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Grant L. Iverson ◽  
Paul D. Berkner ◽  
Ross Zafonte ◽  
Bruce Maxwell ◽  
Douglas P. Terry

AbstractThis study examined the association between past concussions and current preseason symptom reporting and cognitive performance in 9,257 youth ages 11–13. Participants completed neurocognitive testing prior to participating in a school sports between 2009 and 2019. We stratified the sample by gender and number of prior concussions and assessed group differences on the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale total score and the ImPACT cognitive composite scores. Those with≥2 prior concussions reported more symptoms than those with 0 concussions (d=0.43–0.46). Multiple regressions examining the contribution of concussion history and developmental/health history to symptom reporting showed the most significant predictors of symptoms scores were (in descending order): treatment for a psychiatric condition, treatment for headaches, history of learning disability (in boys only), history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and age. Concussion history was the weakest statistically significant predictor in boys and not significant in girls. Cognitively, boys with 1 prior concussion had worse speed those with 0 concussions (d=0.11), and girls with≥2 prior concussions had worse verbal/visual memory than girls with 0 concussions (ds=0.38–0.39). In summary, youth with≥2 prior concussions reported more symptoms than those with no concussions. Boys with multiple concussions performed similarly on cognitive testing, while girls had worse memory scores.

2022 ◽  
Bryan Terlizzi ◽  
T Cade Abrams ◽  
Ryan S Sacko ◽  
Amy F Hand ◽  
Kyle Silvey ◽  

ABSTRACT Introduction The development of functional motor competence (FMC; i.e., neuromuscular coordination and control required to meet a wide range of movement goals) is critical to long-term development of health- and performance-related physical capacities (e.g., muscular strength and power, muscular endurance, and aerobic endurance). Secular decline in FMC among U.S. children and adolescents presents current and future challenges for recruiting prospective military personnel to successfully perform the physical demands of military duty. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between FMC and physical military readiness (PMR) in a group of Cadets enrolled in an Army Reserve Officer Training Corps program. Materials and Methods Ninety Army Reserve Officer Training Corps Cadets from a southeastern university and a military college in the southeast (females = 22; Mage = 19.5 ± 2.5) volunteered for participation in the study. Cadets performed a battery of eight FMC assessments consisting of locomotor, object projection, and functional coordination tasks. To assess PMR, Cadets performed the Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT). Values from all FMC assessments were standardized based on the sample and summed to create a composite FMC score. ACFT scores were assigned to Cadets based upon ACFT scoring standards. We used Pearson correlations to assess the relationships between individual FMC assessment raw scores, FMC composite scores, and total ACFT points. We also evaluated the potential impact of FMC on ACFT in the entire sample and within each gender subgroup using hierarchical linear regression. Finally, we implemented a 3 × 2 chi-squared analysis to evaluate the predictive utility of FMC level on pass/fail results on the ACFT by categorizing Cadets’ composite FMC score into high (≥75th percentile) moderate (≥25th percentile and <75th percentile), and low (<25th percentile) based on the percentile ranks within the sample. ACFT pass/fail results were determined using ACFT standards, requiring a minimum of 60 points on each the ACFT subtests. Results FMC composite scores correlated strongly with total ACFT performance (r = 0.762) with individual FMC tests demonstrating weak-to-strong relationships ACFT performance (r = 0.200–0.769). FMC uniquely accounted for 15% (95% CI: −0.07 to 0.36) of the variance in ACFT scores in females (R2 = 0.516, F2,19 = 10.11, P < 0.001) and 26% (95% CI: 0.09–0.43) in males (R2 = 0.385, F2,65 = 20.37, P < 0.001), respectively, above and beyond the impact of age. The 3 × 2 chi-squared analysis demonstrated 74% of those with low, 28% with moderate, and 17% with high FMC failed the ACFT (χ2 [1, N = 90] = 27.717, V = 0.555, P < 0.001). Conclusion FMC composite scores are strongly correlated with ACFT scores, and low levels of FMC were a strong predictor of ACFT failure. These data support the hypothesis that the development of sufficient FMC in childhood and adolescence may be a critical antecedent for PMR. Efforts to improve FMC in children and adolescents may increase PMR of future military recruits.

