muscle atrophy
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Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 84
Yeongmin Kim ◽  
Sanghee Park ◽  
Jinseok Lee ◽  
Jiwoong Jang ◽  
Jiyeon Jung ◽  

Dexamethasone (DEX) induces dysregulation of protein turnover, leading to muscle atrophy and impairment of glucose metabolism. Positive protein balance, i.e., rate of protein synthesis exceeding rate of protein degradation, can be induced by dietary essential amino acids (EAAs). In this study, we investigated the roles of an EAA-enriched diet in the regulation of muscle proteostasis and its impact on glucose metabolism in the DEX-induced muscle atrophy model. Mice were fed normal chow or EAA-enriched chow and were given daily injections of DEX over 10 days. We determined muscle mass and functions using treadmill running and ladder climbing exercises, protein kinetics using the D2O labeling method, molecular signaling using immunoblot analysis, and glucose metabolism using a U-13C6 glucose tracer during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The EAA-enriched diet increased muscle mass, strength, and myofibrillar protein synthesis rate, concurrent with improved glucose metabolism (i.e., reduced plasma insulin concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity) during the OGTT. The U-13C6 glucose tracing revealed that the EAA-enriched diet increased glucose uptake and subsequent glycolytic flux. In sum, our results demonstrate a vital role for the EAA-enriched diet in alleviating the DEX-induced muscle atrophy through stimulation of myofibrillar proteins synthesis, which was associated with improved glucose metabolism.

2022 ◽  
Yohei Shirakami ◽  
Junichi Kato ◽  
Toshihide Maeda ◽  
Takayasu Ideta ◽  
Hiroyasu Sakai ◽  

Abstract Although liver diseases, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), are associated with skeletal muscle atrophy, the mechanism behind their association has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the effects of aging and NASH on the skeletal muscle and the interaction between the liver and muscle were investigated using a diet-induced NASH model in senescence-accelerated mice (SAM). A total of four groups of SAM and its control mice were fed either an NASH-inducing or control diet. In the SAM/NASH group, the histopathology of NASH and markers of oxidative stress were significant. Skeletal muscles were also markedly atrophied. The expression of the ubiquitin ligase Murf1 in the muscle was significantly increased with muscle atrophy, while that of Tnfa was not significantly different. In contrast, the hepatic Tnfa expression and serum TNF-α levels were significantly increased in the SAM/NASH group. These results suggest that liver-derived TNF-α might promote muscle atrophy associated with steatohepatitis and aging through Murf-1. The metabolomic analysis of skeletal muscle indicated higher spermidine and lower tryptophan levels in the NASH-diet group. The findings of this study revealed an aspect of liver-muscle interaction, which might be important in developing treatments for sarcopenia associated with liver diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 887
Shiqiang Liu ◽  
Pengyu Fu ◽  
Kaiting Ning ◽  
Rui Wang ◽  
Baoqiang Yang ◽  

Exposure to high altitude environment leads to skeletal muscle atrophy. As a hormone secreted by skeletal muscles after exercise, irisin contributes to promoting muscle regeneration and ameliorating skeletal muscle atrophy, but its role in hypoxia-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is still unclear. Our results showed that 4 w of hypoxia exposure significantly reduced body weight and gastrocnemius muscle mass of mice, as well as grip strength and the duration time of treadmill exercise. Hypoxic treatment increased HIF-1α expression and decreased both the circulation level of irisin and its precursor protein FNDC5 expression in skeletal muscle. In in vitro, CoCl2-induced chemical hypoxia and 1% O2 ambient hypoxia both reduced FNDC5, along with the increase in HIF-1α. Moreover, the decline in the area and diameter of myotubes caused by hypoxia were rescued by inhibiting HIF-1α via YC-1. Collectively, our research indicated that FNDC5/irisin was negatively regulated by HIF-1α and could participate in the regulation of muscle atrophy caused by hypoxia.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261723
Jamie-Lee M. Thompson ◽  
Daniel W. D. West ◽  
Thomas M. Doering ◽  
Boris P. Budiono ◽  
Sarah J. Lessard ◽  

