holistic understanding
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2022 ◽  
Nadine Schibille

The ancient glass industry changed dramatically towards the end of the first millennium. The Roman glassmaking tradition of mineral soda glass was increasingly supplanted by the use of plant ash as the main fluxing agent at the turn of the ninth century CE. Defining primary production groups of plant ash glass has been a challenge due to the high variability of raw materials and the smaller scale of production. Islamic Glass in the Making advocates a large-scale archaeometric approach to the history of Islamic glassmaking to trace the developments in the production, trade and consumption of vitreous materials between the eighth and twelfth centuries and to separate the norm from the exception. It proposes compositional discriminants to distinguish regional production groups, and provides insights into the organisation of the glass industry and commerce during the early Islamic period. The interdisciplinary approach leads to a holistic understanding of the development of Islamic glass; assemblages from the early Islamic period in Mesopotamia, Central Asia, Egypt, Greater Syria and Iberia are evaluated, and placed in the larger geopolitical context. In doing so, this book fills a gap in the present literature and advances a large-scale approach to the history of Islamic glass.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (GROUP) ◽  
pp. 1-27
Asam Hamed Abbas Almohamed ◽  
Reem Talhouk ◽  
Dhaval Vyas

Upon arrival to a host community, refugees and asylum seekers face immense challenges to rebuild their social capital that is critical in the process of their resettlement. Developing a holistic understanding of these challenges can provide significant opportunities to inform designers and services providers working with this demography. We adopt the lens of social capital coupled with an inquiry into the heterogeneity of refugees and asylum seekers to gain a holistic understanding of various challenges that they with. We accordingly present a conceptual framework that has been iteratively built based on our four years of engagement with refugee communities. The framework highlights three important aspects: cultural backdrops, displacement-related stressors, and social resources in the host community. We offer several implications for technology design, policies, and the theory of social capital that can support members from these communities in their resettlement.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Aman Gupta ◽  
Ana Janic ◽  
Joshua Thomson

Objectives. The March 2020 lockdown mandated institution closures and forced educators to provide remote instruction. We intended to gain an in-depth and holistic understanding of dental faculty’s experience and perceptions during this mandatory shift. Insights were gathered in 6 key areas: prior remote instruction experience; magnitude of transition and frequency of instruction methods used; training received; preferred teaching methods based on how they promote student learning, interaction, engagement, and performance; social impact; and future of teaching. Methods. An anonymous QualtricsXM survey was distributed to all dental faculties at University of Detroit Mercy in May 2020. Data was collected over a three-week period and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Statistics 26 (IBM; Armonk, New York, USA). Pearson chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact test were used to evaluate categorical data. Results. Out of the 30 participants who transitioned to online remote instruction, 16 (53.3%) reported an age between 30 and 49 years and 14 (46.7%) reported ≥50 years of age. Our analysis revealed that faculty in 30–49-year age range had no prior online synchronous teaching experience. The transition was described as interesting, useful, time-consuming, and challenging. In-person live teaching received highest number of first place rankings (50%), and online asynchronous method received highest number of last place rankings (42.86%). Faculties in >50 year age range expressed maximum satisfaction with online small-group discussions, and those in 30–49 years age group were more satisfied with one-on-one online discussion. Conclusion. Our study finds that the faculty tends to gravitate to online methods that are similar to or mimic their past in-person teaching environment. Forced remote instruction gave new content delivery experiences to faculties of all ranges of age and experience in teaching. This exposure is likely to result in a more widespread adoption of a variety of instructional methods in future. Our study strongly suggests that traditional in-person instruction is the preferred method for delivery of content and is likely better for student learning. Majority of the faculties believed that the future of dental education would be a mix of both in-class and online instruction. In summer and fall 2021, our institution adopted hybrid, flexible models for didactic instruction to allow students the opportunity to digest content in their preferred method. Careful planning and systematic, continued training will be required to enhance technological skills and to incorporate newer models into didactic and clinical instruction. For the success of blended learning, courses will need redesigning of assessment methods, commitment, and support from administrators.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Jayaraman J. Thiagarajan ◽  
Kowshik Thopalli ◽  
Deepta Rajan ◽  
Pavan Turaga

AbstractThe rapid adoption of artificial intelligence methods in healthcare is coupled with the critical need for techniques to rigorously introspect models and thereby ensure that they behave reliably. This has led to the design of explainable AI techniques that uncover the relationships between discernible data signatures and model predictions. In this context, counterfactual explanations that synthesize small, interpretable changes to a given query while producing desired changes in model predictions have become popular. This under-constrained, inverse problem is vulnerable to introducing irrelevant feature manipulations, particularly when the model’s predictions are not well-calibrated. Hence, in this paper, we propose the TraCE (training calibration-based explainers) technique, which utilizes a novel uncertainty-based interval calibration strategy for reliably synthesizing counterfactuals. Given the wide-spread adoption of machine-learned solutions in radiology, our study focuses on deep models used for identifying anomalies in chest X-ray images. Using rigorous empirical studies, we demonstrate the superiority of TraCE explanations over several state-of-the-art baseline approaches, in terms of several widely adopted evaluation metrics. Our findings show that TraCE can be used to obtain a holistic understanding of deep models by enabling progressive exploration of decision boundaries, to detect shortcuts, and to infer relationships between patient attributes and disease severity.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Paolo Pietro Biancone ◽  
Valerio Brescia ◽  
Federico Lanzalonga ◽  
Gazi Mahabubul Alam

