human cancers
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2022 ◽  
Vol 29 ◽  
pp. 101206
Yun Zhang ◽  
Yafang Li ◽  
Dhruv Chachad ◽  
Bin Liu ◽  
Jyotsna D. Godavarthi ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 ◽  
pp. 101323
B. Muhammad ◽  
L.G. Parks ◽  
K. Komurov ◽  
L.M. Privette Vinnedge

Sajad Najafi ◽  
Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard ◽  
Bashdar Mahmud Hussen ◽  
Hazha Hadayat Jamal ◽  
Mohammad Taheri ◽  

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of noncoding transcripts characterized with more than 200 nucleotides of length. Unlike their names, some short open reading frames are recognized for them encoding small proteins. LncRNAs are found to play regulatory roles in essential cellular processes such as cell growth and apoptosis. Therefore, an increasing number of lncRNAs are identified with dysregulation in a wide variety of human cancers. SNHG7 is an lncRNA with upregulation in cancer cells and tissues. It is frequently reported with potency of promoting malignant cell behaviors in vitro and in vivo. Like oncogenic/tumor suppressor lncRNAs, SNHG7 is found to exert its tumorigenic functions through interaction with other biological substances. These include sponging target miRNAs (various numbers are identified), regulation of several signaling pathways, transcription factors, and effector proteins. Importantly, clinical studies demonstrate association between high SNHG7 expression and clinicopathological features in cancerous patients, worse prognosis, and enhanced chemoresistance. In this review, we summarize recent studies in three eras of cell, animal, and human experiments to bold the prognostic, diagnostic, and therapeutic potentials.

Jing Yuan ◽  
Xiaoyan Jiang ◽  
Hua Lan ◽  
Xiaoyu Zhang ◽  
Tianyi Ding ◽  

Recent studies have reported that T-cell differentiation protein 2 (MAL2) is an important regulator in cancers. Here, we downloaded data from multiple databases to analyze MAL2 expression and function in pan-cancers, especially in ovarian cancer (OC). Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) databases was used to examine MAL2 expression in 13 types of cancer. Kaplan–Meier plotter database was used to analyze the overall survival rate of MAL2 in pan-cancers. The Catalog of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC), cBioPortal, and UCSC databases were used to examine MAL2 mutation in human cancers. Metascape, STRING, and GeneMANIA websites were used to explore MAL2 function in OC. Furthermore, ggplot2 package and ROC package were performed to analyze hub gene expression and undertake receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Drug sensitivity of MAL2 in OC was examined by the GSCALite database. In order to verify the results from databases above, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting were conducted to detect the expression of MAL2 in OC cells. CRISPR/Cas9 system was used to knockout the MAL2 gene in the OC cell lines HO8910 and OVCAR3, using specific guide RNA targeting the exons of MAL2. Then, we performed proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion assays to investigate the impact of MAL2 in OC cell lines in vivo and in vitro. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated biomarkers were significantly altered in vitro via western blotting and qRT-PCR. Taken together, we observed that MAL2 was remarkably dysregulated in multiple cancers and was related to patient overall survival (OS), mutation, and drug sensitivity. Furthermore, experimental results showed that MAL2 deletion negatively regulated the proliferation, migration, invasion, and EMT of OC, indicating that MAL2 is a novel oncogene that can activate EMT, significantly promote both the proliferation and migration of OC in vitro and in vivo, and provide new clues for treatment strategies.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 425
Ikuko Kato ◽  
Jilei Zhang ◽  
Jun Sun

Infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites, have been linked to pathogenesis of human cancers, whereas viruses and bacteria account for more than 99% of infection associated cancers. The human microbiome consists of not only bacteria, but also viruses and fungi. The microbiome co-residing in specific anatomic niches may modulate oncologic potentials of infectious agents in carcinogenesis. In this review, we focused on interactions between viruses and bacteria for cancers arising from the orodigestive tract and the female genital tract. We examined the interactions of these two different biological entities in the context of human carcinogenesis in the following three fashions: (1) direct interactions, (2) indirect interactions, and (3) no interaction between the two groups, but both acting on the same host carcinogenic pathways, yielding synergistic or additive effects in human cancers, e.g., head and neck cancer, liver cancer, colon cancer, gastric cancer, and cervical cancer. We discuss the progress in the current literature and summarize the mechanisms of host-viral-bacterial interactions in various human cancers. Our goal was to evaluate existing evidence and identify gaps in the knowledge for future directions in infection and cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Bo Ma ◽  
Zaoqu Liu ◽  
Hui Xu ◽  
Long Liu ◽  
Tao Huang ◽  

Background: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is well-known to be a key enzyme in alcohol metabolism. However, a comprehensive understanding of ALDH2 across human cancers is lacking.Methods: A systematic and comprehensive analysis of the molecular alterations and clinical relevance for ALDH2 in more than 10,000 samples from 33 cancer types was performed. qRT-PCR was performed on 60 cancer and 60 paired nontumor tissues.Results: It was observed that ALDH2 was generally downregulated in most cancers, which was mainly driven by DNA hypermethylation rather than mutations or copy number variations. Besides, ALDH2 was closely related to the inhibition and activation of tumor pathways and a variety of potential targeted agents had been discovered in our research. Last but not least, ALDH2 had the best prediction efficacy in assessing immunotherapeutic response compared with PD-L1, PD-1, CTLA4, CD8, and tumor mutation burden (TMB) in cutaneous melanoma. According to the analysis of large-scale public data and 60 pairs of clinical cancer samples, we found the downregulation of ALDH2 expression tends to suggest the malignant phenotypes and adverse prognosis, which might enhance the precise diagnosis and timely intervention of cancer patients.Conclusion: This study advanced the understanding of ALDH2 across cancers, and provided important insight into chemotherapy, immunotherapy and prognosis of patients with cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Hui Zhang ◽  
Xu Zhang ◽  
Weiguo Xu ◽  
Jian Wang

