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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (GROUP) ◽  
pp. 1-27
Asam Hamed Abbas Almohamed ◽  
Reem Talhouk ◽  
Dhaval Vyas

Upon arrival to a host community, refugees and asylum seekers face immense challenges to rebuild their social capital that is critical in the process of their resettlement. Developing a holistic understanding of these challenges can provide significant opportunities to inform designers and services providers working with this demography. We adopt the lens of social capital coupled with an inquiry into the heterogeneity of refugees and asylum seekers to gain a holistic understanding of various challenges that they with. We accordingly present a conceptual framework that has been iteratively built based on our four years of engagement with refugee communities. The framework highlights three important aspects: cultural backdrops, displacement-related stressors, and social resources in the host community. We offer several implications for technology design, policies, and the theory of social capital that can support members from these communities in their resettlement.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Brian Rice ◽  
Delia Boccia ◽  
Daniel J. Carter ◽  
Renay Weiner ◽  
Lebohang Letsela ◽  

Abstract Background The global mining industry has an opportunity to mobilize resources to advance progress against the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In 2018, the Anglo-American Group outlined aspirations for mining host communities to meet the SDG3 health targets. To progress from aspiration to action we designed and implemented a mixed-methods approach to attain a deeper understanding of the health and wellbeing priorities within the local context of host communities of fifteen mines in South Africa. Methods To identify local needs and priorities relating to SDG3 targets in host communities, stakeholder workshops and key informant interviews were conducted between June and August 2019. A baseline assessment of health data, related to each of the SDG3 targets and indicators and to each host community location, was also conducted. Findings emerging from the qualitative and quantitative baseline assessments were compared to identify the extent to which health issues aligned and health and wellbeing priority areas for action. Results A total of 407 people participated in the workshops, and 85 key informants were interviewed. Quantitative data were available at sub-national level for seven of the nine SDG3 targets and eleven of the 21 indicators. Key priority areas for action identified through alignment of the qualitative and quantitative data were maternal mortality (SDG3.1), HIV (SDG3.3.1), tuberculosis (SDG3.3.2), substance abuse (SDG3.5), and road traffic accidents (SDG3.6) We found consistency in the individual, interpersonal, community, societal, and structural factors underlying these priority areas. At a structural level, poor access to quality healthcare was raised at every workshop as a key factor underlying the achievement of all SDG3 targets. Of the five priority areas identified, HIV, TB and substance abuse were found to overlap in the study communities in terms of risk, burden, and underlying factors. Conclusions We demonstrate a mixed method approach for identifying local health needs and prioritised SDG3 targets in mining host communities. Consistency in reporting suggests the need for effective, efficient and feasible interventions to address five priority areas. Given the prominent economic role of the mining sector in South Africa, it can play a critical role in implementing programmatic activities that further progress towards achieving the SDG3 targets.

2022 ◽  
Jordan Mandli ◽  
Sydney E Ring ◽  
Susan M Paskewitz

Host-targeted acaricides are a valuable tool for the reduction of ticks and tick-borne disease. Tick tubes (also known as tick control tubes) are commercially available products containing permethrin-treated nesting materials. Through superficial acaricide application to Peromyscus mice, tick tubes reduce populations of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say. Results of prior field trials have varied, suggesting that mouse behavior as well as the scale of the intervention and the composition of the local host community are important determinants of efficacy. Here we evaluated behaviors related to nest material collection by P. leucopus. Two forms of nest materials used in commercial tick tube products (cotton batting and balls) were assessed through side-by-side comparisons over a four-week period. We quantified cotton uptake by monitoring weekly changes in material weight and used video surveillance to categorize and assess mouse behaviors. The odds of cotton batting being taken from tubes was 2.14 times greater than cotton balls but the process was less efficient; mice removed 0.35 g less cotton batting for each removal event and required 2.17 times longer to complete the removal. While cotton balls were readily carried in the jaws of mice, batting required separating smaller fragments from the mass before placement in the oral cavity. Video surveillance suggested that a small number of mice were super users and responsible for 22% of the 119 visits in which material was removed. Combined, material weight loss and video-captured removal events improve our understanding of host usage of nest materials but also raise questions about dissemination of the material in nests of the local mouse community.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Claudio M. Rocha ◽  
Zixuan Xiao

The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review to understand how empirical data have informed the knowledge about the relationship between hosting sport mega-events and displacement of host community residents. Following the PRISMA protocol, we conducted a search of academic and gray literature in sport, social sciences, and humanities databases. We excluded conceptual papers, conference abstracts, and works that discuss urban transformation or displacement but are not related to sport events. We also excluded works that associate sport mega-events with urban transformations but are not related to resident displacement. From the initial 2,372 works reviewed, 22 met the inclusion criteria. In empirical studies, displacement of residents has been studied exclusively in the context of the Olympic Games, since Seoul 1988, but with a higher frequency in most recent Games (Beijing, London, and Rio). The gigantism and the sense of urgency created by the Olympic Games may explain why this event has been frequently associated with resident displacement. Findings showed that residents suffered either direct, forced evictions or indirect displacements. The selected studies show a contradiction between the discourse of sport mega-events guardians for supporting the United Nations Sustainable Goals (SDG) and the practice of human rights within host cities of such events.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Alicia Orea-Giner ◽  
Francesc González-Reverté ◽  
Laura Fuentes-Moraleda

