Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
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Published By Sage Publications

2169-5202, 1550-0594

2022 ◽  
pp. 155005942110733
Mehmet K. Arıkan ◽  
Muazzez Ç. Oba ◽  
Reyhan İlhan ◽  
Mehmet C. Mat

Skin picking disorder (SPD) characterized by repetitive compulsive scratching in the absence of a primary skin disease is strongly associated with psychiatric comorbidities, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and depression (MDD). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been used in the treatment of SPD with variable success. Nevertheless, the optimum treatment choice for SPD is an issue for clinicians. This case report presents a 32-year-old female SPD patient treated with four-week paroxetine monotherapy. Based upon the clinical interview and standardized questionnaires, the patient was diagnosed with OCD with depressive features and Skin Picking Disorder. In addition to symptom severity scales, quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) was also applied. Paroxetine treatment was started (titrated from 5 to 40 mg/day) and doubled each week. After four-week paroxetine monotherapy, OCD symptoms were diminished, and skin lesions were completely regressed leaving solely post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Post-treatment qEEG assessment also showed a normalization of frontal alpha power and amplitude asymmetry. It can be concluded that if OCD includes SPD with abnormal EEG patterns; then the treatment success using paroxetine will be very high.

2022 ◽  
pp. 155005942110697
James E Arruda ◽  
Madison C McInnis ◽  
Jessica Steele

Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), which is characterized by normal daily activity, but a significant decline in episodic memory, is now widely accepted as a risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Research suggests that many of the same neuropathological changes associated with AD also occur in patients diagnosed with aMCI. A recent review of the literature revealed that the latency of the flash visual-evoked potential-P2 (FVEP-P2) may possess pathognomonic information that may assist in the early detection of aMCI. While standards exist for the recording of FVEP-P2, individual clinics often use recording parameters that may differ, resulting in latencies that may not generalize beyond the clinic that produced them. The present article illustrates the process by which the FVEP-P2 latency can be standardized across clinics using FVEP-P2 Conversion Scores. We then demonstrate the diagnostic accuracy of the newly developed scores. Method: In the present investigation, we used the previously unpublished data containing the FVEP-P2 latencies of 45 AD and 60 controls. Result: We were able to demonstrate the process by which individual clinics may first standardize FVEP-P2 latencies and then examine patient performance using FVEP-P2 Conversion Scores, providing clinicians with a richer context from which to examine the patient performance. Conclusion: Consistent with the findings of previous research, the findings of the present investigation support the use of the FVEP-P2 Conversion Scores in the diagnosis of AD. Future directions, including the modification of recording parameters associated with the FVEP-P2, are also discussed.

2022 ◽  
pp. 155005942110708
Ayse Nur Ozdag Acarli ◽  
Ayse Deniz Elmali ◽  
Nermin Gorkem Sirin ◽  
Betul Baykan ◽  
Nerses Bebek

Introduction. Although ictal blinking is significantly more frequent in generalized epilepsy, it has been reported as a rare but useful lateralizing sign in focal seizures when it is not associated with facial clonic twitching. This study aimed to raise awareness of eye blinking as a semiological lateralizing sign. Method. Our database over an 11-year period reviewed retrospectively to assess patients who had ictal blinking associated with focal seizures. Results. Among 632 patients, 14 (2.2%), who had 3 to 13 (7 ± 3) seizures during video-EEG monitoring, were included. Twenty-five percent of all 92 seizures displayed ictal blinking and each patient had one to five seizures with ictal blinking. Ictal blinking was unilateral in 17%, asymmetrical in 22% and symmetrical in 61%. The blinking appeared with a mean latency of 6.3 s (range 0-39) after the clinical seizure-onset, localized most often to fronto-temporal, then in frontal or occipital regions. Blinking was ipsilateral to ictal scalp EEG lateralization side in 83% (5/6) of the patients with unilateral/asymmetrical blinking. The exact lateralization and localization of ictal activity could not have been determined via EEG in most of the patients with symmetrical blinking, remarkably. Conclusions. Unilateral/asymmetrical blinking is one of the early components of the seizures and appears as a useful lateralizing sign, often associated with fronto-temporal seizure-onset. Symmetrical blinking, on the other hand, did not seem to be valuable in lateralization and localization of focal seizures. Future studies using invasive recordings and periocular electrodes are needed to evaluate the value of blinking in lateralization and localization.

