Csf Leak
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Stephanie Schipmann ◽  
Sebastian Lohmann ◽  
Bilal Al Barim ◽  
Eric Suero Molina ◽  
Michael Schwake ◽  

Abstract Background Due to rising costs in health care delivery, reimbursement decisions have progressively been based on quality measures. Such quality indicators have been developed for neurosurgical procedures, collectively. We aimed to evaluate their applicability in patients that underwent surgery for vestibular schwannoma and to identify potential new disease-specific quality indicators. Methods One hundred and three patients operated due to vestibular schwannoma were subject to analysis. The primary outcomes of interest were 30-day and 90-day reoperation, readmission, mortality, nosocomial infection and surgical site infection (SSI) rates, postoperative cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) leak, facial, and hearing function. The secondary aim was the identification of prognostic factors for the mentioned primary outcomes. Results Thirty-day (90-days) outcomes in terms of reoperation were 10.7% (14.6%), readmission 9.7% (13.6%), mortality 1% (1%), nosocomial infection 5.8%, and SSI 1% (1%). A 30- versus 90-day outcome in terms of CSF leak were 6.8% vs. 10.7%, new facial nerve palsy 16.5% vs. 6.1%. Hearing impairment from serviceable to non-serviceable hearing was 6.8% at both 30- and 90-day outcome. The degree of tumor extension has a significant impact on reoperation (p < 0.001), infection (p = 0.015), postoperative hemorrhage (p < 0.001), and postoperative hearing loss (p = 0.026). Conclusions Our data demonstrate the importance of entity-specific quality measurements being applied even after 30 days. We identified the occurrence of a CSF leak within 90 days postoperatively, new persistent facial nerve palsy still present 90 days postoperatively, and persisting postoperative hearing impairment to non-serviceable hearing as potential new quality measurement variables for patients undergoing surgery for vestibular schwannoma.

Philippe Lavigne ◽  
paul gardner ◽  
Eric W Wang ◽  
Carl H. Snyderman

Intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are associated with increased risk of post-operative CSF leaks despite multilayered reconstruction with vascularized tissue. A recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) examining the use of peri-operative lumbar drains (LD) in high-risk skull base defects identified a significant reduction in post-operative CSF leak incidence (21.2% vs. 8.2%; p=0.017). This study was conducted to assess the efficacy of the selective use of CSF diversion, for patients with intraoperative CSF leaks involving endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEA) to the skull base. Method: Consecutive endoscopic endonasal surgeries of the skull base from a pre-RCT cohort and post-RCT cohort were compared. The following case characteristics between the two cohorts were examined: patient age, body mass index (BMI), rate of revision surgery, tumor histology, use of CSF diversion, and vascularized reconstruction. The primary measured outcome was post-operative CSF leak. Results: The pre-RCT cohort included 76 patients and the post-RCT cohort, 77 patients, with dural defects in either the anterior or posterior cranial fossa (pituitary and parasellar/suprasellar surgeries excluded). There was a significant reduction in the incidence of post-operative CSF leak in the post-RCT cohort (27.6% vs. 12.9%; p=0.04). On subgroup analysis, there was a trend toward improvement in CSF leak rate of the anterior cranial fossa (19.2% vs 10.5%; p=0.27) whereas CSF leak rates of the posterior cranial fossa were significantly reduced compared to the pre-RCT cohort (41.4% vs 12.8%; p=0.02). Conclusion This study demonstrates that the integration of selective CSF diversion into the reconstructive algorithm improved post-operative CSF leak rates.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (17) ◽  
Johnson Ku ◽  
Chieh-Yi Chen ◽  
Jason Ku ◽  
Hsuan-Kan Chang ◽  
Jau-Ching Wu ◽  

BACKGROUND Nasal swab tests are one of the most essential tools for screening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The authors report a rare case of iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak from the anterior skull base after repeated nasal swab tests for COVID-19, which was treated with endoscopic endonasal repair. OBSERVATIONS A 41-year-old man presented with clear continuous rhinorrhea through his left nostril for 5 days after repeated nasal swabbing for COVID-19. There were no obvious risk factors for spontaneous CSF leak. Computed tomography cisternography showed contrast accumulation in the left olfactory fossa and along the left nasal cavity. Such findings aligned with a preliminary diagnosis of CSF leakage through the left cribriform plate. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of a CSF fistula between his left cribriform plate and superior nasal concha. The patient underwent endoscopic endonasal repair. CSF rhinorrhea ceased after the surgery, and no recurrence was noted during the 12-week postoperative follow-up period. LESSONS Although rare, iatrogenic CSF leakage can be a serious complication following COVID-19 nasal swab tests, especially when infection may cause significant neurological sequelae. Healthcare providers should become familiar with nasal cavity anatomy and be well trained in performing nasal swab tests.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (10) ◽  
Brendan Ryu ◽  
Deepak Khatri ◽  
Avraham Zlochower ◽  
Stephen Maslak ◽  
Randy S. D’Amico

