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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 001-012
Carlos Henrique Marchiori

Simuliidae belong to the order Diptera, suborder Nematocera, Infraorder Culicomorpha, Superfamily Chironomoidea, and Family Simuliidae. They are known as “borrachudo” or “pium” in Brazil and as “black flies” in English-speaking countries. This study objective to report the characteristics of the Family Simuliidae. The research was carried out in studies related to quantitative aspects of the Family, Subfamily and Species (taxonomic groups) and conceptual aspects such as: biology, geographical distribution, species, life cycle, damage, economic importance, medicinal importance, biological aspects, and reproduction. A literature search was carried out containing articles published from 1950 to 2021. The mini-review was prepared in Goiânia, Goiás, from September to October 2021, through the Portal of Scientific Journals in Health Sciences, Pubmed, Online Scientific Library (Scielo), internet, ResearchGate,, Frontiers, Biological Abstract, Publons, Qeios, Dialnet, World, Wide Science, Springer, RefSeek, Microsoft Academic, Science, ERIC, Science, SEEK education, Periodicals CAPES, Google Academic, Bioline International and VADLO.

2022 ◽  
Remy E Walk ◽  
Hong Joo Moon ◽  
Simon Y Tang ◽  
Munish C Gupta

Study Design: Preclinical animal study. Objective: Evaluation of the degenerative progression resulting from either a partial- or full- width injury to the mouse lumbar intervertebral disc (IVD) using contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography and histological analyses. We utilized a lateral-retroperitoneal surgical approach to access the lumbar IVD, and the injuries to the IVD were induced by either incising one side of the annulus fibrosus or puncturing both sides of the annulus fibrosus. The full-width injury caused dramatic reduction in nucleus pulposus hydration and significant degeneration. A partial-width injury produces localized deterioration around the annulus fibrosus site that resulted in local tissue remodeling without gross degeneration to the IVD. Methods: Female C57BL/6J mice of 3-4 months age were used in this study. They were divided into three groups to undergo a partial-width, full-width, or sham injuries. The L5/L6 and L6/S1 lumbar IVDs were surgically exposed using a lateral-retroperitoneal approach. The L6/S1 IVDs were injured using either a surgical scalpel (partial-width) or a 33G needle (full-width), with the L5/L6 serving as an internal control. These animals were allowed to recover and then sacrificed at 2-, 4-, or 8- weeks post-surgery. The IVDs were assessed for degeneration using contrast-enhanced microCT (CEμCT) and histological analysis. Results: The high-resolution 3D evaluation of the IVD confirmed that the respective injuries localized within one side of the annulus fibrosus or spanned the full width of the IVD. The full-width injury caused deteriorations in the nucleus pulposus after 2 weeks that culminated in significant degeneration at 8 weeks, while the partial width injury caused localized disruptions that remained limited to the annulus fibrosus. Conclusion: The use of CEμCT revealed distinct IVD degeneration profiles resulting from partial- and full- width injuries. The partial width injury may serve as a better model for IVD degeneration resulting from localized annulus fibrosus injuries in humans.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262537
Louise C. Druedahl ◽  
Sofia Kälvemark Sporrong ◽  
Timo Minssen ◽  
Hans Hoogland ◽  
Marie Louise De Bruin ◽  

Healthcare systems have reached a critical point regarding the question of whether biosimilar substitution should become common practice. To move the discussion forward, the study objective was to investigate the views of experts from medicines agencies and the pharmaceutical industry on the science underpinning interchangeability of biosimilars. We conducted an empirical qualitative study using semi-structured interviews informed by a cross-disciplinary approach encompassing regulatory science, law, and pharmaceutical policy. In total 25 individuals with experience within biologics participated during September 2018–August 2019. Eight participants were EU national medicines authority regulators, and 17 had pharmaceutical industry background: five from two originator-only companies, four from two companies with both biosimilar and originator products, and eight from seven biosimilar-only companies. Two analysts independently conducted inductive content analysis, resulting in data-driven themes capturing the meaning of the data. The participants reported that interchangeability was more than a scientific question of likeness between biosimilar and reference products: it also pertained to regulatory practices and trust. Participants were overall confident in the science behind exchanging biosimilar products for the reference products via switching, i.e., with physician involvement. However, their opinions differed regarding the scientific risk associated with biosimilar substitution, i.e., without physician involvement. Almost all participants saw no need for additional scientific data to support substitution. Moreover, the participants did not believe that switching studies, as required in the US, were appropriate for obtaining scientific certainty due to their small size. It is unclear why biosimilar switching is viewed as scientifically safer than substitution; therefore, we expect greater policy debate on biosimilar substitution in the near future. We urge European and UK policymakers and regulators to clarify their visions for biosimilar substitution; the positions of these two frontrunners are likely to influence other jurisdictions on the future of biosimilar use.

