This research aims to utilize macro-financial and liquidity elements as the factors that may affect the price of Bitcoin as the largest cryptocurrency in terms of market capitalization. The macro-financial factors analyzed in this study were foreign exchange, stock market index, interest rates, and gold, while liquidity ratio is the internal factor. This study applied a fixed-effect model (FEM) and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) on gathered weekly data from 1 January 2017 to 29 December 2019 from 18 countries with the total of 2,826 observations. The analysis revealed that US Dollar amplifies Bitcoin trading; an increase in interest rate will decrease investors’ intention to invest in Bitcoin as a speculative asset, and gold could replace Bitcoin as a substitute asset. Moreover, Bitcoin was found to be highly liquid, which attracts many investors, while the stock market index proved to be insignificant.
This study is an attempt to examine the impact of currency misalignment on the trade balance of emerging market economies from 1980 through 2016. It firstly measures the equilibrium RER and corresponding misalignment series of 21 EMEs separately adopting a single equation approach and then includes them in the trade regression together with undervaluation and overvaluation to estimate the dynamic relationship between the trade balance and real exchange rate misalignment employing the system generalized method of moment estimation approach. The study suggests that, being a composite series of undervaluation and overvaluation, higher real exchange rate misalignment helps recover trade imbalances. It also identifies that undervaluation improves trade balance, while overvaluation cuts it down. The study identifies that the misalignment series of RER for most of the EMEs are substantially dominated by overvaluation episodes, and hence the opposing impact of undervaluation and currency misalignment on the trade balance of EMEs is not surprising. From the policy perspective, competitiveness achieved through currency movements helps emerging market economies not only to improve trade balance but also to withstand vulnerability that arises from huge external borrowings creating a strong external payment position.
This study explores the economic impact of population emigration with special reference to the case of Lithuania. For this reason, we developed a SVAR model and applied related IRF and FEVD tools using quarterly data for the period of 2001-2020. Our findings reveal that a positive shock in emigration is related to lower unemployment. It is also found that the increased emigration is linked to higher real wage growth but with a lower confidence interval. Moreover, our estimates suggest that international out-migration increases real GDP growth in the short term, with no significant effects in the long run perspective. Finally, we found that most of the emigrants-to-be were inactive for a long term prior to departure, which offers a new look into the consequences of Lithuanian emigration, suggesting that the economic losses of emigration could be overstated. This study contributes to the knowledge about the impact of emigration on the economy and specifies directions for further studies in the field.
The paper explores the impact of uncertainty on bank liquidity hoarding, particularly providing new insights on the nature of the impact by bank-level heterogeneity. We consider the cross-sectional dispersion of shocks to key bank variables to estimate uncertainty in the banking sector and include all banking items to construct a comprehensive measure of bank liquidity hoarding. Using a sample of Vietnamese banks during 2007–2019, we document that banks tend to increase total liquidity hoarding in response to higher uncertainty; this pattern is still valid for on- and off-balance sheet liquidity hoarding. Further analysis with bank-level heterogeneity indicates that the impact of banking uncertainty on liquidity hoarding is significantly stronger for weaker banks, i. e., banks that are smaller, more poorly capitalized, and riskier. In testing the “search for yield” hypothesis to explain the linkage between uncertainty and bank liquidity hoarding, we do not find it to be the case. Our findings remain extremely robust after multiple robustness tests.
This paper examines the behavior of the real exchange rate in Egypt over the period 1965–2018 by attempting to pursue three interrelated purposes. The first is to investigate the extent of deviations between the actual exchange rate and its equilibrium level and illustrate the magnitude of any currency misalignments. The second is to search for the different phases of over- and undervaluation of the local currency and explain the accompanying economic policies and/or factors leading to them. The third and ultimate purpose is to explore the role of transitory and permanent factors in deviating the actual real exchange rate from its equilibrium level. Understanding these factors should help in the design of economic policies directed to address the misalignment of the local currency. An autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bound test approach is used and conducted for both the bilateral and effective real exchange rates to achieve these three purposes during the selected period. To derive the equilibrium exchange rate estimate, the behavioral equilibrium exchange rate (BEER) approach is adopted. The findings reveal that the Egyptian pound was misaligned from its equilibrium value during most of the examined period. The results confirm the relative importance of the terms of trade and degree of openness variables in determining the equilibrium real exchange rate in Egypt followed by investment ratio and government consumption variables. The local currency witnessed a recent phase of overvaluation, which began in 2009, until the free float of the local currency in November 2016, after which, the Egyptian pound was found to have experienced a new phase of undervaluation till the end of the period examined. The findings show a considerable relative impact of fundamental-based factors over a prolonged period spanning from 1986 to 2003 and at the end of the period examined as well. Moreover, the documented results lend general support to the fact that both permanent or fundamental-based factors and short-run shocks prove to be important influential factors impacting currency misalignment in Egypt.