PurposeThis research explores the consequences of a health crisis provoked by a pandemic scenario on music festival impacts considered by the stakeholders involved. The purpose of this paper is to identify the perceptions from the stakeholders' point of view (host community, public and private sector) and to identify the impacts generated before and after a health crisis regarding the celebration of a festival.Design/methodology/approachThe study offers a holistic insight into impact research by music festivals. The methodology implemented is based on qualitative techniques. By conducting 20 in-depth interviews with essential stakeholders, it is possible to determine their perceptions of the impact of the event and the effects of a health crisis.FindingsThe results allow detecting a gap between internal and external stakeholders due to poor communication and planning of the event. The results show that a health crisis provokes negative impacts on the economic benefits of events' organisation. However, the cultural city's identity suffers an important damage that it is difficult to overcome. The community and visitors are the stakeholders that suffer a detrimental impact on their experience when attending the festival, considering the security measures. Moreover, results allow us to identify practical implications for event management and planning in a health crisis scenario.Originality/valueThe most important contribution of this research is the theoretical model proposed to analyse stakeholders' perception of the event celebration in a context of a health crisis. The model also considers different moments of the social exchange. The theoretical approaches considered theory of social exchange (SET) and Visitor, Industry, Community and Environment (VICE) models allow analysing the stakeholder's perception of a case study of a music festival (Viña Rock Festival, Spain). The emerging and central role of the cooperation between stakeholders constitutes another notable contribution to the literature.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Angelo Riviezzo ◽  
Maria Rosaria Napolitano ◽  
Floriana Fusco

The chapter aims to investigate the impact of the presence of the university on the perceived quality of life of the host community. To this aim, the authors focused on a specific area, that is the historical town center of Naples (as defined by the UNESCO in the World Heritage List since 1995), where five universities are located. Adopting a qualitative and explorative approach, 25 in-depth interviews have been conducted with local universities' stakeholders and content-analyzed through the software Nvivo 10. Thus, the authors identified precisely the multiplicity of activities through which the presence of the university contributes to the socio-economic and cultural well-being of the community of which it is part, thinking about the dynamics that may occur in the case of an urban-located university. Based on the findings, a conceptual model is proposed that may be further validated with new investigations.

2022 ◽  
pp. 106-130
Mafalda Marques ◽  
João Reis

This research focuses on slow tourism in low-density areas of Beiras and Serra da Estrela, Portugal, and explores how these genuine and authentic spaces can become attractive for tourism development. Compared to visitors who travel to a destination to visit as many attractions as possible in the shortest time, slow tourists refuse to be treated as a number and seek to receive from and give to their destination in the same proportion. Their involvement in a host community, practiced in a personalized, deep, and informed way, contributes to their well-being. The community's inhabitants recognize that their cultural identity is valued, feel motivated to serve as ambassadors, and note that tourist activities can lead to improvements in their quality of life. This research includes the results of interviews, a benchmarking in Italy, and an analysis of a village tourism. The findings reveal the opportunities they hold for slow tourism, with very positive effects for local development.

2022 ◽  
pp. 52-69
Kateryna Tryma ◽  
Kostyantyn Balabanov ◽  
Natalia Pashyna ◽  
Olena Hilchenko

The current migration crisis has far-reaching challenges for EU countries. Global migration is forcing countries to completely reconsider their migration policies, the effectiveness of control, and the integration of migrants. As one of the EU's leading countries, Germany is the biggest lobbyist for the establishment of a common migration policy in the EU. This chapter contributes to the academic discussion on establishing a single mechanism for managing migration flows in the European Union. The analysis confirms that EU countries are faced with the need to find new ways to resolve the migration crisis. In this direction, Germany has become the country where one can trace the uniqueness of the political phenomenon of integration of migrants into the host community as a measure to overcome the migration crisis. The evidence reveals the growth of threats for national, regional, and international security caused by the growing migration crisis and transformation of the policy of integration of migrants in Germany under the influence of this factor.

2022 ◽  
pp. 130-154
Saranjam Baig ◽  
Arifa Shabbnum ◽  
Ahmad Arslan

Cultural tourism is an increasingly visible trend in the tourism industry. The chapter is one of the first academic studies to specifically analyze the possible impacts of cultural tourism on the local culture itself and the wellbeing of the host community while highlighting cultural conservation as a mediator. The study utilizes primary data collected from rural areas in the Himalayan Gilgit Baltistan region in Northern Pakistan. This region has experienced a significant rise in cultural tourism due to China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). As a result, there has been a significant and visible development of touristic facilities in the region. Hence, there is a visible shift from earlier tourism, which was mostly linked to mountaineering adventure, to more relatively mass cultural tourism. The results suggest that cultural conservation serves as a partial mediator and that cultural tourism tends to positively and significantly influence the host community's wellbeing, and cultural conservation partially mediates this relationship.

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