adjusted logistic regression
Recently Published Documents





Gillian M. Maher ◽  
Ali S. Khashan ◽  
Fergus P. McCarthy

Abstract Purpose To examine the association between mode of delivery (in particular caesarean section) and behavioural outcomes in offspring at six time-points between age 3 and 17 years. Methods Similar to previous work examining the association between mode of delivery and behavioural outcomes in offspring at age 7, we used maternal-reported data from the Millennium Cohort Study. Data on mode of delivery were collected when children were 9 months and categorised as spontaneous vaginal delivery, assisted vaginal delivery, induced vaginal delivery, emergency caesarean section, planned caesarean section and caesarean section after induction of labor. Data on behavioural outcomes were collected at ages 3, 5, 7, 11, 14 and 17 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Crude and adjusted logistic regression examined mode of delivery–behavioural difficulties relationship, using validated SDQ cut-off points (total SDQ ≥ 17, emotional ≥ 5, conduct ≥ 4, hyperactivity ≥ 7, peer problems ≥ 4 and prosocial behaviour ≤ 4). Multilevel models with linear splines examined the association between mode of delivery and repeated measures of SDQ. Results There were 18,213 singleton mother–child pairs included at baseline, 13,600 at age 3; 13,831 at age 5; 12,687 at age 7; 11,055 at age 11; 10,745 at age 14 and 8839 at age 17. Adjusted logistic regression suggested few associations between mode of delivery and behavioural outcomes at ages 3, 5, 11, 14 and 17 years using validated SDQ cut-off points. After correction for multiple testing, only the protective association between planned caesarean section-Conduct difficulties at age 5 years (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.46, 0.85) and positive association between caesarean section after induction-Emotional difficulties at age 11 years (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.19, 2.07) remained statistically significant. Multilevel modelling suggested mean SDQ scores were similar in each mode of delivery group at each time point. Conclusions Results of this study indicate that mode of delivery is unlikely to have a major impact on behavioural outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Keiko Kabasawa ◽  
Michihiro Hosojima ◽  
Yumi Ito ◽  
Kazuo Matsushima ◽  
Junta Tanaka ◽  

Abstract Background Although metabolic syndrome traits are risk factors for chronic kidney disease, few studies have examined their association with urinary biomarkers. Methods Urinary biomarkers, including A-megalin, C-megalin, podocalyxin, albumin, α1-microglobulin, β2-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, were cross-sectionally assessed in 347 individuals (52.7% men) with a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR)  < 300 mg/g in a health checkup. Metabolic syndrome traits were adopted from the National Cholesterol Education Program (third revision) of the Adult Treatment Panel criteria modified for Asians. Results Participants had a mean body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and median ACR of 23.0 kg/m2, 74.8 mL/min/1.73 m2, and 7.5 mg/g, respectively. In age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression analysis, A-megalin and albumin were significantly associated with the clustering number of metabolic syndrome traits (3 or more). After further adjustment with eGFR, higher quartiles of A-megalin and albumin were each independently associated with the clustering number of metabolic syndrome traits (adjusted odds ratio for A-megalin: 1.30 per quartile, 95% CI 1.03–1.64; albumin: 1.42 per quartile, 95% CI 1.12–1.79). Conclusions Both urinary A-megalin and albumin are associated with the clustering number of metabolic syndrome traits. Further research on urinary A-megalin is warranted to examine its role as a potential marker of kidney damage from metabolic risk factors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (3) ◽  
pp. 26-30
Oscar H. Del Brutto ◽  
Robertino M. Mera

Abstract Background: This study assesses whether pineal gland calcification (PGC) – a surrogate for reduced endogenous melatonin production – is associated with significant stenosis of large intracranial arteries – a biomarker of intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD). Methods: Individuals aged ≥60 years enrolled in the Three Villages Study received head CT to assess PGC and MRA to estimate stenosis of large intracranial arteries. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to assess the association between PGC and ICAD, after adjusting for relevant confounders. Inverse probability of exposure weighting was used to estimate the effect of PGC on ICAD. Results: A total of 581 individuals were enrolled. PGC and ICAD were associated in a fully-adjusted logistic regression model (p=0.032). Inverse probability of exposure weighting showed an estimate for the proportion of ICAD among those without PGC of 3.7% and the adjusted-effect coefficient was 5.7% higher among those with PGC (p=0.031). Conclusions: PGC is associated with ICAD. Study results provide grounds for evaluating the role of melatonin deficiency in ICAD progression. Keywords: Pineal gland calcification, intracranial atherosclerosis, stenosis of large intracranial arteries, melatonin; population study, older adults

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Kyung-Sun Na ◽  
Su-Kyung Jung ◽  
Younhea Jung ◽  
Kyungdo Han ◽  
Jiyoung Lee ◽  