PurposeThis paper aims to explore the literature on vertical farming to define key elements to outline a business model for entrepreneurs. The research aims to stimulate entrepreneurship for vertical farming in a smart cities' context, recognising urban agriculture as technology to satisfy increasing food needs.Design/methodology/approachThe research conducts a structured literature review on 186 articles on vertical farming extracted from the Scopus. Moreover, the bibliometric analysis revealed the descriptive statistics on this field and the main themes through the authors' keywords.FindingsDifferent perspectives showed the multidisciplinary nature of the topic and how the intersection of different skills is necessary to understand the subject entirely. The keywords analysis allowed for identifying the topics covered by the authors and the business model's elements.Research limitations/implicationsThe research explores a topic in the embryonic stage to define key strands of literature. It provides business model insights extending George and Bock's (2011) research to stimulate entrepreneurship in vertical farming. Limitations arise from the sources used to develop our analysis and how the topic appears as a frontier innovation.Originality/valueOriginality is the integration of literature strands related to vertical farming, highlighting its multidisciplinary nature to provide a holistic understanding of the themes. In smart cities' context, innovations allow traditional business models to be interpreted in a novel perspective and revealed the elements for transforming vertical farming from innovative technology to an effective source of food sustenance. Finally, the paper suggests a new methodology application for the analysis of word clusters by integrating correspondence analysis and multidimensional scaling analysis.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 438
Sophini Subramaniam ◽  
Sumit Majumder ◽  
Abu Ilius Faisal ◽  
M. Jamal Deen

Wearable health monitoring devices allow for measuring physiological parameters without restricting individuals’ daily activities, providing information that is reflective of an individual’s health and well-being. However, these systems need to be accurate, power-efficient, unobtrusive and simple to use to enable a reliable, convenient, automatic and ubiquitous means of long-term health monitoring. One such system can be embedded in an insole to obtain physiological data from the plantar aspect of the foot that can be analyzed to gain insight into an individual’s health. This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of insole-based sensor systems that measure a variety of parameters useful for overall health monitoring, with a focus on insole-based PPD measurement systems developed in recent years. Existing solutions are reviewed, and several open issues are presented and discussed. The concept of a fully integrated insole-based health monitoring system and considerations for future work are described. By developing a system that is capable of measuring parameters such as PPD, gait characteristics, foot temperature and heart rate, a holistic understanding of an individual’s health and well-being can be obtained without interrupting day-to-day activities. The proposed device can have a multitude of applications, such as for pathology detection, tracking medical conditions and analyzing gait characteristics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yong Liu ◽  
Guangbing Li ◽  
Yang Yang ◽  
Ziwen Lu ◽  
Tao Wang ◽  

Background: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD) is a rare cancer with a poor prognosis. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common mRNA modification. However, little is known about the relationship between m6A modification and the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) in PAAD.Methods: Based on 22 m6A regulators, m6A modification patterns of PAAD samples extracted from public databases were systematically evaluated and correlated with the tumor immune and prognosis characteristics. An integrated model called the “m6Ascore” was constructed, and its prognostic role was evaluated.Results: Three different m6Aclusters and gene clusters were successively identified; these clusters were characterized by differences in prognosis, immune cell infiltration, and pathway signatures. The m6Ascore was constructed to quantify the m6A modifications of individual patients. Subsequent analysis revealed that m6Ascore was an independent prognostic factor of PAAD and could be a potential indicator to predict the response to immunotherapy.Conclusion: This study comprehensively evaluated the features of m6A modification patterns in PAAD. m6A modification patterns play a non-negligible role in the TIME of PAAD. m6Ascore provides a more holistic understanding of m6A modification in PAAD, and will help clinicians predict the prognosis and response to immunotherapy.

2022 ◽  
pp. 349-359
Christian J. Peters ◽  
Dawn D. Thilmany

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 468
Kristina Sharlo ◽  
Sergey A. Tyganov ◽  
Elena Tomilovskaya ◽  
Daniil V. Popov ◽  
Alina A. Saveko ◽  

Skeletal muscle is capable of changing its structural parameters, metabolic rate and functional characteristics within a wide range when adapting to various loading regimens and states of the organism. Prolonged muscle inactivation leads to serious negative consequences that affect the quality of life and work capacity of people. This review examines various conditions that lead to decreased levels of muscle loading and activity and describes the key molecular mechanisms of muscle responses to these conditions. It also details the theoretical foundations of various methods preventing adverse muscle changes caused by decreased motor activity and describes these methods. A number of recent studies presented in this review make it possible to determine the molecular basis of the countermeasure methods used in rehabilitation and space medicine for many years, as well as to identify promising new approaches to rehabilitation and to form a holistic understanding of the mechanisms of gravity force control over the muscular system.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Diana Cardenas-Cristancho ◽  
Laurent Muller ◽  
Davy Monticolo ◽  
Mauricio Camargo

Purpose This study aims to propose a novel approach to select and prioritize performance indicators in Lean Manufacturing depending on whether they are influencing or being influenced by others, thereby assisting in the decision-making process for improving overall performance. Design/methodology/approach The methodology comprises two stages. First, a literature review was conducted to identify the performance indicators, and then their interrelationships were analyzed by means of the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method. Findings The results provide a comprehensive visualization of the performance indicators in Lean Manufacturing, with a total of 50 identified indicators. Among these, 29 were categorized as causal, meaning that their results mainly influence the others, and 21 as influenced, with their results mostly being influenced by others. Among the causal indicators, those related to the human factor (eight indicators) were the most predominant. However, the most-cited performance families in the literature do not stand out as being causal, but rather as mostly influenced. Practical implications This study can help managers improve and analyze performance more effectively, while focusing on the importance of choosing causal over influenced indicators. Originality/value Performance measurement plays a crucial role for organizations, but because of the increasing number of metrics, there lacks an established framework. This exploratory study thus opens the discussion on relevance to determine a group of coherent and connected indicators that could help measure performance in a more comprehensive manner, rather than in several isolated parts.

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