<p>Fexofenadine hydrochloride (FFN), (±)-4-[1-hydroxy-4[4-(hydroxydiphenylmethyl)-1-piperidinyl]-butyl] α,α-dimethylbenzeneacetic acid hydrochloride, is a second-generation antihistamine that is used to treat allergies. The drug is highly hydrophobic and slightly soluble in water. Cyclodextrins are widely used to improve the physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties such as solubility, stability, and bioavailability of poorly soluble drug molecules.Cyclodextrins can molecularly encapsulate various drugs into their hydrophobic cavity without forming any covalent bonds. Cyclodextrin (CDs), especially ß-Cyclodextrin (ß-CD), are widely used in the pharmaceutical field due to its ability to stabilize drug molecules and taste masking purposes.<strong> </strong></p><p>The phase solubility study was performed according to the method of Higuchi and Connors by adding the fexofenadine hydrochloride in excess to different concentrations of cyclodextrin solutions. Phase solubility study records show that the stability constant and complex stoichiometry of FFN-CD complexes increases linearly with CD concentration. Also, an increase in the concentration of β-cyclodextrin leads to an increase in the aqueous solubility of FFN. Complexes were analyzed by UV-VIS spectroscopy using the calibration curve of FFN. Also, UV-VIS spectra indicate a bathochromic shift which proves that complex formation has occurred.</p><p>Solid inclusion complexes of fexofenadine/β-cyclodextrin and its derivatives were prepared at the molar ratios of 1:1 by the physical mixing method. Characterization of the complexes was performed by using infrared spectroscopy. </p>
<p>In the present study, adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the removal of rhodamine B from an aqueous solution using chemically activated carbon from corn cobs, a cheaper adsorbent. The characteristics of carbon were determined using X-ray diffraction, SEM, iodine number, pHpzc, and the Boehm titration method. The results show that the prepared activated carbon is amorphous, microporous, and generally acidic on the surface. The kinetic study of the adsorption of rhodamine B on this carbon was carried out, and the rate of sorption was found to conform to pseudo-second-order kinetics with 80 min as equilibrium time. The equilibrium adsorption revealed that the experimental data fitted better to the Langmuir isotherm model for removing rhodamine B. The interaction rhodamine B-activated carbon is mainly chemisorption type. The optimal conditions of rhodamine B removal onto the carbon of this study are mass of carbon = 0.3 g and pH = 3.15. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity for rhodamine B removal was found to be 5.92 mg.g<sup>-1</sup>. This study has shown that the prepared activated carbon makes it possible to effectively clean up wastewater contaminated by rhodamine B with a removal efficiency of up to 99.60% for 300 mg of AC in 25 mL of the rhodamine B solution (5 mg.L<sup>-1</sup>).</p>
<p>The tin coating was elaborated electrolytically on an ordinary steel substrate in SnSO<sub>4</sub> based electrolyte in acid medium with additive (bis-glycobenzimidazolone) at ambient temperature. The pH is maintained at 1.2±0.2 Bis-glycobenzimidazolone influence on the electrochemical properties of the tin coating was investigated using stationary polarization, chronopotentiometry, and cyclic voltammetry techniques. These studies show an apparent decrease in cathodic peak current and a drop in potential. The deposition rate also decreases as the concentration of the additive increases. SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) observation and XRD (X-ray Diffraction) analysis showed that the coating consists of good surface quality of the deposit elaborated by the addition of an optimal concentration of bis-glycobenzimidazolone (10<sup>-3</sup>M) in the electrolyte, which constitutes the continuation of a preliminary study.<strong></strong></p>
3-<em>O</em>-Acetyl-glycyrrhetinic amides were prepared, and sulforhodamine B assays investigated their cytotoxicity. Their cytotoxicity strongly depended on the substitution pattern of the respective compounds. Thereby, an ethylenediamine-derived compound <strong>2</strong> performed the best, acting mainly by apoptosis. As far as heterocyclic amides are concerned, ring enlargement and the replacement of the distal nitrogen invariably led to a more or less complete loss of cytotoxic activity. Thus, the presence of a carbonyl function (C-30) seems necessary for providing significant cytotoxicity.
