scholarly journals Obstetrical mode of delivery and behavioural outcomes in childhood and adolescence: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study

Gillian M. Maher ◽  
Ali S. Khashan ◽  
Fergus P. McCarthy

Abstract Purpose To examine the association between mode of delivery (in particular caesarean section) and behavioural outcomes in offspring at six time-points between age 3 and 17 years. Methods Similar to previous work examining the association between mode of delivery and behavioural outcomes in offspring at age 7, we used maternal-reported data from the Millennium Cohort Study. Data on mode of delivery were collected when children were 9 months and categorised as spontaneous vaginal delivery, assisted vaginal delivery, induced vaginal delivery, emergency caesarean section, planned caesarean section and caesarean section after induction of labor. Data on behavioural outcomes were collected at ages 3, 5, 7, 11, 14 and 17 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Crude and adjusted logistic regression examined mode of delivery–behavioural difficulties relationship, using validated SDQ cut-off points (total SDQ ≥ 17, emotional ≥ 5, conduct ≥ 4, hyperactivity ≥ 7, peer problems ≥ 4 and prosocial behaviour ≤ 4). Multilevel models with linear splines examined the association between mode of delivery and repeated measures of SDQ. Results There were 18,213 singleton mother–child pairs included at baseline, 13,600 at age 3; 13,831 at age 5; 12,687 at age 7; 11,055 at age 11; 10,745 at age 14 and 8839 at age 17. Adjusted logistic regression suggested few associations between mode of delivery and behavioural outcomes at ages 3, 5, 11, 14 and 17 years using validated SDQ cut-off points. After correction for multiple testing, only the protective association between planned caesarean section-Conduct difficulties at age 5 years (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.46, 0.85) and positive association between caesarean section after induction-Emotional difficulties at age 11 years (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.19, 2.07) remained statistically significant. Multilevel modelling suggested mean SDQ scores were similar in each mode of delivery group at each time point. Conclusions Results of this study indicate that mode of delivery is unlikely to have a major impact on behavioural outcomes.

Ine Tavano ◽  
Susanne Housmans ◽  
Jan Bosteels ◽  
Jan Baekelandt

<b><i>Study Objective:</i></b> Vaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (vNOTES) is a novel minimal invasive surgical technique allowing a variety of gynecological procedures. The current literature describes improved patient comfort, improved better cosmetic results, and reduced operation time. This is a first study to assess pregnancy outcome after fertility-preserving vNOTES procedures. <b><i>Design/Participants/Materials/Setting/Methods:</i></b> We performed a retrospective observational cohort study including 125 patients under 43 years that underwent fertility-preserving vNOTES over a 5-year period (2014–2019). The gynecological surgical procedures included were vNOTES myomectomy, vNOTES salpingectomy for ectopic pregnancy, vNOTES unilateral adnexectomy, and vNOTES cystectomy. A total of 26 pregnancies in 21 cases were observed, with deliveries between 2015 and 2020. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Retrospective analysis in this patient group showed that 18 pregnancies were diagnosed within 1 year after vNOTES (85.7%). Mean interval between surgery and pregnancy was 6 months. Fertility treatment was performed in 28.6%. In the 26 observed pregnancies, no vNOTES-related complications were observed and delivery was at term in all cases. Mode of delivery was a vaginal delivery in twenty cases (76.9% of total) of which 2 cases vacuum assisted (7.7%) and a Caesarean section in 6 cases (23.1% of total). Two cases of trial of labor after Caesarean are described after vNOTES surgery, both ended in an uncomplicated vaginal delivery. In case of vaginal delivery, the perineum was intact in 15%, a mediolateral episiotomy was performed in 50 and 35% a grade 1–2 perineal rupture was described. No grade 3–4 perineal ruptures are described. <b><i>Limitations:</i></b> A limitation of this study is the retrospective design which does not correct for confounding factors. Further larger multicenter studies are needed to validate these data. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> This is the first study describing pregnancy outcome after fertility-preserving vNOTES procedures. vNOTES did not affect the mode of delivery or cause pregnancy-related complications. vNOTES did not increase the risk of extensive perineal tears during vaginal delivery. These preliminary data show no adverse events when vNOTES is performed in women of reproductive age. Posterior colpotomy as performed in all vNOTES procedures is by itself not an indication for an elective Caesarean section.