Background: The oncological role of TMC5 in human cancers has only been revealed partially. We performed integrated bioinformatics analysis to provide a thorough and detailed insight of associations between TMC5 and tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and prognosis.Methods: With reference to the accessible online databases, the TMC5 expressions in tumor tissues and corresponding normal tissues, different pathological stages, and various cancer cells were analyzed, while the protein levels of TMC5 in different cancers were also inspected. Meanwhile, the prognostic value of TMC5 expression in multiple cancers as well as in advanced-stage patients was investigated. Furthermore, the mutational data of TMC5 and its correlation with cancer prognosis were assessed. Moreover, the association between the TMC5 level and immune cell infiltration was evaluated. Next, TMC5-related pathway alterations and drug responses were summarized. Finally, the TMC5 based protein network was generated, and relevant enrichment was performed.Results: In our study, the expression level of TMC5 was significantly higher in the tumor tissue than that of the normal tissues in most cancer types. Fluctuations of TMC5 levels were also observed among different pathological stages. In the meantime, the protein level elevated in the tumor tissue in the cancers enrolled. Moreover, the expression of TMC5 was not only prognostic for overall survival (OS) or recurrence free survival (RFS) in various types of cancers but also correlated to OS in patients with more advanced cancers. Additionally, the mutational status of TMC5 is also associated with prognosis in cancer patients. It is worth noting that the TMC5 level was closely related to immune cell infiltrations, especially in ESCA, TGCT, and USC. The TMC5 expression was also identified as an activator for pathways including PI3K/AKT, RAS/MAPK, and TSC/mTOR, proved to be associated with multiple drug responses and assessed to be interactive with the TMEM family.Conclusion: TMC5 might function as a potential marker for cancer survival and immune responses.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Zhiqun Bai ◽  
Xuemei Wang ◽  
Zhen Zhang

Emerging evidence has indicated that aberrantly expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a vital role in various biological processes associated with tumorigenesis. Leukemia inhibitory factor receptor antisense RNA1 (LIFR-AS1) is a recently identified lncRNA transcribed in an antisense manner from the LIFR gene located on human chromosome 5p13.1. LIFR-AS1 regulates tumor proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis, and drug resistance through different mechanisms. Its expression level is related to the clinicopathological characteristics of tumors and plays a key role in tumor occurrence and development. In this review, we summarize the role of LIFR-AS1 in the development and progression of different cancers and highlight the potential for LIFR-AS1 to serve as a biomarker and therapeutic target for a variety of human cancers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 ◽  
Muhammad Usman ◽  
Yasir Hameed ◽  
Mukhtiar Ahmad ◽  
Muhammad Junaid Iqbal ◽  
Aghna Maryam ◽  

Aims: This study was launched to identify the SHMT2 associated Human Cancer subtypes. Background: Cancer is the 2nd leading cause of death worldwide. Previous reports revealed the limited involvement of SHMT2 in human cancer. In the current study, we comprehensively analyzed the role of SHMT2 in 24 major subtypes of human cancers using in silico approach and identified a few subtypes that are mainly associated with SHMT2. Objective:: We aim to comprehensively analyze the role of SHMT2 in 24 major subtypes of human cancers using in silico approach and identified a few subtypes that are mainly associated with SHMT2. Earlier, limited knowledge exists in the medical literature regarding the involvement of Serine Hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (SHMT2) in human cancer. Methods: In the current study, we comprehensively analyzed the role of SHMT2 in 24 major subtypes of human cancers using in silico approach and identified a few subtypes that are mainly associated with SHMT2. Pan-cancer transcriptional expression profiling of SHMT2 was done using UALCAN while further validation was performed using GENT2. For translational profiling of SHMT2, we utilized Human Protein Atlas (HPA) platform. Promoter methylation, genetic alteration, and copy number variations (CNVs) profiles were analyzed through MEXPRESS and cBioPortal. Survival analysis was carried out through Kaplan–Meier (KM) plotter platform. Pathway enrichment analysis of SHMT2 was performed using DAVID, while the gene-drug network was drawn through CTD and Cytoscape. Furthermore, in the tumor microenvironment, a correlation between tumor purity, CD8+ T immune cells infiltration, and SHMT2 expression was accessed using TIMER. Results: SHMT2 was found overexpressed in 24 different subtypes of human cancers and its overexpression was significantly associated with the reduced Overall survival (OS) and Relapse-free survival durations of Breast cancer (BRCA), Kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma (KIRP), Liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC), and Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients. This implies that SHMT2 plays a significant role in the development and progression of these cancers. We further noticed that SHMT2 was also up-regulated in BRCA, KIRP, LIHC, and LUAD patients of different clinicopathological features. Pathways enrichment analysis revealed the involvement of SHMT2 enriched genes in five diverse pathways. Furthermore, we also explored some interesting correlations between SHMT2 expression and promoter methylation, genetic alterations, CNVs, tumor purity, and CD8+ T immune cell infiltrates. Conclusion: Our results suggested that overexpressed SHMT2 is correlated with the reduced OS and RFS of the BRCA, KIRP, LIHC, and LUAD patients and can be a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for these cancers.

2022 ◽  
pp. canres.2058.2021
Zhao Zhang ◽  
Mei Luo ◽  
Qiang Li ◽  
Yuan Liu ◽  
Charles Lussier ◽  

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