<p>After the preparation with few steps of the original bicyclic osidic scaffold of pyrimidino-pyranoside type, the exploration of the reactivity of the pyranose part allowed us to carry out different procedures for opening 4,6-<em>O</em>-benzylidene.</p>
The present work is concerned with the subsequent liquid-liquid separation of Cu, Zn, and Cd compounds from Cu- sulfide cake prepared from the sulfate solution of Abu-Thor Gibbsite-bearing shale ore material. This ore was found assaying 0.014% of Cd, 0.5% of Cu, and 0.55% of Zn as the elements of interest, by using 25% of H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> solution at a solid/liquid ratio of 1/3 reaction time of 90 min at a temperature of 80<sup> </sup>◦C. About 96.5% of Cu (II), 99.3% of Cd (II), and 95.6% of Zn (II), respectively, were dissolved. After filtration, the prepared sulfate solution was treated with a suitable weight of Na<sub>2</sub>S to prepare the working Cu-sulfide cake, which was then wholly re-dissolved in 10% of H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> solution to prepare the working sulfate solution, which contained the elements of interest. This solution was gone out to the organic solvent process for complete separating between the Cu (II), Zn (II) ions in the organic phase, and Cd (II) ions in the aqueous phase. The effective extraction parameters such as pH value, LIX concentration, contact time, and organic/aqueous ratio were studied. The obtained data cleared that the pH value of 2.5 was found effective for separating Cd (II) in the aqueous phase and both Zn (II) and Cu (II) in the organic phase. Where Cd (II) ions were precipitated as CdS using Na<sub>2</sub>S solution at pH 0.89, on the other side, both Zn (II) and Cu (II) were completely separated in the stripping process using Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub> solution.
<p>This work aims to prepare a new bimetallic phosphate catalyst using a new simple and effective method. This new catalyst was ready for the first time by a modification of Triple Super Phosphate (TSP) fertilizer with silver sulfate (AgSO<sub>4</sub>), followed by the impregnation of the aluminum atoms using aluminum nitrate (Al(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub>). The use of Al/Ag<sub>3</sub>PO<sub>4</sub>, for the first time as a heterogeneous catalyst in organic chemistry, offers a new, efficient, and green pathway for synthesizing 1,2-dihydro-l-phenyl-3H-naphth[1,2-e]-[1,3]oxazin-3-one derivatives by one-pot three-component cyclocondensation of b-naphthol, aryl aldehyde, and urea. The structure and the morphology of the prepared catalyst were characterized by spectroscopic methods such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and dispersive X-ray spectrometry coupled with a scanning electron microscope (EDX-SEM). In addition, the optimization of the reaction parameters was carried out considering the effect of catalyst amount, the temperature, and the solvent. The procedure described herein allowed a comfortable preparation of oxazine derivatives with excellent yields, short reaction times, and in the absence of organic solvent.</p>
<p>A<strong> </strong>reverse phase HPLC method was developed for the determination of atorvastatin. The mobile phase involved for the separation was phosphate buffer and acetonitrile with a ratio of 10:1. The HPLC column C<sub>18</sub> ODS hypersil column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm) was used and detected at 215 nm. The run time of the current method was 5 minutes with excellent specificity; no interferences were observed in the pharmaceutical dosage form. The process was validated according to ICH guidelines. The linearity of the proposed method was within the range of 0.25–3.8 µg/ml. The LOD and LOQ values were found to be 0.21 and 0.64 µg/ml. The % recovery and %RSD were within the range of 98–100 %, and ±2% for accuracy, precision, robustness, ruggedness results. All the values are acceptable as per ICH guidelines. As well, this enhanced technique was applied to calculate the amount of atorvastatin in human urine samples. Therefore, the present method is reliable for quantifying atorvastatin in quality control samples in academic and pharmaceutical industries and can easily be used in research development and hospitals. </p>
Refill drinking water is a choice of drinking water, especially for the middle-income community due to the convenience and affordable price. Many studies in Indonesia reported that drinking water from drinking water refilling stations is less safe or contaminated by coliform. This study assessed the microbial and level of several heavy metals (Cadmium, chromium, and Lead) contamination on refill drinking water from drinking water refilling station in Bungus Teluk Kabung West Sumatera, Indonesia. It found that Cadmium, Chromium, and Lead were detected in all samples. Still, none of their levels exceed the maximum permissible limits based on the guideline value on Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia number 492/MENKES/PER/IV/2010. Lead was found as the highest amount in sample B and then Chromium in sample A with values of 0.367 ppb and 0.143 ppb. The microbial contamination presence in all three refill drinking water samples with the total coliform was 28, 15, and 240 MPN per 100 ml for samples A, B, and C. Sample C has the highest microbial risk compare to A and B. The presence of E. Coli was also confirmed for all samples, and the metallic sheen identified it in all culture samples. Because the standard of the microbial parameter must be zero for coliform and E. Coli, these results revealed that all three refill drinking water samples from drinking water refilling stations Bungus Teluk Kabung are not eligible for direct consumption and could harm human health. The proper water treatment process or change in raw water sources need to be considered in the future. Inspection and monitoring from the health authority should be scheduled regularly to protect the consumers.
<p>New spiroisoxazolines <strong>3</strong> have been synthesized by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of arylnitrile oxides with 2-arylidenes-3-phenyl-1-indanones. The reaction occurs in a regiospecific and diastereospecific manner and leads to one cycloadduct in all the cases. The proposed structure of the obtained cycloadducts was established based on spectroscopic data and confirmed by radiocrystallographic study. The spectral data were in favor of the observed regiochemistry and diastereoselectivity of this reaction.</p>