2018 ◽  
Vol 41 (3) ◽  
pp. 456-461 ◽  
Robert J Noonan

Abstract Background The study aims were to: (i) examine associations between deprivation at age 7 and health outcomes at age 7 and 14, (ii) determine whether a deprivation gradient to health outcomes exists at age 7 and 14, and (iii) assess the extent to which health outcomes at age 7 are associated with health outcomes at age 14. Methods Data were from wave four and six of the Millennium Cohort Study. Health outcome measures were weight status, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire measured mental health problems. Deprivation was determined using the 2004 English Indices of Multiple Deprivation. Adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic regressions were conducted. Results A total of 6109 children (1890 girls) had complete data. Overweight, obesity and mental health problems were greatest among children in the highest deprivation decile at age 7 and 14 (P < 0.001). Health outcomes at age 7 were significantly associated with health outcomes at age 14 (P < 0.001). Conclusions A marked social gradient to weight status and mental health was evident at age 7 and 14, and no evidence of equalization was found. Weight status and mental health in childhood is strongly associated with weight status and mental health in adolescence.

1970 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 12-15
Nira S Shrestha ◽  
Sumita Pradhan

Objectives: To evaluate the knowledge and attitude of Nepalese women towards mode of delivery and caesarean on demand. Study design: Hospital based cross sectional descriptive study where 200 pregnant women after 37 completed weeks of gestation were recruited randomly and interviewed, and their answers were analyzed. Results: Of the 200 interviewed pregnant women, all of them knew about normal vaginal delivery and caesarean delivery, but only 30% knew about instrumentally assisted delivery and 9% had heard about painless labour. Vaginal delivery was the preferred mode in 93% and 7% preferred caesarean delivery. Only 35% of the interviewed women believed that women should have the right to demand a caesarean section Conclusion: Knowledge assessment of two hundred women regarding the mode of delivery clearly indicates the need for strengthening counseling aspect of antenatal care and awareness program regarding mode of delivery. In Nepal on demand caesarean section is not provided in the University Teaching Hospital. However one third of women still felt that women should have the right to choose caesarean section on demand. Key words: Attitude, mode of delivery, Caesarean on demand. doi:10.3126/njog.v2i2.1448 N. J. Obstet. Gynaecol 2007 Nov-Dec; 2 (2): 12 - 15

2021 ◽  
pp. bjophthalmol-2021-320315
Lisanne Andra Horvat-Gitsels ◽  
Mario Cortina-Borja ◽  
Ameenat Lola Solebo ◽  
Jugnoo Sangeeta Rahi

Background/aimsInvestigate if impaired vision is associated with reduced levels and differences in types of physical activity (PA) to identify barriers or enablers to achieving healthy PA levels.MethodsData from the Millennium Cohort Study of children born in the UK in 2000–2001 and followed-up to age 14 years (n=11 571). Using parental report on eye conditions coded by clinicians, children were categorised as having no, unilateral or bilateral impaired vision. Outcomes included objective accelerometer-derived time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and 16 PA types reported by parents, teachers and/or participants, covering physical education (PE), organised sports, self-organised sports and hobbies.ResultsOverall, 50% of 7-year-olds and subsequently 41% as 14-year-olds achieved the internationally recommended level of ≥60 MVPA min/day, irrespective of vision status, and mainly attributable to PE and organised sports. Bilateral impaired vision (vs none) was associated with parent-reported difficulties with PE (adjusted OR, 4.67; 95% CI, 2.31 to 9.41), self-rated poor ability in PE (3.21; 1.44 to 7.15) and not enjoy indoor PA (0.48; 0.26 to 0.88). Unilateral impaired vision was associated with both parent-rated difficulties (1.80; 1.26 to 2.59) and teachers’ perception of low ability in PE (2.27; 1.57 to 3.28), and reduced odds of high participation in organised sports (0.77; 0.59 to 0.99). Age-related trajectories showed suboptimal PA in childhood tracked into adolescence, with no difference by vision status.ConclusionPopulation-wide programmes to increase PA levels in children should pay special attention to those with impaired vision and include early interventions to encourage participation and confidence in PE and organised sports, starting in primary school and maintained afterwards.