AbstractCataract and blepharoptosis are both commonly encountered ophthalmic problems in older adults. Since they share similar risk factors, it is plausible that there may be an association between the two conditions. We examined data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010–2012 to determine if there is an association between age-related cataract and blepharoptosis. Multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for association of each specific type of cataract with presence of blepharoptosis. Of the 10,387 eligible participants, 4782 (46.0%) had cataract and 1419 (15.8%) had blepharoptosis. There were more participants with blepharoptosis in the cataract group, compared with those in the no cataract group. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants with blepharoptosis had a higher risk of total cataract (OR: 1.557, 95% CI 1.201–2.019) and nuclear subtype cataract (OR: 1.305, 95% CI 1.050–1.620). Blepharoptosis was associated with significantly higher odds of cataract in obese participants when compared with non-obese participants (p for interaction = 0.0236). Our study revealed a positive association between age-related cataract and blepharoptosis; it suggests that thorough ophthalmic assessment is needed when assessing patients who are planning cataract or blepharoptosis surgery.

Yeonwoo Kim ◽  
Sehun Oh ◽  
Paul J. Fadel ◽  
Christopher P. Salas-Wright ◽  
Michael G. Vaughn

Despite the adverse effects of substance use on health among individuals with preexisting cardiovascular disease (CVD), little is known about trends and correlates for substance use among individuals with CVD. We examined trends of use in tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis among US adults with heart disease. Using nationally representative data from the 2015–2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N = 7339), we conducted survey-adjusted logistic regression analyses to test the significance of trends in substance use while controlling for sociodemographic factors and related correlates. Results showed that the prevalence of cannabis use among adults with a heart condition significantly increased. Notably, the prevalence of cannabis use increased by 91% among non-Hispanic Whites, while the increasing trends were not present among other racial/ethnic groups. Our results also showed that increase in cannabis use was associated with easier access, lower disapproval, and risk perceptions of cannabis. Special attention is needed to raise awareness of the risk associated with cannabis use among individuals with CVD and the implementation of an early screening and treatment strategy among those with CVD.

2022 ◽  
Teresita Rocha-Jiménez ◽  
Sonia Morales-Miranda ◽  
Carmen Fernández-Casanueva ◽  
Jay G. Silverman ◽  
María Luisa Zúñiga ◽  

AbstractThe goal of this paper is to determine the association between traveling to engage in sex work in another country and recent access to HIV testing among substance-using female sex workers (FSWs) in the Mexico–Guatemala border region. From 2012 to 2015, through modified time-location sampling and peer referral, 255 FSWs were recruited at Mexico’s southern border. Participants completed questionnaires on sociodemographics, migration and mobility experiences, work environment factors, and substance use. A conceptual framework, as depicted by a directed acyclic graph (DAG), guided our analysis. Crude and adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between mobility experiences and HIV testing in the past year. Overall HIV testing was low (41%); after considering relevant covariates (i.e., interaction with health services and organizations, and sex work characteristics) traveling to engage in sex work in another country was found to be positively associated with HIV testing in the past year. Future efforts need to consider voluntary and non-stigmatizing prevention HIV services and focus on reaching out to less mobile women.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. e000602
Stephen J Balevic ◽  
Daniel Weiner ◽  
Megan E B Clowse ◽  
Amanda M Eudy ◽  
Anil R Maharaj ◽  

ObjectiveEvaluate the impact of pregnancy physiology and medication non-adherence on serum hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) pharmacokinetics (PK) and exposure-response in SLE.MethodsWe conducted a PK analysis using data from two observational pregnancy registries. We enrolled pregnant women with SLE taking HCQ at least 3 months prior to, and throughout pregnancy, and excluded those with multiple gestations. Using the PK model, we conducted dosing simulations and imputed 0%/20%/40%/60% non-adherence to evaluate the impact of adherence versus physiological changes on HCQ concentrations. We compared the effect of pregnancy-average non-adherent concentrations (≤100 ng/mL vs >100 ng/mL) on preterm birth using adjusted logistic regression.ResultsWe enrolled 56 women who had 61 pregnancies. By the third trimester, mean apparent HCQ clearance increased by 59.6%. At a dosage of 400 mg/day, fully adherent patients are expected to have HCQ concentrations ≤100 ng/mL only 0.3% of the time, compared with 24.2% when 60% of doses are missed. Persistently low HCQ concentrations throughout pregnancy were associated with a significantly higher odds of preterm birth, controlling for lupus nephritis and race (OR 11.2; 95% CI 2.3 to 54.2; p=0.003).ConclusionsWe observed significant changes in HCQ PK during pregnancy, resulting in a shortening in the drug’s half-life by 10 days; however, medication non-adherence had a more pronounced effect on HCQ exposure compared with physiological changes alone. Moreover, pregnant women with non-adherent HCQ concentrations had significantly higher rates of preterm birth. Accordingly, optimising adherence in pregnancy may be more clinically meaningful than adjusting HCQ dosage to account for physiological changes. PK modelling indicates that serum HCQ concentrations ≤100 ng/mL are suggestive of non-adherence regardless of trimester and may help identify pregnancies at risk for poor outcomes.