2022 ◽  
Jessica Nicosia ◽  
Andy J. Aschenbrenner ◽  
David Balota ◽  
Martin Sliwinski ◽  
Marisol Tahan ◽  

Smartphones have the potential for capturing subtle changes in cognition that characterize preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD) in older adults. The Ambulatory Research in Cognition (ARC) smartphone application is based on principles from ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and administers brief tests of associative memory, processing speed, and working memory up to 4 times per day over 7 consecutive days. ARC was designed to be administered unsupervised using participants’ personal devices in their everyday environments. We evaluated the reliability and validity of ARC in a sample of 268 cognitively normal older adults (ages 65-97) and 22 individuals with very mild dementia (ages 61-88). Participants completed at least one 7-day cycle of ARC testing and conventional cognitive assessments; most also completed cerebrospinal fluid, amyloid and tau PET, and structural MRI studies. First, results indicated that ARC tasks were reliable as between person reliability across the 7-day cycle and test-retest reliabilities at 6-month and 1-year follow-ups all exceeded 0.85. Second, ARC demonstrated construct validity as evidenced by correlations with conventional cognitive measures (r = 0.53 between composite scores). Third, ARC measures correlated with AD biomarker burden at baseline to a similar degree as conventional cognitive measures. Finally, the intensive 7-day cycle indicated that ARC was feasible (86.50% approached chose to enroll), well tolerated (80.42% adherence, 4.83% dropout), and was rated favorably by older adult participants. Overall, the results suggest that ARC is reliable and valid and represents a feasible tool for assessing cognitive changes associated with the earliest stages of AD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. e001261
Olivier Riquier ◽  
Anne Vuillemin ◽  
Aurélie Van Hoye

Physical activity (PA) has evidence-based benefits for physical, social and mental health, but investigation of how PA interventions for patients with chronic disease affects their PA practice up to 1 year after programmes are rare. Moreover, few studies document how the context and intervention mechanisms of PA programmes affect sustainable PA practice and its determinants. The present protocol describes a mixed methods study comparing the effectiveness and conditions for the effectiveness of two PA resumption programmes (a hospital-led and a community-based programme). Using a comparative longitudinal study, 60 patients (3-month duration) will be followed for 1 year though four data collections: before (T0) and at the end (T1) of the intervention, 6 months (T2) and 1 year (T3) after the start of the programme. The primary outcome will be PA practice in min/week and categorised as light, moderate or vigorous (using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)), and secondary outcomes will include sedentary time in min/week (IPAQ), quality of life evaluated though the physical and mental composite scores (‘Medical Outcome Study Short Form 12’), and enjoyment using four statements rated from 1 to 5, a high score being synonymous of enjoyment (Intrinsic Motivation Inventory). Qualitative data on further determinants of PA practice and intervention mechanisms will be collected. The expected results will offer the opportunity to understand how the intervention context contributes to a more effective, sustainable PA practice. Trial registration number: NCT04954209.

Eden R. Brauer ◽  
Elisa F. Long ◽  
Laura Petersen ◽  
Patricia A. Ganz

Abstract Purpose Breast cancer-specific survivorship care guidelines for the more than 3.8 million survivors in the U.S. are available, but implementation in clinical practice remains challenging. We examined current practice patterns and factors associated with guideline-concordant survivorship care among oncologists. Methods A national sample of medical oncologists, recruited using two databases, participated in a survey focused on practice patterns for breast cancer survivorship care. A “survivorship care composite score” was calculated for each respondent based on provision of services recommended in the survivorship guidelines. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression analyses examined associations between physician and practice characteristics and composite scores. Results The survey was completed by 217 medical oncologists, with an overall response rate of 17.9% and eligibility rate of 56.9% for those who responded. Oncologists reported high engagement in evaluation of disease recurrence (78%). Performed less frequently were the provision of survivorship care plans (46%), assessment of psychosocial long-term and late effects (34%), and screening for subsequent cancers (34%). Lack of survivorship care training (p = 0.038) and not routinely informing patients about potential late effects (p = 0.003) were significantly associated with poorer survivorship care composite scores. Conclusions Despite the availability of disease-specific survivorship care guidelines, adherence to their recommendations in clinical practice is suboptimal. Survey results identified key gaps in survivorship care for breast cancer survivors, particularly related to subsequent primary cancers and psychosocial long-term and late effects. Implications for Cancer Survivors Improving the delivery of comprehensive survivorship care for the growing population of breast cancer survivors is a high priority. Disease-specific clinical guidelines for cancer survivorship provide valuable recommendations, but innovative strategies are needed to integrate them into the care of long-term breast cancer survivors.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Rafaella Georgiou ◽  
Demetris Lamnisos ◽  
Konstantinos Giannakou

