AbstractThe problems caused by the interaction between slopes and hydrologic environment in traffic civil engineering are very serious in the granite residual soil area of China, especially in Guangdong Province. Against the background of two heavy rainfall events occurring during a short period due to a typhoon making landfall twice or even two typhoons consecutively making landfall, laboratory model tests were carried out on the hydrological effects of the granite residual soil slope considering three vegetation types under artificial rainfall. The variation in slope surface runoff, soil moisture content and rain seepage over time was recorded during the tests. The results indicate that surface vegetation first effectively reduces the splash erosion impact of rainwater on slopes and then influences the slope hydrological effect through rainwater forms adjustment. (1) The exposed slope has weak resistance to two consecutive heavy rains, the degree of slope scouring and soil erosion damage will increase greatly during the second rainfall. (2) The multiple hindrances of the stem leaf of Zoysia japonica plays a leading role in regulating the hydrological effect of slope, the root system has little effect on the permeability and water storage capacity of slope soil, but improves the erosion resistance of it. (3) Both the stem leaf and root system of Nephrolepis cordifolia have important roles on the hydrological effect. The stem leaf can stabilize the infiltration of rainwater, and successfully inhibit the surface runoff under continuous secondary heavy rainfall. The root system significantly enhances the water storage capacity of the slope, and greatly increases the permeability of the slope soil in the second rainfall, which is totally different from that of the exposed and Zoysia japonica slopes. (4) Zoysia is a suitable vegetation species in terms of slope protection because of its comprehensive slope protection effect. Nephrolepis cordifolia should be cautiously planted as slope protection vegetation. Only on slopes with no stability issues should Nephrolepis cordifolia be considered to preserve soil and water.
Most previous studies have focused on the small strain stiffness of sedimentary soil while little attention has been given to residual soils with different properties. Most studies also neglected the effects of the deviator stress, which is extensively involved in civil engineering. This note considers the effects of the deviator stress on the small-strain stiffness of natural granite residual soil (GRS) as established from resonant column tests performed under various stress ratios. Although increasing the stress ratio results in a greater maximum shear modulus for both natural and remolded residual soils, remolded soil is more sensitive to changes in the stress ratio, which highlights the effects of soil cementation. The data herein offers new insights to understand the stiffness of residual soil and other weathered geomaterials.
Fibre-reinforced composite structures subjected to complex loads exhibit gradual damage behaviour with the degradation of the effective mechanical properties and changes in their structural dynamic behaviour. Damage manifests itself as a spatial increase in inter-fibre failure and delamination growth, resulting in local changes in stiffness. These changes affect not only the residual strength but, more importantly, the structural dynamic behaviour. In the case of composite rotors, this can lead to catastrophic failure if an eigenfrequency coincides with the rotational speed. The description and analysis of the gradual damage behaviour of composite rotors, therefore, provide the fundamentals for a better understanding of unpredicted structural phenomena. The gradual damage behaviour of the example composite rotors and the resulting damage-dependent dynamic behaviour were experimentally investigated under propagating damage caused by a combination of out-of-plane and in-plane loads. A novel observation is the finding that a monotonic increase in damage results in a non-monotonic frequency shift of a significant number of eigenfrequencies.
Honeycomb sandwich panels entice continuously enhanced attention due to its excellent mechanical properties and multi-functional applications. However, the principal problem of sandwich panels is failure by face/core debond. Novel lightweight sandwich panels with hybrid core made of honeycomb, foam and through-thickness pin was developed. Reinforcing polyester pins between faces and core is an effectual way to strengthen the core and enhance the interfacial strength between the face/core to improve the structural performance of sandwich panels. To provide feasibility for pin reinforcement, honeycomb core was pre-filled with foam. Mechanical properties enhancement due to polyester pinning were investigated experimentally under flatwise compression, edgewise compression and flexural test. The experimental investigations were carried out for both “foam filled honeycomb sandwich panels” (FHS) and “polyester pin-reinforced foam filled honeycomb sandwich panels” (PFHS). The results show that polyester pin reinforcement in foam filled honeycomb sandwich panel enhanced the flatwise, edgewise compression and flexural properties considerably. Moreover, increasing the pin diameter has a larger effect on the flexural rigidity of PFHS panels. PFHS panels have inconsequential increase in weight but appreciably improved their structural performance.