General Approach for Estimating the Energy Efficiency of Cooling in Positive Displacement Compressors

V. E. Shcherba ◽  
V. V. Shalai ◽  
A. V. Grigoryev ◽  
E. A. Pavlyuchenko ◽  
A. Yu. Ovsyannikov
Trygve Dahl

Abstract Energy efficiency is emphasized more actively across the pump industry. Legislation in the European Union and in the United States utilize new energy efficiency ranking metrics, but neither of these methods are conveniently applied to customer specified load conditions. True Weighted Efficiency, or TWE, is introduced as a general-purpose, universal pump efficiency metric for pumps operating under multiple operating conditions. The TWE is derived accurately from first principles, using generalized load profiles that include control curves, multiple discrete operating points based on those control curves, and the time of operation at each operating point. A pump selection/optimization program is used to numerically demonstrate the TWE method. Various examples are presented, contrasting candidate pumps based on three different optimization strategies. The study reveals that the pump with the best design point efficiency may not be the best choice from a TWE or an evaluated cost perspective. This method is applicable to rotodynamic or positive displacement pumps operating at fixed or variable speed, on/off operation, throttle control, or by-pass control. and other turbomachinery as well. The TWE methodology, when combined with a pump selection/optimization program, will help practitioners design systems that reduce energy consumption for new or reconfigured pump applications.

V. A. Spirin ◽  
V. E. Nikol’skii ◽  
D. V. Vokhmintsev ◽  
A. A. Moiseev ◽  
P. G. Smirnov ◽  

At steel production based on scrap metal utilization, the scrap heating before charging into a melting facility is an important way of energy efficiency increase and ecological parameters improving. In winter time scrap metal charging with ice inclusions into a metal melt can result in a considerable damage of equipment and even accidents. Therefore, scrap preliminary drying is necessary to provide industrial safety. It was shown, that in countries with warm and low-snow climate with no risk of scrap metal icing up during its transportation and storing in the open air, the basic task being solved at the scrap drying is an increase of energy efficiency of steelmaking. InRussiathe scrap metal drying first of all provides the safety of the process and next - energy saving. Existing technologies of scrap metal drying and heating considered, as well as advantages and drawbacks of technical solutions used at Russian steel plants. In winter time during scrap metal heating at conveyers (Consteel process) hot gases penetrate not effectively into its mass, the heat is not enough for evaporation of wetness in the metal charge. At scrap heating by the furnace gases, a problem of dioxines emissions elimination arises. Application of shaft heaters results in high efficiency of scrap heating. However, under conditions of Russian winter the upper scrap layers are not always heated higher 0 °С and after getting into a furnace bath the upper scrap layers cause periodical vapor explosions. The shaft heaters create optimal conditions for dioxines formation, which emit into atmosphere. It was shown, that accounting Russian economic and nature conditions, the metal charge drying and heating in modified charging buckets by the heat of burnt natural gas or other additional fuel is optimal. The proposed technical solution enables to burnt off organic impurities ecologically safely, to melt down ice, to evaporate the wetness in the scrap as well as to heat the charge as enough as the charging logistics enables it. The method was implemented at several Russian steel plants. Technical and economical indices of scrap metal drying in buckets under conditions of EAF-based shop, containing two furnaces ДСП-100, presented.

2008 ◽  
pp. 108-125
K. Zavodov

Project-based transactions (PBTs) are a market mechanism of attracting foreign investments in order to abate greenhouse gas emissions and increase energy efficiency of the country’s enterprises. The article provides a classification and analyzes advantages and drawbacks of PBTs from the point of view of a host country. The main trends and factors determining the dynamics of the PBT market are described. Given that Russia currently lags behind the leaders of the PBT market, an incorporation of a state carbon fund is put forward with an aim of channelling PBTs through it. This paper proposes a form of PBT market regulation by incorporating an option mechanism into the contract structure of a transaction. A comparison of the new form of regulation with the tools that are currently in use in Russia and other countries demonstrates its greater economic efficiency under uncertainty.

Domenico Prisinzano ◽  
Alessandro Federici ◽  
Amalia Martelli ◽  
Chiara Martini ◽  
Roberto Moneta

Yuriy Spirin ◽  
Vladimir Puntusov

In the Kaliningrad region there are about 70 % of all polder lands in Russia. On these lands with high potential fertility, it is advisable to intensive agriculture. The area for the average moisture year is an area with excessive moisture, which indicates the need to maintain the rate of drainage on agricultural land. Many different factors play a role in ensuring the drainage rate, one of which is pumping stations and pumping equipment installed on them. An important parameter in the use of pump-power equipment is energy consumption, since in this industry it is a considerable expense item. Improving the energy efficiency of pumping stations on polders is a pressing issue today. At the majority of polder pumping stations, domestic power pumping equipment is installed with excess power and head of 4–8 meters, and a new one is selected based on the maximum possible head in a given place. In the Kaliningrad region, the energy efficiency of polder pumping equipment has never been analyzed. In this paper, a statistical processing of the geodesic pressure of water at the polder pumping stations of the Slavsk region for 2000–2002 was carried out. On the basis of these data and data on the hydraulic characteristics of pressure pipelines, the calculated water pressures were determined for the rational selection of pumping equipment. The calculation of the economic efficiency of pumps with optimal power compared with pumps of excess capacity. The results of the study can serve as a justification for the transition to the pumping equipment with less power and pressure, which will lead to a decrease in the cost of money for electricity.

2018 ◽  
pp. 113-119
Gennady Ya. Vagin ◽  
Eugene B. Solntsev ◽  
Oleg Yu. Malafeev

The article analyses critera applying to the choice of energy efficient high quality light sources and luminaires, which are used in Russian domestic and international practice. It is found that national standards GOST P 54993–2012 and GOST P 54992– 2012 contain outdated criteria for determining indices and classes of energy efficiency of light sources and luminaires. They are taken from the 1998 EU Directive #98/11/EU “Electric lamps”, in which LED light sources and discharge lamps of high intensity were not included. A new Regulation of the European Union #874/2012/EU on energy labelling of electric lamps and luminaires, in which these light sources are taken into consideration, contains a new technique of determining classes of energy efficiency and new, higher classes are added. The article has carried out a comparison of calculations of the energy efficiency classes in accordance with GOST P 54993 and with Regulation #874/2012/EU, and it is found out that a calculation using GOST P 54993 gives underrated energy efficiency classes. This can lead to interdiction of export for certain light sources and luminaires, can discredit Russian domestic manufacturer light sources and does not correspond to the rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

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