BMJ Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. e050672
Markku Partinen ◽  
Brigitte Holzinger ◽  
Charles M Morin ◽  
Colin Espie ◽  
Frances Chung ◽  

ObjectivesSleep is important for human health and well-being. No previous study has assessed whether the COVID-19 pandemic impacts sleep and daytime function across the globe.MethodsThis large-scale international survey used a harmonised questionnaire. Fourteen countries participated during the period of May–August 2020. Sleep and daytime problems (poor sleep quality, sleep onset and maintenance problems, nightmares, hypnotic use, fatigue and excessive sleepiness) occurring ‘before’ and ‘during’ the pandemic were investigated. In total, 25 484 people participated and 22 151 (86.9%) responded to the key parameters and were included. Effects of COVID-19, confinement and financial suffering were considered. In the fully adjusted logistic regression models, results (weighted and stratified by country) were adjusted for gender, age, marital status, educational level, ethnicity, presence of sleep problems before COVID-19 and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic in each country at the time of the survey.ResultsThe responders were mostly women (64%) with a mean age 41.8 (SD 15.9) years (median 39, range 18–95). Altogether, 3.0% reported having had COVID-19; 42.2% reported having been in confinement; and 55.9% had suffered financially. All sleep and daytime problems worsened during the pandemic by about 10% or more. Also, some participants reported improvements in sleep and daytime function. For example, sleep quality worsened in about 20% of subjects and improved in about 5%. COVID-19 was particularly associated with poor sleep quality, early morning awakening and daytime sleepiness. Confinement was associated with poor sleep quality, problems falling asleep and decreased use of hypnotics. Financial suffering was associated with all sleep and daytime problems, including nightmares and fatigue, even in the fully adjusted logistic regression models.ConclusionsSleep problems, fatigue and excessive sleepiness increased significantly worldwide during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Problems were associated with confinement and especially with financial suffering.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 791-791
Carrie Karvonen-Gutierrez ◽  
Michelle Hood ◽  
Joshua Ehrlich ◽  
Richard Neitzel ◽  
Kelly Ylitalo

Abstract This study evaluated the relationship between individual and combined sensory impairments (vision, hearing, peripheral nerve (PN)) with recurrent falls in the past year among 1951 women (mean age 65.6 years) from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Sensory impairments were defined as self-reported vision difficulty, hearing loss, or ≥4 on the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument. Recurrent falls were defined as ≥2 self-reported falls. Hearing was the most commonly reported impairment (39.2%), followed by vision (22.1%) and PN (16.0%). Among those with any impairments, 7.0% of women reported impairments in all domains. Recurrent falls were more common among women with vision (19.4%), hearing (17.3%), or PN impairments (24.7%) as compared to women without sensory impairments (7.0%). The greatest burden of recurrent falls was among women with all three sensory impairments; one-third (34.6%) of women with vision, hearing and PN impairment were recurrent fallers. In an adjusted logistic regression model, vision, hearing, and PN impairments were associated with statistically significantly higher odds of recurrent falls in the past year (odds ratio (OR) = 1.58, 1.76, 2.11, respectively; all p&lt;0.01), after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, economic strain, and depressive symptoms. The presence of all three sensory impairments was associated with nearly 6-fold increased odds of recurrent falls (OR=5.65, 95% CI 3.25, 9.82) compared to women with no impairments. Sensory impairments often onset during mid-life and early late adulthood. This work demonstrates that these impairments are associated with falls and that women with impairments across multiple sensory domains are at greatest risk.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 51-51
Tali Elfassy ◽  
Filippa Juul ◽  
Robert Mesa ◽  
Latha Palaniappan ◽  
Malathi Srinivasan ◽  

Abstract Asian American (AA) diets are naturally adapted to the NOVA dietary recommendations, favoring minimally processed foods. Yet the relationship between dietary intake and metabolic health, among AAs is largely unknown. We examined the association between ultra-processed foods and cardiometabolic health (obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes), among US adults 50 or older reporting a single ethnicity, using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2018). From multivariable adjusted logistic regression models, the highest compared to the lowest quartile of ultra-processed food intake was associated with obesity only, among AAs (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.04, 4.45), followed by non-Hispanic blacks (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.40, 2.14), non-Hispanic whites (OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.68), and Hispanics (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.65). AAs are more likely than other ethnic/racial groups to be obese when consuming ultra-processed foods. Cultural adaptation of current North American-focused dietary recommendations should drive AA preventive dietary recommendations.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document