Introduction. Brain abscesses can lead to a diverse array of complications, especially when they are polymicrobial in nature. Multiple underlying pathogens may present with a unique set of clinical symptoms which require an early identification and treatment. Skull base osteomyelitis with sellar floor erosion and pituitary involvement with SIADH are such rare complications of brain abscesses which have never been reported previously in the literature. Case Presentation. We report the case of an immunocompetent 38-year-old male with altered mental sensorium and left hemiparesis due to polymicrobial brain abscess which required surgical evacuation. The post-operative recovery was complicated by severe hyponatremia secondary to SIADH which was treated uneventfully. Radiological imaging demonstrated pituitary enlargement with herniation through an eroded sella turcica without active CSF leak. Patient responded well to the antibiotic therapy based on microbiological susceptibility testing with a complete resolution of the pituitary enlargement on radiological follow-up. Conclusion. Conservative treatment with targeted antibiotics can lead to the resolution of pituitary enlargement secondary to a brain abscess. However, a close clinical follow-up is required to look for a CSF leak considering the sellar floor erosion due to osteomyelitis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
pp. 532
Nancy E Epstein ◽  
John Lancione Esq

Background: The package insert for DuraSeal (Integra LifeSciences, Princeton NJ) states it is Contraindicated for use in the anterior cervical spine (confined space): “Do not apply DuraSeal® hydrogel to confined bony structures where nerves are present since neural compression may result due to hydrogel swelling (…up to 12% of its size in any direction).” Further, it should not be used to treat massive unrepaired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks in any location; “…(it) is indicated as an adjunct to sutured dural repair during spine surgery to provide watertight closure,” but it is not to be used “...for a gap greater than 2 mm….” Methods: A spinal surgeon interpreted a geriatric patient’s MR as showing severe C3-C4 to C5-C6 anterior cord compression due to disc disease/spondylosis. However, he never reviewed the CT report/images that documented marked ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) with multiple signs of dural penetrance. Results: The anterior C4, C5 corpectomy, and C3-C6 strut fusion/plating resulted in a massive, irreparable cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. Despite the contraindications, the surgeon mistakenly applied DuraSeal which caused the patient’s postoperative quadriplegia (i.e., as documented on the delayed postoperative MR scan). Following a secondary surgery consisting of a laminectomy/posterior fusion, the patient was still quadriplegic. Further, as he requested no postoperative MR scan and performed no subsequent corrective surgery (i.e., anterior removal of DuraSeal), the patient remained permanently quadriplegic. Conclusion: DuraSeal is directly contraindicated for use in the anterior cervical spine, with/without a CSF leak. Here, utilizing DuraSeal for anterior cervical OPLL surgery resulted in permanent quadriplegia, and was below the standard of care.

Morcos N. Nakhla ◽  
Tara J. Wu ◽  
Emmanuel G. Villalpando ◽  
Reza Kianian ◽  
Anthony P. Heaney ◽  

Abstract Background Improved evidence-based guidelines on the optimal type and duration of antibiotics for patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) are needed. We analyze the infectious complications among a large cohort of EETS patients undergoing a standardized regimen of cefazolin for 24 hours, followed by cephalexin for 7 days after surgery (clindamycin if penicillin/cephalosporin allergic). Methods A retrospective review of 132 EETS patients from 2018 to 2020 was conducted. Patient, tumor, and surgical characteristics were collected, along with infection rates. Multivariate logistic regression determined the variable(s) independently associated with infectious outcomes. Results Nearly all patients (99%) received postoperative antibiotics with 78% receiving cefazolin, 17% receiving cephalexin, 3% receiving clindamycin, and 2% receiving other antibiotics. Fifty-three patients (40%) had an intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, and three patients (2%) developed a postoperative CSF leak requiring surgical repair. Within 30 days, no patients developed meningitis. Five patients (4%) developed sinusitis, two patients (3%) developed pneumonia, and one patient (1%) developed cellulitis at a peripheral intravenous line. Two patients (2%) developed an allergy to cephalexin, requiring conservative management. After adjustment for comorbidities and operative factors, presence of postoperative infectious complications was independently associated with increased LOS (β = 3.7 days; p = 0.001). Conclusion Compared with reported findings in the literature, we report low rates of infectious complications and antibiotic intolerance, despite presence of a heavy burden of comorbidities and high intraoperative CSF leak rates among our cohort. These findings support our standardized 7-day perioperative antibiotic regimen.

