high genetic diversity
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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Luis Fernando Valenzuela-Moreno ◽  
Sara Teresa Méndez-Cruz ◽  
Claudia Patricia Rico-Torres ◽  
Carlos Cedillo-Peláez ◽  
Dolores Correa ◽  

Abstract Background Currently, more than 300 genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) have been described throughout the world, demonstrating its wide genetic diversity. The SAG3 locus is one of the genes included in the genotyping panel of this parasite. It is associated with its virulence since it participates during the invasion process of the host cells. Therefore, cloning, sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis were used to deepen the understanding of the SAG3 locus genetic diversity of T. gondii in blood samples from feral cats. Results Six different SAG3 sequences were detected, five of which were detected in one feline. Three sequences were first reported here; one of them was an intragenic recombinant. In the cladogram, four out of ten SAG3 sequences did not share nodes with others reported worldwide. Conclusions Cloning and sequencing of samples with more than one restriction pattern by PCR-RFLP were very helpful tools to demonstrate the presence of more than three genotypes of T. gondii in the blood of feral cats from southeastern Mexico. This suggests a potential mixed infection of multiple T. gondii strains and high genetic diversity of the parasites in felines in this tropical region of Mexico.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Willi Quino ◽  
Junior Caro-Castro ◽  
Verónica Hurtado ◽  
Diana Flores-León ◽  
Narjol Gonzalez-Escalona ◽  

Campylobacter is the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and has a major impact on global public health. Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) is a powerful tool applied in the study of foodborne pathogens. The objective of the present study was to apply WGS to determine the genetic diversity, virulence factors and determinants of antimicrobial resistance of the populations of C. jejuni and C. coli in Peru. A total of 129 Campylobacter strains (108 C. jejuni and 21 C. coli) were sequenced using Illumina Miseq platform. In silico MLST analysis identified a high genetic diversity among those strains with 30 sequence types (STs), several of them within 11 clonal complexes (CC) for C. jejuni, while the strains of C. coli belonged to a single CC with 8 different STs. Phylogeny analysis showed that Peruvian C. jejuni strains were divided into 2 clades with 5 populations, while C. coli formed a single clade with 4 populations. Furthermore, in silico analyses showed the presence of several genes associated with adherence, colonization and invasion among both species: cadF (83.7%), jlpA (81.4%), racR (100%), dnaJ (83.7%), pebA (83.7%), pldA (82.1%), porA (84.5%), ceuE (82.9%), ciaB (78.3%), iamB (86.8%), and flaC (100%). The majority (82.9%) of the Campylobacter strains carried the cdtABC operon which code for cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). Half of them (50.4%) carried genes associated with the presence of T6SS, while the frequency of genes associated with T4SS were relatively low (11.6%). Genetic markers associated with resistance to quinolones, tetracycline (tetO, tetW/N/W), beta-lactamases (blaoxa–61), macrolides (A2075G in 23S rRNA) were found in 94.5, 21.7, 66.7, 6.2, 69.8, and 18.6% of strains, respectively. The cmeABC multidrug efflux operon was present in 78.3% of strains. This study highlights the importance of using WGS in the surveillance of emerging pathogens associated with foodborne diseases, providing genomic information on genetic diversity, virulence mechanisms and determinants of antimicrobial resistance. The description of several Campylobacter genotypes having many virulence factors and resistance to quinolones and tetracyclines circulating in Peru provides important information which helps in the monitoring, control and prevention strategies of this emerging pathogen in our country.

2022 ◽  
Tal Dahan-Meir ◽  
Thomas James Ellis ◽  
Fabrizio Mafessoni ◽  
Hanan Sela ◽  
Jacob Manisterski ◽  

Wild progenitors of major crops can help us understand domestication, and may also provide the genetic resources needed for ensuring food security in the face of climate change. We examined the genetic structure of a wild emmer wheat population, sampled over 36 years while both temperature and CO2 concentration increased significantly. The genotypes of 832 individuals revealed high genetic diversity over scales of tens of meters and were clustered spatially into ecological microhabitats. This pattern was remarkably stable over time. Simulations indicate that neutral processes alone are unlikely to fully explain the spatial and temporal stability of the population. These results are consistent with a role for local adaptation in shaping the fine-scale structure of plant populations, which is relevant for in-situ conservation strategies of biodiversity in nature.

mBio ◽  
2022 ◽  
Jiao Wang ◽  
Yisong Li ◽  
Adrián A. Pinto-Tomás ◽  
Kun Cheng ◽  
Ying Huang

Both isolation by distance and isolation by environment occur in bacteria, and different diversification patterns may apply to different species. Streptomyces species, typified by producing useful natural products, are widespread in nature and possess high genetic diversity. However, the ecological processes and evolutionary mechanisms that shape their distribution are not well understood.