2022 ◽  
Kelly Stevens ◽  
Saskia Houterman ◽  
Steven Weyers ◽  
Iris Muller ◽  
Benedictus C. Schoot

Abstract Study Objective: External validation of our previously presented and locally established prediction models to help counsel patients for failure of endometrial ablation (EA) or surgical re-intervention within 2 years after EA, called ‘Failure model’ and ‘Re-intervention model’ respectively. Design: Retrospective external validation study, minimal follow-up time of 2 years.Setting: Two non-academic teaching hospitals in the Netherlands.Patients: Pre-menopausal women (18+) who had undergone EA for abnormal uterine bleeding problems between January 2010 and November 2012. A total of 329 patients were eligible for analysis.Interventions: Interventions used for EA were Novasure (Hologic, Marlborough, Massachusetts, US) and ThermaChoice III (Ethicon, Sommerville, US). Measurements and Main Results: The Area Under the Receiver Operating characteristics Curve (AUROC) for the outcome parameter of failure within 2 years after EA was 0.59 (95% CI 0.53 – 0.65). Variables in this model were dysmenorrhea, age, parity ≥5 and preoperative menorrhagia. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed no significant difference between the observed and predicted outcome. (Chi-square: 4.62, P-value: .80) The AUROC for the outcome parameter surgical re-intervention within 2 years was 0.62 (95% CI 0.53 – 0.70) Variables in this model were dysmenorrhea, age, menstrual duration> 7 days, parity ≥5 and a previous caesarean section. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed no significant difference between the observed and predicted outcome (Chi-square 11.34, P-value .18).Conclusion: Both the failure model and the re-intervention model can be used to predict unsuccessful endometrial ablation in the general population within two years after the procedure. It can be used prior to surgery to facilitate tailor-made shared decision-making, and help counsel patients with regards to the potential outcome of their treatment with the use of a personally calculated percentage.

Christopher J Byrd ◽  
Betty R Mc Conn ◽  
Brianna N Gaskill ◽  
Allan P Schinckel ◽  
Angela R Green-Miller ◽  

Abstract Characterizing the sow physiological response to an increased heat load is essential for effective heat stress mitigation. The study objective was to characterize the effects of a 400-min heating episode on sow heart rate variability (HRV) at different reproductive stages. Heart rate variability is a commonly used non-invasive proxy measure of autonomic function. Twenty-seven sows were enrolled in the study according to their gestation stage at time of selection: 1) non-pregnant (NP; n = 7), 2) mid-gestation (MID; 57.3 ± 11.8 d gestation; n = 11), and 3) late-gestation (LATE; 98.8 ± 4.9 d gestation; n = 8). The HRV data utilized in the study were collected from each pig as the dry bulb temperature in the room increased incrementally from 19.84 ± 2.15 °C to 35.54 ± 0.43 °C (range: 17.1 – 37.5 °C) over a 400-min period. After data collection, one 5-min set of continuous heart rate data were identified per pig for each of nine temperature intervals (19 to 20.99, 21 to 22.99, 23 to 24.99, 25 to 26.99, 27 to 28.99, 29 to 30.99, 31 to 32.99, 33 to 34.99, 35 to 36.99 °C). Mean inter-beat interval length (RR), standard deviation of r-r intervals (SDNN), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), high frequency spectral power (HF), sample entropy (SampEn), short-term detrended fluctuation analysis (DFAα1), and three measures (%REC, DET, LMEAN) derived from recurrence quantification analysis were calculated for each data set. All data were analyzed using the PROC GLIMMIX procedure in SAS 9.4. Overall, LATE sows exhibited lower RR than NP sows (P < 0.01). The standard deviation of r-r intervals and RMSSD differed between each group (P < 0.01), with LATE sows exhibiting the lowest SDNN and RMSSD and NP sows exhibiting the greatest SDNN and RMSSD. Late-gestation sows exhibited lower HF than both MID and NP sows (P < 0.0001), greater DFA values than NP sows (P = 0.05), and greater DET compared to MID sows (P = 0.001). Late-gestation also sows exhibited greater %REC and LMEAN compared to MID (P < 0.01) and NP sows (all P < 0.01). In conclusion, LATE sows exhibited indicators of greater autonomic stress throughout the heating period compared to MID and NP sows. However, temperature by treatment interactions were not detected as dry bulb increased. Future studies are needed to fully elucidate the effect of gestational stage and increasing dry bulb temperature on sow HRV.