2021 ◽  
pp. 155005942110701
Joshua BB Garfield ◽  
Ali Cheetham ◽  
Nicholas B Allen ◽  
Paul G Sanfilippo ◽  
Dan I Lubman

Opioid use disorder (OUD) has been linked to exaggerated attentional, affective, and arousal responses to opioid-related stimuli, as well as altered responses to other affective (eg, naturally rewarding or aversive) stimuli, particularly blunted responses to pleasant/rewarding stimuli. Both exaggerated responses to drug-related stimuli and reduced response to pleasant stimuli may influence the course of OUD and its treatment, however interpretation of studies thus far is limited by methodological issues. In the present study, we examined subjective ratings, and attenuation of the P3 component of the acoustic startle-evoked event-related potential (as a measure of attention), while viewing neutral, pleasant, unpleasant, and drug-related images. Participants prescribed opioid agonist treatment (OAT) for OUD (n = 82) were compared to a carefully-matched control group (n = 33) and to recently-abstinent participants with OUD (n = 22). Relative to controls, participants prescribed OAT gave higher positive valence ratings of drug images, and blunted valence responses to other affective images, but groups did not differ in terms of arousal ratings or P3 amplitude. Within the OAT group, linear modeling of associations between frequency of recent illicit opioid use and startle P3 amplitude found an association between increased recent illicit opioid use and reduced attention to pleasant, relative to unpleasant, images. The latter finding may have implications for interventions targeting cognitive biases in people with substance use disorder. In particular, they suggest that enhancing attention to pleasant stimuli may be as, if not more important, than the typical approach of trying to reduce attentional bias to drug-related stimuli.

2021 ◽  
pp. 155005942110682
Rebecca D White ◽  
Robert P Turner ◽  
Noah Arnold ◽  
Annie Bernica ◽  
Brigitte N Lewis ◽  

In 2014, a 26-year-old male was involved in a motor vehicle accident resulting in a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The patient sustained a closed-head left temporal injury with coup contrecoup impact to the frontal region. The patient underwent a left side craniotomy and was comatose for 26 days. After gaining consciousness, he was discharged to a brain injury treatment center that worked with physical, speech, and occupational issues. He was discharged after eight months with significant speech, ambulation, spasticity, and cognitive issues as well as the onset of posttraumatic epilepsy. His parents sought hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) from a doctor in Louisiana. After 165 dives, the HBOT doctor recommended an addition of neurofeedback (NFB) therapy. In March 2019 the patient started NFB therapy intermixed with HBOT. The combination of NFB and HBOT improved plasticity and functionality in the areas of injury and the correlated symptoms including short-term memory, personality, language, and executive function, as well as significantly reducing the incidence of seizures. Severe brain injuries often leave lasting deficits with little hope for major recovery and there is a need for further research into long-term, effective neurological treatments for severe brain injuries. These results suggest that HBOT combined with NFB may be a viable option in treating severe brain injuries and should be investigated.

2021 ◽  
pp. 155005942110640
Fatih Hilmi Çetin ◽  
Miraç Barış Usta ◽  
Serap Aydın ◽  
Ahmet Sami Güven

Objective: Complexity analysis is a method employed to understand the activity of the brain. The effect of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on neuro-cortical complexity changes is still unknown. This study aimed to reveal how MPH treatment affects the brain complexity of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using entropy-based quantitative EEG analysis. Three embedding entropy approaches were applied to short segments of both pre- and post- medication EEG series. EEG signals were recorded for 25 boys with combined type ADHD prior to the administration of MPH and at the end of the first month of the treatment. Results: In comparison to Approximate Entropy (ApEn) and Sample Entropy (SampEn), Permutation Entropy (PermEn) provided the most sensitive estimations in investigating the impact of MPH treatment. In detail, the considerable decrease in EEG complexity levels were observed at six cortical regions (F3, F4, P4, T3, T6, O2) with statistically significant level ( p < .05). As well, PermEn provided the most meaningful associations at central lobes as follows: 1) The largeness of EEG complexity levels was moderately related to the severity of ADHD symptom detected at pre-treatment stage. 2) The percentage change in the severity of opposition as the symptom cluster was moderately reduced by the change in entropy. Conclusion: A significant decrease in entropy levels in the frontal region was detected in boys with combined type ADHD undergoing MPH treatment at resting-state mode. The changes in entropy correlated with pre-treatment general symptom severity of ADHD and conduct disorder symptom cluster severity.