Pablo Villarreal ◽  
Carlos Villarroel ◽  
Samuel O’Donnell ◽  
Nicolas Agier ◽  
Julian Quintero-Galvis ◽  

Most organisms belonging to the Saccharomycotina subphylum have high genetic diversity and a vast repertoire of metabolisms and lifestyles, which explains its ecological versatility. The yeast Lachancea cidri is an ideal model for exploring the interplay between genetics, ecological function and evolution. L. cidri is a species that diverged from the Saccharomyces lineage before the whole-genome duplication and exhibits a broad distribution across the South Hemisphere, thus displaying an important ecological success. Here, we applied phylogenomics to investigate the adaptive genetic variation of L. cidri isolates obtained from natural environments in Australia and South America. Our approach revealed the presence of two main lineages according to their geographic distribution (Aus and SoAm). Estimation of the divergence time suggest that South American and Australian lineages diverged near the last glacial maximum event during the Pleistocene (64-8 KYA), consistent with the presence of multiple glacial refugia. Interestingly, we found that the French reference strain belongs to the Australian lineage, with a recent divergence (405-51 YA), likely associated to human movements. Additionally, species delimitation analysis identified different evolutionary units within the South American lineage and, together with parameters like Pi (π) and FST, revealed that Patagonia contains most of the genetic diversity of this species. These results agree with phenotypic characterizations, demonstrating a greater phenotypic diversity in the South American lineage. These findings support the idea of a Pleistocene-dated divergence between South Hemisphere lineages, where the Nothofagus and Araucaria ecological niches likely favored the extensive distribution of L. cidri in Patagonia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 67 (1) ◽  
pp. 387-406
T.K. Walsh ◽  
D.G. Heckel ◽  
Yidong Wu ◽  
S. Downes ◽  
K.H.J. Gordon ◽  

It is increasingly clear that pest species vary widely in their propensities to develop insecticide resistance. This review uses a comparative approach to analyze the key pest management practices and ecological and biochemical or genetic characteristics of the target that contribute to this variation. We focus on six heliothine species, three of which, Helicoverpa armigera, Heliothis virescens, and Helicoverpa zea, have developed resistances to many pesticide classes. The three others, Helicoverpa punctigera, Helicoverpa assulta, and Helicoverpa gelotopoeon, also significant pests, have developed resistance to very few pesticide classes. We find that host range and movement between alternate hosts are key ecological traits that influence effective selection intensities for resistance. Operational issues are also critical; area-wide, cross-pesticide management practices that account for these ecological factors are key to reducing selection intensity. Without such management, treatment using broad-spectrum chemicals serves to multiply the effects of host plant preference, preadaptive detoxification ability, and high genetic diversity to create a pesticide treadmill for the three high-propensity species.Without rigorous ongoing management, such a treadmill could still develop for newer, more selective chemistries and insecticidal transgenic crops.

Yan-Bing Cui ◽  
Hai-Mo Shen ◽  
Shen-Bo Chen ◽  
Kokouvi Kassegne ◽  
Tian-Qi Shi ◽  

Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen-1 (PvAMA-1) is an important vaccine candidate for vivax malaria. However, antigenic variation within PvAMA-1 is a major obstacle to the design of a global protective malaria vaccine. In this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphism and selection of the PvAMA-1 gene from 152 P. vivax isolates from imported cases to China, collected in the China–Myanmar border (CMB) area in Yunnan Province (YP) during 2009–2011 (n = 71) and 2014–2016 (n = 81), in comparison with PvAMA-1 gene information from Myanmar (n = 73), collected from public data. The overall nucleotide diversity of the PvAMA-1 gene from the 152 YP isolates was 0.007 with 76 haplotypes identified (Hd = 0.958). Results from the population structure suggested three groups among the YP and Myanmar isolates with optimized clusters value of K = 7. In addition, YP (2014–2016) isolates generally lacked some K components that were commonly found in YP (2009–2011) and Myanmar. Meanwhile, PvAMA-1 domain I is found to be the dominant target of positive diversifying selection and most mutation loci were found in this domain. The mutation frequencies of D107N/A, R112K/T, K120R, E145A, E277K, and R438H in PvAMA-1 were more than 70% in the YP isolates. In conclusion, high genetic diversity and positive selection were found in the PvAMA-1 gene from YP isolates, which are significant findings for the design and development of PvAMA-1-based malaria vaccine.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Nicoletta Lari ◽  
Laura Rindi

