serum prolactin
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Elahe Dehghan ◽  
Nasim Namiranian ◽  
Akram Ghadiri-Anari ◽  
Seid Kazem Razavi Ratki ◽  
Reyhaneh Azizi

Background: Hyperprolactinemia is one of the most common causes of infertility in women. The prevalence of pituitary tumors is 25-30% among infertile participants with hyperprolactinemia. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the causes of hyperprolactinemia in infertile women referred to Yazd Infertility Center. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 182 infertile women with hyperprolactinemia who were referred to Yazd Infertility Center from February 2018 to October 2019. Serum prolactin was assessed by the human prolactin ELISA kit according to the Padtan Gostar Isar protocol. The age, duration of infertility, causes of hyperprolactinemia, and type of infertility treatment were noted. The MRI findings were added. Results: The mean age of participants was 28.9 ± 0.36 yr and the prolactin level was 76 ± 8.97 ng/ml. The etiology of hyperprolactinemia among the study participants was 35 participants (19.2%) with pituitary adenoma, 47 participants (25.8%) with polycystic ovary syndrome, 14 participants (7.7%) with pituitary adenoma and polycystic ovary syndrome, and 86 participants (47.3%) with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia. The results of this study showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the mean prolactin levels in participants with different causes of hyperprolactinemia (p = 0.31). Conclusion: Idiopathic hyperprolactinemia and polycystic ovary syndrome are the most common reasons for hyperprolactinemia. Key words: Hyperprolactinemia, Infertility, PCOS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 74 (1) ◽  
pp. 11-18
Pharuhas Chanprapaph ◽  
Chantanat Thippayacharoentam ◽  
Apirada Iam-am ◽  
Natchagorn Lumlerdkij ◽  
Pravit Akarasereenont ◽  

Objective: To explore the effectiveness of Ayurved Siriraj Prasa-Nam-Nom (ASPNN) recipe on breast milk production in early postpartum women. Methods: Fifty-four normal vaginal term delivery mothers who had inadequate milk volume were enrolled into this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. All participants received ASPNN or placebo 1,500 mg three times/day for 3 days in the hospital and 7 days at home. Primary outcomes, including breast milk volume, %creamatocrit, and level of prolactin, were evaluated on day 1 and day 3. Satisfaction scores, adverse effects, and types of breastfeeding were also determined. Results: On day 3, milk volume was increased in both groups. The median volume of ASPNN group was 19 ml, while that of the placebo group was 30 ml. The median %creamatocrit of ASPNN and placebo group were 7.17% and 6.98%, respectively. Mean serum prolactin levels of ASPNN and placebo group were 321.76 + 114.23 ng/ml and 323.78 + 116.68 ng/ml, respectively. Although the effects were not difference from the placebo, the reduction of prolactin in ASPNN was lower. Minor adverse effects included skin rash and mild diarrhea. Exclusive breastfeeding rate on day 11 in ASPNN and placebo group were 92.6 % and 88.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Short term ASPNN supplementation produce no direct effect on breast milk volume, creamatocrit, and serum prolactin. It was safe and might help maintaining serum prolactin. A future trial with more participants and longer period should be conducted to confirm the effect of ASPNN on breast milk quantity and quality.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 29-42
Amber N. Edinoff ◽  
Catherine A. Nix ◽  
Juliana M. Fort ◽  
Jeanna Kimble ◽  
Ryan Guedry ◽  

Psychiatric disorders, in general, have a high prevalence of sexual problems, whether from the psychopathology of the disorder itself, pre-existing or co-morbid sexual disorder or from side effects of the treatment for mental disorders. Many patients report an already existing sexual dysfunction at the onset of diagnosis. The risk association for developing sexual dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia includes antipsychotic use and resulting hyperprolactinemia, age, gender, and disease severity. Medication side effects lead to nonadherence, and relapses lead to structural changes in the brain, treatment resistance, and worsening of symptoms. Findings in certain studies propose serum prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone measurement as a tool for assessing patients with schizophrenia for sexual dysfunction. Regarding specific symptoms, females especially reported decreased desire at baseline and galactorrhea after treatment. The findings of this review, therefore, suggest that sexual dysfunction may be present in patients with schizophrenia before starting antipsychotic treatment and that patients, especially those who are female, are likely to develop hyperprolactinemia with antipsychotic treatment. Aripiprazole may be an emergent treatment for sexual dysfunction in those who use antipsychotics. It is important for patients to consider sexual dysfunction prior to prescribing antipsychotics. Since sexual dysfunction can impact a patient’s quality of life and affect treatment adherence, it is important for physicians to be aware and monitor patients for symptoms.

2021 ◽  
Vol 55 (9) ◽  
Jessica Anne A. Dumalag ◽  
Maria Esterlita T. Villanueva-Uy ◽  
Peter Francis Raguindin