2021 ◽  
pp. 155005942110564
Xinyu Yan ◽  
Wei Gao ◽  
Jiemin Yang ◽  
Jiajin Yuan

Individuals with internet addiction (IA) show difficulties in emotion regulation. However, they could effectively employ emotion regulation strategies when instructed. We speculate that this discrepancy might be caused by maladaptive emotion regulation choices. Recent studies indicated that decreased activity of the left frontal cortex could be a neural marker of reappraisal use. To address this problem, individuals with IA ( n = 17, IA group) and healthy individuals ( n = 23, healthy control [HC] group) were required to choose an emotion regulation strategy between reappraisal and distraction to regulate their emotions varying in emotional intensity and valence. We also compared the resting state frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA) of these 2 groups. The results replicated more choices of reappraisal in low- versus high-intensity emotional contexts across groups. More importantly, the IA group chose reappraisal less frequently compared with the HC group, irrespective of emotional intensity. Furthermore, we found individuals with IA have lower FAA than healthy controls, and FAA shows a positive correlation with the use of reappraisal. These findings suggest that IA alters individuals’ patterns of emotion regulation choice and impairs frontal activities, causing difficulties in emotion regulation.

2021 ◽  
pp. 155005942110633
Meggan Porteous ◽  
Paniz Tavakoli ◽  
Kenneth Campbell ◽  
Allyson Dale ◽  
Addo Boafo ◽  

Objectives. Suicide is the second leading cause of adolescent deaths and may be linked to difficulties with inhibitory and emotional processing. This study assessed the neural correlates of cognitive inhibition during emotional processing in adolescents hospitalized for a suicidal crisis. Methods. Event-related potentials were recorded during an emotional Go/NoGo task in 12 adolescents who attempted suicide and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results. Compared to the control group, the suicidal group showed significantly reduced positivity at the time of the P3d (difference waveform reflecting NoGo minus Go trials) in response to happy and neutral, but not sad stimuli. For happy stimuli, this group difference was restricted to the right hemisphere. Further analyses indicated that the suicidal group had a reversed pattern of P3 amplitude in response to inhibition, with lower amplitudes in the NoGo compared to the Go conditions. Suicidal symptoms severity strongly correlated with lower amplitude of the P3d in response to neutral faces. Conclusions. These findings provide more insight into inhibition difficulties in adolescents with acute suicidal risk. Interactions between emotional and inhibition processing should be considered when treating acutely suicidal youths.

2021 ◽  
pp. 155005942110661
Yuji Yamada ◽  
Tomiki Sumiyoshi

Backgrounds. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders, eg, mood disorders and schizophrenia. Although tDCS provides a promising approach, its neurobiological mechanisms remain to be explored. Objectives. To provide a systematic review of animal studies, and consider how tDCS ameliorates psychiatric conditions. Methods. A literature search was conducted on English articles identified by PubMed. We defined the inclusion criteria as follows: (1) articles published from the original data; (2) experimental studies in animals; (3) studies delivering direct current transcranially, ie, positioning electrodes onto the skull. Results. 138 papers met the inclusion criteria. 62 papers deal with model animals without any dysfunctions, followed by 52 papers for neurological disorder models, and 12 for psychiatric disorder models. The most studied category of functional areas is neurocognition, followed by motor functions and pain. These studies overall suggest the role for the late long-term potentiation (LTP) via anodal stimulation in the therapeutic effects of tDCS. Conclusions. tDCS Anodal stimulation may provide a novel therapeutic strategy to particularly enhance neurocognition in psychiatric disorders. Its mechanisms are likely to involve facilitation of the late LTP.

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