2021 ◽  
Haydn Hoffman ◽  
Katherine M Bunch ◽  
Tyler Paul ◽  
Satish Krishnamurthy

Abstract BACKGROUND Pericranial autograft is a popular option for duraplasty during Chiari decompression with several theoretical advantages, but comparisons to other materials have yielded mixed results. OBJECTIVE To compare outcomes between pericranial autograft and AlloDerm (BioHorizons). METHODS Consecutive suboccipital craniectomies for patients with type I Chiari malformation (CM-I) over an 8-yr period at a single institution were identified. Exclusion criteria included revision surgeries and suboccipital decompressions without duraplasty. Outcomes included incisional cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, length of stay (LOS), wound complication, aseptic meningitis, syrinx improvement, and symptomatic improvement. RESULTS A total of 101 patients (70 females and 31 males) with a median (interquartile range) age of 17 yr (11-32) met the inclusion criteria. There were 51 (50%) patients who underwent duraplasty with pericranial autograft, and the remainder underwent duraplasty with AlloDerm. There were 9 (9%) patients who experienced a postoperative CSF leak. After adjusting for confounding factors, obesity (odds ratio [OR]: 4.69, 95% CI: 1.03-25.6) and use of AlloDerm (OR: 10.54, 95% CI: 1.7-206.12) were associated with CSF leak. Wound complication occurred in 8 (8%) patients but was not associated with graft type (P = .8). Graft type was not associated with LOS, syrinx improvement, or symptom improvement. Reoperations occurred in 10 patients with 4 in the autograft group and 6 in the AlloDerm group (P = .71). CONCLUSION In patients with CM-I, expansile duraplasty with AlloDerm was associated with greater odds of CSF leakage than pericranial autograft. Obesity was also associated with increased odds of CSF leakage.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
pp. 509
Rajesh Alugolu ◽  
Vasundhara Rangan ◽  
Raghu Ram ◽  
M. Vijaya Saradhi

Background: CSF rhinorrhea is a known complication that may occur after cranial base surgery, especially the trans-sphenoidal approaches to sellar tumors. It may occur following both microscopic and endoscopic procedures. Over a period, the balance has tilted toward endoscopy due to development of pedicled Hadad flap. Microscopic trans-sphenoidal surgery (TSS) continues to be performed in our institute as well as many other centers across the world due to familiarity of technique and unavailability of endoscopic equipment. Despite the fairly widespread use of this surgery, literature is devoid of any description of a local mucosal flap for repair of the surgical defect in microscopic TSS. Methods: We herein described the procedure and our experience of harvesting such flap in 42 patients operated for pituitary adenomas in our department between September 2016 and February 2020, through microscopic sublabial TSS. Results: All 42 of the patients included in this study underwent excision of pituitary tumors (macroadenomas). Thirty-nine (n = 39) patients were undergoing 1st time surgery, while three (n = 3) of these patients were undergoing second surgery following an earlier trans nasal trans-sphenoidal route. None of our cases have reported CSF leak postoperatively. Conclusion: This study attempts to highlight to ardent/obligate microscopic surgeons that a local vascularized flap can be harvested for repair of skull base defect and prevent postoperative CSF leak in microscopic sublabial TSS.

2021 ◽  
Wei Wang ◽  
Cong Chen ◽  
Siqi Chen

Abstract Background Surgical resection of olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs) is challenging and lots of surgical approaches can be chosen. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies investigating surgical resection of OGMs to better understand the surgical treatment of OGMs.Methods PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library were used to search the studies reporting treatment outcomes of surgery for patients with OGMs. The final eligible studies were assessed using the Oxford Center for Evidence Based Medicine for level of evidence. Relevant parameters were extracted to perform descriptive and/or quantitative analyses.Results A total of 42 studies including 1673 patients were included in this systematic review (8 level 3 studies and 34 level 4 studies). Surgeries through transcranial approaches (TCAs) and endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) were done on 1596 and 77 patients, respectively. Based on a random effects model, rates of gross total resection (GTR) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak were determined to be 92.4% (CI: 88.6-95.5%) and 5.9% (95% CI: 3.4-9%), respectively. The mortality following surgery was 1.6% (95% CI: 0.9-2.5%) under a fixed effects model. Through subgroup analyses, TCAs were found to be more favorable in GTR and CSF leakage compared to EEA. Besides, anterolateral TCA was associated with better control of CSF leakage than anterior TCA. Conclusion Surgical treatment is capable of achieving GTR in the vast majority of patients with OGMs and postoperative mortality is under well control. Transcranial approach allows a better chance of GTR and better control of CSF leak in comparison to EEA. In comparison to anterior TCA, anterolateral TCA is associated less mortality. However, low evidence level and significant heterogeneity of the included studies prevent the formation of more solid conclusions.

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