Background. Kangaroo mother care (KMC) has been proven by several studies to promote breastfeeding, but many of the studies focus on the success of exclusive breastfeeding, and less on its galactogenic effects. Objective. We aim to determine the maternal serum prolactin levels and breastmilk volume of mothers who rendered KMC to their infants. Materials and Methods. This is a randomized controlled, open-labeled, interventional study in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary government hospital. Infants weighing < 2000 grams admitted in NICU Level II, together with medically stable mothers and no contraindication for breastfeeding were simultaneously enrolled. Primary outcome measures were maternal serum prolactin levels and expressed milk volume on day 3 and day 7 postpartum. Two-sample t-test was used to compare groups, and paired t-test to compare within groups. Tests were two-tailed, with a p-value of < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Trial Registration. Australia-New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ID ACTRN12614000218695 Results. Fifty mother-infant dyads were equally allocated into KMC and control groups (p < 0.001). There was significantly larger milk volume on the third day (29.6 ± 27.8 mL vs 16.3 ± 26.1 mL; p < 0.001) and seventh post-partum day (72.4 ± 62.3 mL vs 47.3 ± 43.8 mL; p < 0.000). There were increased serum prolactin levels compatible with post-partum state. The increase was more evident in the KMC (5244 ± 2702 mIU/L, on the 3rd postpartum day versus 4969 ± 2426 mIU/L, on the 7th postpartum day, p = 0.996) compared to control group (4129 ± 2485 mIU/L on the 3rd postpartum day versus 3705 ± 2731 mIU/L on the 7th postpartum day, p = 0.301). Conclusion. We noted a significantly larger milk volume in the KMC group. There was also a greater increase in the prolactin levels in the KMC group, but this did not reach statistical significance. Further studies should be done to determine mechanism of galactogenesis through KMC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (4(Suppl.)) ◽  
pp. 1552
Israa F. Ascar ◽  
Areej Sh. Hameed

The polycystic ovary syndrome is an endocrine condition. One of the leading causes of female infertility and the most common disorder among women. The work was being carried out on 100 Iraqi women (50 cases confirmed with PCOS and 50 controls). Between October 2019 and March 2020, blood samples were collected from the Advanced Institute of Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technology at AL-Nahrain University and a private laboratory. ELISA was used to evaluate the biochemical parameters of preptin, FSH, insulin, LH, and CCL 18 in serum samples from the AFIAS-6 (AFIAS Automated Immunoassay System). The findings of the analysis indicate that, as opposed to the control group, values of prolactin (ng/ml), LH (mIU/ml), Preptin (pg/ml) and CCL 18 (ng/ml) Quite higher in PCOS sickness (p < 0.001) Compared with the patient group, the values of testosterone (ng/ml) and FSH (mIU/ml) was noticeably higher (p <0.05), and PRLR gene expression levels in PCOS patients were significantly increased by 3.6 times. I n summary, the levels of Preptin and CCL18 can be regarded as PCOS markers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (24) ◽  
pp. 5866
Olena Kolomiiets ◽  
Oleksandr Yazykov ◽  
Artem Piddubnyi ◽  
Mykola Lyndin ◽  
Ivan Lukavenko ◽  

The role of prolactin (PRL) and its receptors in the initiation and development of benign breast tumors (BBT) has not been sufficiently studied. An imbalance in the system of hormone homeostasis is crucial in the development of BBT. In particular, an association between elevated prolactin levels and the development of BBT has been reported. Our study showed no significant differences between PRL receptor (PRL-R) expression in BBT tissue under normal and elevated serum PRL levels. There was also no significant correlation between age, PRL-R expression in BBT tissue, intact tissue, and PRL level in the serum. There was a strong significant correlation (p < 0.01; r = 0.92) between PRL-R expression in BBT samples and intact breast tissue, which did not depend on the serum PRL level. There was also no significant difference in the expression of the proliferative marker Ki-67 in BBT tissues from women with normal and elevated levels of serum PRL (p > 0.05). No signs of PRL and its receptors were detected in the BBT cystic fluid women with elevated serum PRL levels. In summary, our prospective study showed that the expression of PRL-R in the tissue of BBT and physiological breast tissue does not depend on the level of serum PRL.

Nur Aisyah Zainordin ◽  
Fatimah Zaherah Mohd Shah ◽  
Nur Aini Eddy Warman ◽  
Sharifah Faradila Wan Muhammad Hatta ◽  
Aimi Fadilah Mohamad ◽  

Summary A 17-year-old lady presented with primary amenorrhoea, headache, nausea and lethargy. She had delayed pubertal development that also includes under-developed breast (Tanner Stage 2). Hormonal investigations showed a high serum prolactin level of 1 680 000 mIU/L (normal value: 45–375 mIU/L), with low oestradiol, progesterone, follicular-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Early morning cortisol level was 206 nmol/L (normal value: >450 nmol/L), thyroxine was 7.5 pmol/L (normal value: 9.0–24.0 pmol/L) with TSH 5.091 mIU/L (normal value: 0.4–4.5 mlU/L). A pituitary MRI showed a 2.7 (AP) × 3.7 (W) × 4.6 cm (CC) macroadenoma, with invasion into the left cavernous sinus and encasement of cavernous portion of the left internal carotid artery. MRI pelvis showed absent uterus, cervix and 2/3 upper vagina confirming Mullerian hypoplasia. Cytogenetics showed 46XX. These findings were suggestive of Mayer–Rokitansky–Kauser–Hauser (MRKH) syndrome with the presence of a pituitary macroprolactinoma and panhypopituitarism. She was treated with hydrocortisone, levothyroxine and cabergoline. Repeated MRI showed a reduction in tumour size by approximately 50%. This case illustrated a rare coexistence of these two conditions, being only the third reported case in the world. In addition, this would be the first case of a functioning pituitary adenoma in a patient with MRKH syndrome. Learning points Comprehensive hormonal and radiological investigations are important in the management of a young patient with primary amenorrhoea. Coexistence pathology of two separate pathologies should be considered in patient presenting with primary amenorrhoea. Early diagnosis of MRKH or any disorders of sex development should be treated early, providing pharmacological, surgical, psychological and emotional support to the patient and reducing risk of associated complications. Abnormal pituitary hormones, particularly panhypopituitarism, would impose greater impact not only psychologically but also metabolically leading to cardiovascular, morbidity and mortality risks in this patient if not treated early. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for patients presenting with MRKH to ensure appropriate treatments and follow-up across the lifespan of the patient.

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