I. Cotter ◽  
C. Healy ◽  
R. King ◽  
DR. Cotter ◽  
M. Cannon

Abstract Background. Abnormal body mass index (BMI) has been associated with development of psychopathology. This association in children is well documented, for both overweight and underweight children. However, the association between change in BMI and the development of psychopathology has been less investigated. Aim. To investigate the association between change in BMI between childhood and adolescence and psychopathology in adolescence. Methods. Data from the Growing Up in Ireland cohort were used. We investigated the ’98 cohort (also known as the child cohort) at age 9/13. BMI, defined using internationally recognised definitions as underweight, healthy or overweight, was used as the exposure, and abnormal Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire scores were used as the outcome. Logistic regression was undertaken for the analysis. All analyses were adjusted for confounders. Results. A change to overweight from healthy BMI was significantly associated with increased risk of psychopathology (adjusted OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.19–2.32). Both change from underweight to healthy (adjusted OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.03–0.43) or from overweight to healthy (adjusted OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.79–0.8) was associated with a significantly reduced risk of developing psychopathology. Discussion. As a child’s BMI returns to within the healthy range, their risk of adolescent psychopathology is reduced. Interventions to restore healthy BMI, in both underweight and overweight, children may reduce their risk of adolescent psychopathology.

2020 ◽  
Vol 2020 ◽  
pp. 1-6 ◽  
Jong Youn Moon ◽  
Jesang Lee ◽  
Yoon Hyung Park ◽  
Eun-Cheol Park ◽  
Si Hyung Lee

Purpose. To determine the incidence of keratoconus and to determine its possible association with common systemic diseases using a nationwide cohort. Methods. This retrospective nationwide cohort study included 1,025,340 subjects from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database from 2004 to 2013. Estimates for incidence rates of keratoconus were identified. After 1 : 5 matching using propensity scores, associations between keratoconus and certain systemic comorbidities were determined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results. The incidence during the same period was 15.1 cases per 100,000 person-years. Adjusted logistic regression analysis after propensity score matching revealed significant associations between keratoconus and allergic rhinitis (odds ratio (OR): 1.86; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.63–2.13; p<0.001), asthma (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.06–1.36; p<0.001), atopic dermatitis (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13–1.56; p<0.001), and diabetes mellitus (DM) (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.15–1.58; p<0.001). Conclusion. Estimates of the incidence of keratoconus may help in the planning of eye-care policies, and the results of this study determined the associations between allergic diseases and keratoconus. Conflicting results regarding the association between keratoconus and DM should be further evaluated.

2019 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 23-26
Mahe Jabeen ◽  
Sabiha Shimul ◽  
Ummay Salma ◽  

Introduction: Compared with a fetus with cephalic presentation, a breech fetus faces increased risk during labour and delivery of asphyxia from cord compression and of traumatic injury during delivery of the shoulders and head. Caesarean section avoids most of this risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of vaginal delivery of uncomplicated singleton breech presentation by evaluating early neonatal morbidity and mortality as well as maternal morbidity following vaginal and caesarean delivery for breech presentation. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional comparative study.104 women with singleton breech presentation at term in labour were included consequetively in labour ward of Institute of Child and Mother Health (ICMH). Informed consent was taken from them. Neonatal and maternal outcome were recorded and statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 22. Results: APGAR at 5 min and Neonatal Intensive Care Unite (NICU) admission were not affected by mode of delivery. Long term neonatal outcome is similar in either mode of delivery. Maternal morbidity and duration of hospital stay is increased in caesarean births. Conclusion: Neonatal outcome did not depend on mode of delivery though maternal morbidity and cost of care is increased following Caesarean Section. Proper selection of cases and by improving skill & confidence in new generation obstetrician, vaginal delivery of singleton fetuses in breech presentation at term remains a safe option that can be offered to a woman in a tertiary care centre. Medicine Today 2019 Vol.31(1): 23-26