Skeletal muscle atrophy is a physiological response to disuse, aging, and disease. We compared changes in muscle mass and the transcriptome profile after short-term immobilization in a divergent model of high and low responders to endurance training to identify biological processes associated with the early atrophy response. Female rats selectively bred for high response to endurance training (HRT) and low response to endurance training (LRT; n = 6/group; generation 19) underwent 3 day hindlimb cast immobilization to compare atrophy of plantaris and soleus muscles with line-matched controls (n = 6/group). RNA sequencing was utilized to identify Gene Ontology Biological Processes with differential gene set enrichment. Aerobic training performed prior to the intervention showed HRT improved running distance (+60.6 ± 29.6%), while LRT were unchanged (-0.3 ± 13.3%). Soleus atrophy was greater in LRT vs. HRT (-9.0 ±8.8 vs. 6.2 ±8.2%; P<0.05) and there was a similar trend in plantaris (-16.4 ±5.6% vs. -8.5 ±7.4%; P = 0.064). A total of 140 and 118 biological processes were differentially enriched in plantaris and soleus muscles, respectively. Soleus muscle exhibited divergent LRT and HRT responses in processes including autophagy and immune response. In plantaris, processes associated with protein ubiquitination, as well as the atrogenes (Trim63 and Fbxo32), were more positively enriched in LRT. Overall, LRT demonstrate exacerbated atrophy compared to HRT, associated with differential gene enrichments of biological processes. This indicates that genetic factors that result in divergent adaptations to endurance exercise, may also regulate biological processes associated with short-term muscle unloading.

PLoS Genetics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1010015
Cécile Ribot ◽  
Cédric Soler ◽  
Aymeric Chartier ◽  
Sandy Al Hayek ◽  
Rima Naït-Saïdi ◽  

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a late-onset disorder characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of specific muscles. OPMD is due to extension of a polyalanine tract in poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1). Aggregation of the mutant protein in muscle nuclei is a hallmark of the disease. Previous transcriptomic analyses revealed the consistent deregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in OPMD animal models and patients, suggesting a role of this deregulation in OPMD pathogenesis. Subsequent studies proposed that UPS contribution to OPMD involved PABPN1 aggregation. Here, we use a Drosophila model of OPMD to address the functional importance of UPS deregulation in OPMD. Through genome-wide and targeted genetic screens we identify a large number of UPS components that are involved in OPMD. Half dosage of UPS genes reduces OPMD muscle defects suggesting a pathological increase of UPS activity in the disease. Quantification of proteasome activity confirms stronger activity in OPMD muscles, associated with degradation of myofibrillar proteins. Importantly, improvement of muscle structure and function in the presence of UPS mutants does not correlate with the levels of PABPN1 aggregation, but is linked to decreased degradation of muscle proteins. Oral treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 is beneficial to the OPMD Drosophila model, improving muscle function although PABPN1 aggregation is enhanced. This functional study reveals the importance of increased UPS activity that underlies muscle atrophy in OPMD. It also provides a proof-of-concept that inhibitors of proteasome activity might be an attractive pharmacological approach for OPMD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Young In Kim ◽  
Hyunjung Lee ◽  
Farida S. Nirmala ◽  
Hyo-Deok Seo ◽  
Tae Youl Ha ◽  

Skeletal muscle atrophy is defined as wasting or loss of muscle. Although glucocorticoids (GCs) are well-known anti-inflammatory drugs, their long-term or high-dose use induces skeletal muscle atrophy. Valeriana fauriei (VF) is used to treat restlessness, anxiety, and sleep disorders; however, its effects on skeletal muscle health have not been investigated. This study investigated whether Valeriana fauriei could ameliorate muscle atrophy. We induced muscle atrophy in vitro and in vivo, by treatment with dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic GC. In DEX-induced myotube atrophy, Valeriana fauriei treatment increased the fusion index and decreased the expression of muscle atrophic genes such as muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx/Atrogin-1) and muscle RING-finger protein 1 (MuRF1). In DEX-treated mice with muscle atrophy, Valeriana fauriei supplementation increased the ability to exercise, muscle weight, and cross-sectional area, whereas it inhibited myosin heavy chain isoform transition and the expression of muscle atrophy biomarkers. Valeriana fauriei treatment led to via the downregulation of muscle atrophic genes via inhibition of GC receptor translocation. Valeriana fauriei was also found to act as a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. Didrovaltrate (DI), an iridoid compound from Valeriana fauriei, was found to downregulate atrophic genes and decrease ROS in the DEX-induced myotube atrophy. Consolidated, our results indicate that Valeriana fauriei prevents DEX-induced muscle atrophy by inhibiting GC receptor translocation. Further, Valeriana fauriei acts as a ROS scavenger, and its functional compound is didrovaltrate. We suggest that Valeriana fauriei and its functional compound didrovaltrate possess therapeutic potentials against muscle atrophy.