Mikhail Teppone

- Background. Since the previous study dealing with the case fatality ratio and infection fatality ratio caused by COVID-19, the author has received many comments that prompted the question: "Why did an optimistic prognosis fail?" To answer this question, a more detailed and expanded analysis was carried out in a new study. - Objective. To evaluate the dynamics of monthly numbers of cases, deaths, tests and CFR worldwide during three phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. - Material and Methods. Twenty three sets of databases, dated the 22nd of each month from January 2020 to November 2021, for 213 countries were collected from the Worldometer website. The number of cases, deaths, tests, CFR, IFR, etc. were counted for various periods of time for each of the 213 countries, then results related to different periods of time were compared. - Results. The analysis of the main epidemiological parameters led to the division of three phases of the global pandemic evolution. The first phase (23.01.20-22.07.20), the second phase (23.07.20-22.01.21) and the third phase (23.01.21-22.07.21) were different in terms of the number of tests performed, new cases, and mortality due to COVID-19. By the end of the secondphase, the worldwide statistics indicated the imminent end of the pandemic, but the third phase was characterized by a sudden rise in the number of new cases and deaths that could not be explained rationally. The most dramatic evolution of the epidemic curve occurred in the countries where doctors had successfully battled COVID-19 during the first two phases of the pandemic. - Conclusions. Despite the decrease in overall death numbers during the latest months analyzed, additional study is necessary to identify the cause for the increase in the number of new cases and deaths during the third phase of the pandemic. Only complete information regarding the positive and negative impact of medical and non-medical methods of diagnostics and prophylaxis of COVID-19 can help to organize effective measures to end the current pandemic and prevent a similar one from occurring in the future. Presumably, there are several causes of the negative evolution of the current pandemic, including the overreliance on PCR tests, application of non-specialized premises for quarantine and treatment, decrease in herd and individual immunity, inadequate change of therapeutic protocols, and ignoring prophylactic treatment. It can be suggested that the use of immunemodulatory drugs, for example, thymus extract or thymic peptides, in groups of people with compromised immunity is necessary, and prophylactic and therapeutic protocols should be changed from the 'standard' types to 'personalized' ones.

2022 ◽  
Lauren M OReilly ◽  
Azhar I Dalal ◽  
Serena Maag ◽  
Matthew T Perry ◽  
Alex Card ◽  

Study Objective: To assess the prevalence of several impairing behavioral health domains in stable patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) through the use of computer adaptive testing and the association among the domains, standard assessments, and ED utilization. Methods: This was a single-center observational study of 828 randomly selected adult patients presenting to the ED from May 2019 to March 2020. The main outcomes of interest were the self-administered, validated computer adaptive assessments of suicidality, depression, anxiety, PTSD, and substance abuse using computer adaptive testing, the CAT-MHTM. We estimated the association among the CAT-MHTM subscales, standard assessments, and the number of ED visits in the year prior and 30 days after enrollment. Results: The proportion of those who scored above the threshold of low/mild risk were: 24.1% (suicidality), 8.3% (depression), 16.5% (anxiety), 12.3% (PTSD), and 20.4% (substance use). While the CAT-MHTM subscales were highly correlated with other self-report assessments, they were not highly associated with standard ED assessments of suicidality. When examining associations with ED use, for example, individuals who had two or more ED visits in the prior year had 51% increased odds of being in the intermediate-high suicide risk category (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.03-2.23) compared to those with zero prior ED visits. Conclusion: The CAT-MHTM can document the high prevalence of mental health conditions in the ED, which were missed by standard ED practices. Mental health problems are associated with ED utilization in a population of patients presenting largely for somatic complaints.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Haewon Byeon