The purpose of this paper is to determine whether there was information flow between the stock markets of Zimbabwe and South Africa during the time the Zimbabwean economy was dollarized. The author used econophysics-based Shannonian and Rényian transfer entropy estimates to establish the flow of information between the markets in tranquil periods as well as at the tails of return distributions. The only significant Shannonian transfer entropy estimate was from Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) resources index to Zimbabwe Stock Exchange (ZSE) mining index. The findings show that the only significant tail dependence was between JSE All Share Index (JALSH) and ZSE Mining on the one hand, and between JSE Resources and ZSE Mining on the other hand. However, the magnitudes of the effective transfer entropy values are relatively low, showing that there are weak linkages between the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange and the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. The lack of significant information flows between the exchanges of the two countries offer opportunities to fund managers for portfolio diversification. From a government point of view, it is imperative that the tempo of economic and political reform be accelerated so that integration between the markets can be fast-tracked. Integrated markets will benefit Zimbabwe as this will reduce the cost of equity and accelerate economic growth.
Technological advancements bring continuous changes into the investment industry. The paper aims to provide insights on future research agenda based on a review of the current stance of research on the links between the Robo-advisors phenomenon and behavioural biases of individual investors. A qualitative investigation method has been applied for literature review on Robo-advisors and their impact on behavioural biases.
The key findings indicate that Robo-advisors can help users to make better informed and less biased decisions. However, Robo-advisors activate the investors’ automatic system processes. The resulting passive investment approach could lead to alienation of the investors from the stock market, decreasing their understanding of the investment process that could widen a gap between different clusters of investors.
The paper makes several contributions to the literature. First, it provides arguments on why a dual process theoretical framework in the relationship between financial advisory and investment behavioural biases is applicable. Second, it studies the Robo-advisor phenomenon and proposes a comprehensive definition of Robo-advisors. Third, the literature review suggests drivers of the Robo-advisors effect on the changes of behavioural biases as a future research direction.
This study examines the interactive effect of tax planning and corporate governance on the financial performance of 50 non-financial quoted companies in Nigeria between 2007 and 2018. The study sample that covers 9 sectors was selected purposively through stratified random sampling. Data used were collected from the audited annual reports and accounts of selected quoted companies in Nigeria and fact books published by the Nigeria Stock Exchange. A system GMM was employed to estimate the dynamic models, and results show that ownership structure (OS) and capital intensity (CI) exerted a significant and positive impact on the returns on assets. This implies that OS plays a significant role to ensure that CI triggers an increase in the return on assets of the quoted Nigerian companies. However, board diversity and thin capitalization wielded a significant and negative influence on return on assets. This study thus recommends that companies should put in place a strong corporate governance mechanism that will monitor, check and balance tax planning activities and strategies adopted by the management of quoted companies in Nigeria.
Over the past two decades, the study of entrepreneurship and its importance to the economy has increased in appeal to academics, practitioners and governments. This study explores entrepreneurship in small island economies within regions based on Total Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) and Established Business Ownership (EBO) as observed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) dataset. This research uses the pooled regression model to study the impact of TEA and EBO on economic growth. The findings highlight that new venture creation is a driver that improves gross domestic product (GDP); however, there are significant differences across SIDS in the orientation of TEA and EBO that suggest that other contextual issues like culture, education system, and entrepreneurial support elements influence entrepreneurial behaviour across regions as well. The more advanced of these nations like Singapore and Puerto Rico benefit from knowledge networks and scientific mobility, while the smaller economies in the Caribbean and Pacific Region show less openness to pursuing entrepreneurial endeavours. These findings provide a foundation for further research on varying types of combinations of both economic factors and contextual differences that lend to the transitioning process towards an emerging economy.
With the long history of the relationship between Indonesia and China, various sentiments may arise and influence the consumer purchasing decision. This study aims to determine the impact of animosity towards China, religiosity, and allocentrism of the Indonesians on the intention to purchase Chinese brands smartphones, mediated by consumer ethnocentrism and brand image. This study has 215 valid responses and was carried out using SPSS 25. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was performed using AMOS 22. The results show that consumer ethnocentrism is significantly influenced by animosity, religiosity, and allocentrism. Brand image can mediate between consumer ethnocentrism and purchase intention. This study gives a better understanding of Indonesian consumer ethnocentrism with animosity towards China, religiosity, and allocentrism, which will affect the Chinese brand image and Indonesians’ intention to purchase the product.