Mahnaz Zarshenas ◽  
Yun Zhao ◽  
Colin W. Binns ◽  
Jane A. Scott

The rate of Caesarean section (CS) without medical indication has increased markedly worldwide in the past decades. This study reports the incidence of CS and identifies the determinants of elective and emergency CS as separate pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of Iranian women. Mothers (n = 700) of healthy, full-term infants were recruited from five maternity hospitals in Shiraz. The association between maternal socio-demographic and biomedical factors with mode of delivery was explored using multivariable, multinomial logistic regression. Most mothers underwent either an elective (35.4%) or emergency (34.7%) CS. After adjustment, women were more likely to deliver by elective CS than vaginally if they were older (≥30 year) compared to younger mothers (<25 year) (Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) 2.22; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.28, 3.84), and had given birth at a private hospital (RRR 3.64; 95% CI 1.79, 7.38). Compared to those educated to primary or lower secondary level, university educated women were more likely to have undergone an elective (RRR 2.65; 95% CI 1.54, 4.58) or an emergency CS (RRR 3.92; 95% CI 2.27, 6.78) than a vaginal delivery. Similarly, overweight or obese women were more likely than healthy weight women to have undergone an elective (RRR 1.91; 95% CI 1.27, 2.87) or an emergency CS (RRR 2.02; 95% CI 1.35, 3.02) than a vaginal delivery. Specialist education of obstetricians and midwives along with financial incentives paid to private hospitals to encourage natural delivery may help in the reduction of unnecessary CS in Iran. In addition, to increase their childbirth knowledge and self-efficacy, pregnant women need to have the opportunity to attend purposefully designed antenatal childbirth preparation classes where they receive evidence-based information on natural childbirth and alternative methods of pain control, as well as the risks and indications for CS.

Manorama Eti ◽  
Sunitha C. ◽  
Sarojamma C. ◽  
Sai Lakshmi M. P. A.

Background: Childbirth has a profound influence in a women’s life. One factor that has been more consistently identified as influencing the women’s physical and psychological symptoms following childbirth is the mode of birth.  This study aims at figuring out on women’s satisfaction with their mode of delivery and what difficulties they faced in the immediate postnatal period accordingly.Methods: All women who delivered between the period 1st July 2019 to 1st August 2019 were interviewed with a pretested semi structured questionnaire on postnatal day two. Patient was asked how much they were satisfied with their mode of delivery, immediate postnatal adjustments like ambulation, holding the baby first time, initiation of breastfeeding and pain score following different modes of delivery. The data was analysed to find out which mode of delivery made women more comfortable in the immediate postnatal period.Results: A total 97.1% women were satisfied with the support they got from health care professionals during labour. But when compared, spontaneous vaginal delivery group were satisfied with their mode of delivery (P-value-0.0005 highly significant) than the rest. Women who had vaginal delivery were ahead of caesarean group in terms of ambulation, holding the baby, initiation of breastfeeding and were well adjusted in their postnatal period.Conclusions: Authors conclude that women in our study were more satisfied with spontaneous vaginal delivery than caesarean section which was reflected in their immediate postnatal adjustments. As obstetricians’ authors need to understand the empowering effects of the psychological experience of vaginal delivery. The benefits of this process can be maximized through good communication skills and emotional support for women, enhancing their confidence to deliver normally so that caesarean section is done only when really indicated.

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