tin coating
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Quanshun Luo

AbstractX-ray diffraction has been widely used in measuring surface residual stresses. A drawback of the conventional d ~ sin2ψ method is the increased uncertainty arising from sin2ψ splitting when a significant residual shear stress co-exists with a residual normal stress. In particular, the conventional method can only be applied to measure the residual normal stress while leaving the residual shear stress unknown. In this paper, we propose a new approach to make simultaneous measurement of both residual normal and shear stresses. Theoretical development of the new approach is described in detail, which includes two linear regressions, $$\frac{{d}_{\psi }+ {d}_{-\psi }}{2}$$ d ψ + d - ψ 2 ~sin2ψ and {dψ-d-ψ} ~ sin(2ψ), to determine the residual normal and shear stresses separately. Several samples were employed to demonstrate the new method, including turning-machined and grinding-machined cylindrical bars of a high strength steel as well as a flat sample of magnetron sputtered TiN coating. The machined samples were determined to have residual compressive normal stresses at both the axial and hoop directions as well as various scales of residual shear stresses. The TiN coating showed a high scale of residual compressive (normal) stress whereas the measured residual shear stress was extremely low. The new method showed significantly increased precision as compared to the conventional d ~ sin2ψ method.

Gaurav Malik ◽  
Jignesh Hirpara ◽  
Ankit Kumar ◽  
Mritunjay Kumar Pandey ◽  
Ramesh Chandra

Wendong Xu ◽  
Guanglong Li ◽  
Yingdong Qu ◽  
Wei Zhang ◽  
Qiwen Zhou ◽  

Abstract In order to prevent the copper coating on the carbon fiber surface from oxidizing and falling off, the tin coating is plated on the surface of copper-coated carbon fiber. In this paper, the copper-tin composite coating with different thicknesses of tin coatings were successfully prepared by electroless plating. The results show that with the increasing of electroless tin plating time, the thickness of the copper-tin composite coating increases. The test results of the bonding force between the composite coating and the carbon fiber show that the coating bonding force is the best when the thickness of composite coating is between 1.31 μm and 1.55 μm. This is due to the formation of copper-tin intermetallic compounds preventes direct contact between the copper coating and oxygen, which can effectively inhibit the oxidation of the copper plating layer, thereby making the plating layer less likely to fall off. However, the excessively thick tin coating would increase the internal stress of the coating, and promote the generation of cracks on the surface of the composite coating, which would cause the composite coating to fall off. This research will provide new ideas for the preparation of high-performance copper plating on the surface of carbon fiber, and provide an important theoretical and practical basis for the application of copper coatings.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (22) ◽  
pp. 6817
Nor Akmal Fadil ◽  
Siti Zahira Yusof ◽  
Tuty Asma Abu Bakar ◽  
Habibah Ghazali ◽  
Muhamad Azizi Mat Yajid ◽  

Since the use of the most stable Pb-based materials in the electronic industry has been banned due to human health concerns, numerous research studies have focused on Pb-free materials such as pure tin and its alloys for electronic applications. Pure tin, however, suffers from tin whiskers’ formation, which tends to endanger the efficiency of electronic circuits, and even worse, may cause short circuits to the electronic components. This research aims to investigate the effects of stress on tin whiskers’ formation and growth and the mitigation method for the immersion of the tin surface’s finish deposited on a copper substrate. The coated surface was subjected to external stress by micro-hardness indenters with a 2N load in order to simulate external stress applied to the coating layer, prior to storage in the humidity chamber with environmental conditions of 30 °C/60% RH up to 52 weeks. A nickel underlayer was deposited between the tin surface finish and copper substrate to mitigate the formation and growth of tin whiskers. FESEM was used to observe the whiskers and EDX was used for measuring the chemical composition of the surface finish, tin whiskers, and oxides formed after a certain period of storage. An image analyzer was used to measure the whiskers’ length using the JEDEC Standard (JESD22-A121A). The results showed that the tin whiskers increased directly proportional to the storage time, and they formed and grew longer on the thicker tin coating (2.3 μm) than the thin coating (1.5 μm). This is due to greater internal stress being generated by the thicker intermetallic compounds identified as the Cu5Sn6 phase, formed on a thicker tin coating. In addition, the formation and growth of CuO flowers on the 1.5 μm-thick tin coating suppressed the growth of tin whiskers. However, the addition of external stress by an indentation on the tin coating surface showed that the tin whiskers’ growth discontinued after week 4 in the indented area. Instead, the whiskers that formed were greater and longer at a distance farther from the indented area due to Sn atom migration from a high stress concentration to a lower stress concentration. Nonetheless, the length of the whisker for the indented surface was shorter than the non-indented surface because the whiskers’ growth was suppressed by the formation of CuO flowers. On the other hand, a nickel underlayer successfully mitigated the formation of tin whiskers upon the immersion of a tin surface finish.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 264
Sghir Cherrouf ◽  
Yassine Salhi ◽  
Amina El Echhab ◽  
Hassan El Grini ◽  
Jihane Tellal ◽  

<p>The tin coating was elaborated electrolytically on an ordinary steel substrate in SnSO<sub>4</sub> based electrolyte in acid medium with additive (bis-glycobenzimidazolone) at ambient temperature. The pH is maintained at 1.2±0.2 Bis-glycobenzimidazolone influence on the electrochemical properties of the tin coating was investigated using stationary polarization, chronopotentiometry, and cyclic voltammetry techniques. These studies show an apparent decrease in cathodic peak current and a drop in potential. The deposition rate also decreases as the concentration of the additive increases.  SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) observation and XRD (X-ray Diffraction) analysis showed that the coating consists of good surface quality of the deposit elaborated by the addition of an optimal concentration of bis-glycobenzimidazolone (10<sup>-3</sup>M) in the electrolyte, which constitutes the continuation of a preliminary study.<strong></strong></p>

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 100042
Tri Widodo Besar Riyadi ◽  
David Setiadhi ◽  
Agus Dwi Anggono ◽  
Waluyo Adi Siswanto ◽  
Hussain H. Al-Kayiem

Youn-Seong Lee ◽  
Tae-Wook Kang ◽  
Sun-Woog Kim ◽  
Young-Jin Lee ◽  
Dong-Wook Shin ◽  

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