Abstract Background M. intracellulare is a frequent causative pathogen of nontuberculous mycobacteria infection that causes infections in the respiratory tract, whose incidence is increasing in many countries. This study aimed at determining the VNTR-based genetic diversity of a collection of 39 M. intracellulare human strains isolated from respiratory specimens over the last 5 years. Results The VNTR analysis showed that M. intracellulare strains displayed a high genetic diversity, indicating that the M. intracellulare genotypes are quite heterogeneous in our geographical area. Moreover, a comparison with VNTR profiles of strains from other countries confirmed that genotypes of clinical strains of M. intracellulare are not related to geographical origin. Conclusions VNTR typing has proved to be a highly discriminatory method for better understanding the molecular epidemiology of M. intracellulare.

2022 ◽  
Vol 147 (1) ◽  
pp. 62-69
Phillip A. Wadl ◽  
Timothy A. Rinehart ◽  
Richard T. Olsen ◽  
Benjamin D. Waldo ◽  
Joseph H. Kirkbride

The genus Chionanthus, known as fringetrees, is a member of the olive family (Oleaceae). Chionanthus virginicus is an understory tree or shrub with a wide range in forests of the eastern United States and is used as an ornamental tree that is known to be free of insects and disease in the wild. The species is tolerant of a wide range of environmental conditions, and there is interest in developing new cultivars with improved horticultural traits, such as tree form or upright growth habit and superior flowering display that are widely adapted. To identify genepools in the native range of C. virginicus for use in breeding programs, the genetic diversity and population structure were assessed for 274 individuals from 12 locations in four states (Florida, Maryland, North Carolina, and Texas) using 26 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). An average of 12.54 alleles/locus were detected, allelic richness averaged 2.80. Genetic differentiation was 0.11, indicating moderate differentiation among subpopulations. Despite the high genetic diversity and low population differentiation, Bayesian clustering analysis identified six genetic groups that match the geographic distribution of collection sites. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that most (82%) of the variation is explained within individuals, and 11% and 7% of the variation is due to differences among individuals within populations and among populations. Analysis of isolation by distance across all samples showed a weak positive relationship between geographic distance and genetic distance. The C. virginicus samples analyzed in this study indicate there is sufficient diversity for germplasm collection for use in breeding programs. Given the relatively moderate genetic differentiation, there are not likely to be unique islands of genetic diversity that may be missed when gathering parental materials for a breeding program

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 89-99
Kunto Wibisono ◽  
Syarifah Iis Aisyah ◽  
Waras Nurcholis ◽  
Sri Suhesti

Genetic enhancement in vegetatively propagated crops can be done through mutation induction. Colchicine-induced mutation is one of the methods that can be employed to increase plant genetic diversity. This study aimed to determine the effect of colchicine on the performance and genetic parameters of MV3 generation of Plectranthus amboinicus (L.). This study was conducted at the Laboratory of Agricultural Seed Management, Plantation Research and Development Center, from June 2018 to June 2019. Nodes and shoots were used as explants. Mutation induction was performed using colchicine at concentrations of 0%, 0.02%, 0.04%, and 0.06%. Explant regeneration and subculture were done on MS0 medium. The number of plantlets yielded were 59 (0% concentration of colchicine), 60 (0.02%), 81 (0.04%), and 80 plantlets (0.06%), respectively. Results indicated that colchicine-induced mutation in an in vitro culture was able to generate high genetic diversity in both quantitative and qualitative characters of the plantlets. At the concentration of 0.04%, colchicine produced the highest frequency of putative mutants (28.4%). Genetic parameters in MV3 generation of P. amboinicus plantlets showed that five quantitative characters, i.e. plantlet height, number of leaves, number of shoots, leaf length, and number of roots had high heritability values at a concentration around the LC50 value (0.0275%).

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