Objective: Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia forms the key cause of the disease's disability, leading to serious functional, and socioeconomic implications. Dopaminergic-cholinergic balance is considered essential to cognitive performance in schizophrenia and patients are often treated with many drugs with anticholinergic properties. This study aims to examine the cognitive impact of anticholinergic burden in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: A systematic literature review was performed on English-language studies published on PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, from inception to June 2021, to identify research studies that examined the effect of anticholinergic load on cognition in clinically stable patients with schizophrenia. No restrictions on study design, age of participants, or geographical distribution were applied. Two researchers performed independently the screening and shortlisting of the eligible articles. A narrative synthesis of the main characteristics and findings of studies included was reported.Results: In total, 17 articles of varying methodological design met the inclusion criteria. Three of them found statistically significant improvement in cognition after anticholinergic tapering without adverse effects. Thirteen studies found a statistically significant association between high anticholinergic burden and cognitive impairment (neurocognitive composite scores and individual cognitive domains such as learning and memory, executive function, processing speed), apart from a study, related to the specific characteristics of clozapine.Conclusions: Medication with increased anticholinergic load has been found in most of the studies to negatively affect neurocognitive performance of patients with schizophrenia. However, the clinical and methodological heterogeneity of studies included limit our interpretation and conclusions.

Thorax ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. thoraxjnl-2021-217652
Na'ama Avitzur ◽  
Elizabeth M Noth ◽  
Mubasiru Lamidi ◽  
Steven D Nathan ◽  
Harold R Collard ◽  

BackgroundAir pollution exposure is associated with disease severity, progression and mortality in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Combined impacts of environmental and socioeconomic factors on outcomes in patients with IPF are unknown. The objectives of this study were to characterise the relationships between relative environmental and social disadvantage with clinical outcomes in patients with IPF.MethodsPatients with IPF were identified from a longitudinal database at University of California, San Francisco. Residential addresses were geocoded and linked to the CalEnviroScreen 3.0 (CES), a tool that quantifies environmental burden in California communities, combining population, environmental and pollution vulnerability into individual and composite scores (higher scores indicating greater disadvantage). Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression and Fine and Gray proportional hazards models were used.Results603 patients were included. Higher CES was associated with lower baseline forced vital capacity (β=−0.073, 95% CI −0.13 to −0.02; p=0.006) and diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (β=−0.11, 95% CI −0.16 to −0.06; p<0.001). Patients in the highest population vulnerability quartile were less likely to be on antifibrotic therapy (OR=0.33; 95% CI 0.18 to 0.60; p=0.001) at time of enrolment, compared with those in the lowest quartile. An association between CES and mortality was suggested, but sensitivity analyses demonstrated inconsistent results. Relative disadvantage of the study cohort appeared lower compared with the general population.ConclusionsHigher environmental exposures and vulnerability were associated with lower baseline lung function and lower antifibrotic use, suggesting that relative socioenvironmental disadvantage has meaningful impacts on patients with IPF.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4563
Zhaohuan Gui ◽  
Shan Huang ◽  
Yican Chen ◽  
Yu Zhao ◽  
Nan Jiang ◽  

The association between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and executive function among children has been less investigated. We aimed to explore this topic. We randomly recruited 6387 children aged 6–12 years from five elementary schools in Guangzhou, China in 2019. Information on frequency and servings of children’s SSB consumption was assessed using a questionnaire. Children’s executive function was evaluated using parents’ ratings of the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), which comprises eight subscales—including inhibit, shift, emotional control, initiate, working memory, plan/organize, organization of materials and monitor, as well as three composite indexes including behavioral regulation index (BRI), metacognition index (MI), and global executive index (GEC). SSB consumption was positively associated with all subscales and composite scores of BRIEF as well as higher risks of elevated executive difficulties, indicating poorer executive function. For example, children who drank SSB ≥2 times/week were related to higher scores of GEC (estimates, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.44, 1.79 to 3.09) compared with those who never drank SSB. The odds ratio of elevated GEC associated with SSB consumption ≥2 times/week was 1.62 (95% CI: 1.34, 1.96) than non-consumers. The results of this study indicated that SSB consumption was associated with poorer executive function in children.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Kuo-Lun Huang ◽  
Ing-Tsung Hsiao ◽  
Ting-Yu Chang ◽  
Shieh-Yueh Yang ◽  
Yeu-Jhy Chang ◽  