Yanglan Ou ◽  
Kohei Jobu ◽  
Tomoaki Ishida ◽  
Shumpei Morisawa ◽  
Hiroko Fujita ◽  

AbstractSarcopenic obesity is associated with increased visceral fat and decreased muscle mass, resulting in decreased insulin sensitivity, increased production of inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress. In this study, we first evaluated the effects of herbal medicines on the transcriptional activity of the Sirtuin 1 (sirt1) promoter in vitro as an indicator of their therapeutic effect. Our data suggested that hot water Saikokeishikankyoto (SKK) extracts increased sirt1 transcriptional activity in vitro, identifying it as a candidate therapeutic for evaluation in the KKAy type 2 diabetic obesity mouse model. These in vivo evaluations revealed that SKK treatment increased the wet weight and muscle fiber content in cross sections of the gastrocnemius muscle (GA) and restored motor function in these animals. In addition, SKK treatment reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) expression in the sera and suppressed Atrogin1 and MuRF1 transcription in the GA samples. This treatment also increased sirt1 expression in these tissues. These results suggest that SKK inhibits skeletal muscle atrophy and improves motor function in KKAy mice by suppressing inflammation. In actual clinical practice, SKK is expected to inhibit muscle atrophy and improve motor dysfunction in sarcopenic obesity. Graphical abstract

2022 ◽  
Quan-Bing Zhang ◽  
A-Ying Liu ◽  
Qiao-Zhou Fang ◽  
Hai-Yang Zhang ◽  
Feng Wang ◽  

Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of electrical stimulation on disuse muscular atrophy in a rabbit model of knee joint contracture and explore the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced Parkin-dependent mitophagy in this process.Methods: Two sub-experiments were carried out successively in our study. In the first sub-experiment, 24 rabbits were divided into four groups on average based on the immobilization time: Ctrl 1, I-2, I-4, and I-6 groups. In the second sub-experiment, 24 rabbits were also divided into four groups on average in accordance with the process mode: Ctrl2, ES, NR, and EST groups. To test the time-dependent changes of the rectus femoris muscles after immobilization in rabbits, and to evaluate the effect of electrical stimulation on the atrophic rectus femoris muscles, the wet weights of rectus femoris muscles were assessed in this study, along with the protein levels of atrogin-1, p-PERK, Parkin and COXIV.Results: The wet weights of rectus femoris muscles, the protein levels of atrogin-1, p-PERK and Parkin increased after immobilization. It was also revealed that the protein levels of COXIV decreased after immobilization. Electrical stimulation was effective against muscle atrophy, the elevated expression of atrogin-1, p-PERK, Parkin, and the decreased expression of COXIV.Conclusions: Immobilization of unilateral lower limb could induce rectus femoris muscle atrophy, endoplasmic reticulum stress and Parkin mediated mitophagy. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced Parkin-dependent mitophagy may be one of the mechanisms by which electrical stimulation can play a significant role.

Emily Parker ◽  
Andrew Khayrullin ◽  
Andrew Kent ◽  
Bharati Mendhe ◽  
Khairat Bahgat Youssef El Baradie ◽  

Loss of muscle mass and strength contributes to decreased independence and an increased risk for morbidity and mortality. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying muscle atrophy therefore has significant clinical and therapeutic implications. Fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) are a skeletal muscle resident stem cell population that have recently been shown to play vital roles in muscle regeneration and muscle hypertrophy; however, the role that these cells play in muscle disuse atrophy is not well understood. We investigated the role of FAPs in disuse atrophy in vivo utilizing a 2-week single hindlimb immobilization model. RNA-seq was performed on FAPs isolated from the immobilized and non-immobilized limb. The RNAseq data show that IL-1β is significantly upregulated in FAPs following 2 weeks of immobilization, which we confirmed using droplet-digital PCR (ddPCR). We further validated the RNA-seq and ddPCR data from muscle in situ using RNAscope technology. IL-1β is recognized as a key component of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype, or SASP. We then tested the hypothesis that FAPs from the immobilized limb would show elevated senescence measured by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (Cdkn2a) expression as a senescence marker. The ddPCR and RNAscope data both revealed increased Cdkn2a expression in FAPs with immobilization. These data suggest that the gene expression profile of FAPs is significantly altered with disuse, and that disuse itself may drive senescence in FAPs further contributing to muscle atrophy.

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