounds were calculated by the DFT method in comparison with nitroanalytes and perylene. Based on the data obtained, as well as on the results of fluorescence titration, the possibility of using the new diazaperylenes as potential chemosensors for the visual detection of nitro-containing explosives was shown.

Lev Riazantsev ◽  
Yevheniia Yevdokymenko

The purpose of this article is to analyse the main stages of sound production in film. The study aims to establish the main principles of film sound design, prove the importance of a rational approach to each stage in the context of their impact on the results of the study, and determine the role of sound in film dramaturgy. The research methodology is based on theoretical methods, namely an analysis of information sources, comparison of Ukrainian and foreign approaches to filmmaking, generalisation and systematisation of practical knowledge and experience of sound production in film from the first sound film to the present day. Scientific novelty. The management structure of sound production’s modern stages and their impact on creative and technical components of film soundtracks is analysed in detail for the first time. Conclusions. The article analyses the stages of sound production in film and establishes the main principles of sound design by studying Ukrainian and foreign approaches to creating sound in the film. The author summarises the rational approach to each stage in the context of their impact on the results of the study and examines the role of sound in film dramaturgy.

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