Background and Objectives: Neurodegeneration and vascular burden are the two most common causes of post-stroke cognitive impairment. However, the interrelationship between the plasma beta-amyloid (Aβ) and tau protein, cortical atrophy and brain amyloid accumulation on PET imaging in stroke patients is undetermined. We aimed to explore: (1) the relationships of cortical thickness and amyloid burden on PET with plasma Aβ40, Aβ42, tau protein and their composite scores in stroke patients; and (2) the associations of post-stroke cognitive presentations with these plasma and neuroimaging biomarkers.Methods: The prospective project recruited first-ever ischemic stroke patients around 3 months after stroke onset. The plasma Aβ40, Aβ42, and total tau protein were measured with the immunomagnetic reduction method. Cortical thickness was evaluated on MRI, and cortical amyloid plaque deposition was evaluated by 18F-florbetapir PET. Cognition was evaluated with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS-2).Results: The study recruited 24 stroke patients and 13 normal controls. The plasma tau and tau*Aβ42 levels were correlated with mean cortical thickness after age adjustment. The Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio was correlated with global cortical 18F-florbetapir uptake value. The DRS-2 and GDS scores were associated with mean cortical thickness and plasma biomarkers, including Aβ42/Aβ40, tau, tau*Aβ42, tau/Aβ42, and tau/Aβ40 levels, in stroke patients.Conclusion: Plasma Aβ, tau, and their composite scores were associated with cognitive performance 3 months after stroke, and these plasma biomarkers were correlated with corresponding imaging biomarkers of neurodegeneration. Further longitudinal studies with a larger sample size are warranted to replicate the study results.

10.2196/26794 ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (12) ◽  
pp. e26794
Lilas Ali ◽  
Sara Wallström ◽  
Andreas Fors ◽  
Emmelie Barenfeld ◽  
Eva Fredholm ◽  

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic heart failure (CHF) are characterized by severe symptom burden and common acute worsening episodes that often require hospitalization and affect prognosis. Although many studies have shown that person-centered care (PCC) increases self-efficacy in patients with chronic conditions, studies on patients with COPD and CHF treated in primary care and the effects of PCC on the risk of hospitalization in these patients are scarce. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of PCC through a combined digital platform and telephone support for people with COPD and CHF. Methods A multicenter randomized trial was conducted from 2018 to 2020. A total of 222 patients were recruited from 9 primary care centers. Patients diagnosed with COPD, CHF, or both and with internet access were eligible. Participants were randomized into either usual care (112/222, 50.5%) or PCC combined with usual care (110/222, 49.5%). The intervention’s main component was a personal health plan cocreated by the participants and assigned health care professionals. The health care professionals called the participants in the intervention group and encouraged narration to establish a partnership using PCC communication skills. A digital platform was used as a communication tool. The primary end point, divided into 2 categories (improved and deteriorated or unchanged), was a composite score of change in general self-efficacy and hospitalization or death 6 months after randomization. Data from the intention-to-treat group at 3- and 6-month follow-ups were analyzed. In addition, a per-protocol analysis was conducted on the participants who used the intervention. Results No significant differences were found in composite scores between the groups at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. However, the per-protocol analysis of the 3-month follow-up revealed a significant difference in composite scores between the study groups (P=.047), although it was not maintained until the end of the 6-month follow-up (P=.24). This effect was driven by a change in general self-efficacy from baseline. Conclusions PCC using a combined digital platform and structured telephone support seems to be an option to increase the short-term self-efficacy of people with COPD and CHF. This study adds to the knowledge of conceptual innovations in primary care to support patients with COPD and CHF. Trial Registration NCT03183817;

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