This study provided baseline data for preventing depression in female older adults living alone by understanding the degree of their depressive disorders and factors affecting these depressive disorders by analyzing epidemiological survey data representing South Koreans. To achieve the study objective, this study explored the main risk factors of depressive disorders using the stacking ensemble machine technique. Moreover, this study developed a nomogram that could help primary physicians easily interpret high-risk groups of depressive disorders in primary care settings based on the major predictors derived from machine learning. This study analyzed 582 female older adults (≥60 years old) living alone. The depressive disorder, a target variable, was measured using the Korean version of Patient Health Questionnaire-9. This study developed five single predictive models (GBM, Random Forest, Adaboost, SVM, XGBoost) and six stacking ensemble models (GBM + Bayesian regression, RandomForest + Bayesian regression, Adaboost + Bayesian regression, SVM + Bayesian regression, XGBoost + Bayesian regression, GBM + RandomForest + Adaboost + SVM + XGBoost + Bayesian regression) to predict depressive disorders. The naive Bayesian nomogram confirmed that stress perception, subjective health, n-6 fatty acid, n-3 fatty acid, mean hours of sitting per day, and mean daily sleep hours were six major variables related to the depressive disorders of female older adults living alone. Based on the results of this study, it is required to evaluate the multiple risk factors for depression including various measurable factors such as social support.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 11
Malizgani Mhango ◽  
Vuyiseka Dubula-Majola ◽  
Leon-Say Mudadi

Background: In 2019, the Namibian Ministry of Health introduced HIV self-testing (HIVST) as an additional strategy to increase uptake of HIV self-testing in traditionally hard-to-reach subpopulations, such as young adults and males. It is unclear how the utilisation of HIV self-testing iw optimised in young adults. The study objective is understanding knowledge, attitudes, and perception levels amongst college-going young adults in Namibia. Methods: This quantitative study utilised a sample of 97 young college students who received a pre-test structured questionnaire. One sample t-test was used to analyse the average score from the Likert scale. A cut-off p-value of 0.05 to determine statistical significance of variables was used. Logistic regression computation was used to identify independent variables significantly associated with the dependent variable. A univariate analysis was done on awareness and acceptability with statistical significance of p<0.05 to obtain preliminary insights into the association between independent and dependent variables. The net effect variables are assessed using multivariate analysis using STATA 13.1, taking into account confounding factors. Results: Out of the 97 participants, only 23.7% knew about HIV self-testing. The logistic regression had a significant association with awareness of HIV self-testing (p≤0.05): on condom use during a first sexual encounter; being with a single sexual partner in the last 12 months; not having a sexually transmitted infection. The univariate analysis revealed an association with the acceptability of HIV self-testing from females; those who live in urban settlements; having not had sexually transmitted infection in the last twelve months. Moreover, findings reveal there are low levels of awareness, yet participants had positive attitudes and levels of acceptability to HIV self-testing. Conclusion: This study shows promise if awareness through health education and promotion about HIV self-testing can be increased. This can form part of scaling up HIV testing in Namibia.

2022 ◽  
Dipak K. Sahoo ◽  
Dana C. Borcherding ◽  
Lawrance Chandra ◽  
Albert E. Jergens ◽  
Todd Atherly ◽  

Abstract Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with chronic intestinal inflammation and promotes intestinal cancer progression in the gut. While the interplay between LPS and intestinal immune cells has been well characterized, little is known about LPS and intestinal epithelium interactions. In this study, we explored the differential effect of LPS on proliferation and the transcriptome in 3D enteroids/colonoids obtained from dogs with naturally occurring gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and GI mast cell tumor. The study objective was to analyze LPS-induced modulation of signaling pathways involving the intestinal epithelia and critical to colorectal cancer development in the context of IBD or a tumor microenvironment. While LPS incubation resulted in a pro-cancer gene expression pattern and stimulated proliferation of IBD enteroids and colonoids, down-regulation of several cancer-associated genes like CRYZL1, Gpatch4, SLC7A1, ATP13A2, and ZNF358 was also observed in tumor enteroids. Genes participating in porphyrin metabolism (CP), thiamine and purine metabolism (TAP2, EEF1A1), arachidonic acid, and glutathione metabolism (GPX1) exhibited a similar pattern of altered expression between IBD enteroids and IBD colonoids following LPS stimulation. In contrast, genes involved in anion transport, transcription and translation, apoptotic processes, and regulation of adaptive immune responses showed opposite expression patterns between IBD enteroids and colonoids following LPS treatment. In brief, the cross-talk between LPS/TLR4 signal transduction pathway and several metabolic pathways, such as fatty acid degradation and biosynthesis, and purine, thiamine, arachidonic acid, and glutathione metabolism, may be important in driving chronic intestinal inflammation and intestinal carcinogenesis.

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