scholarly journals Dual combination of cleaning methods (scalpel, biocide, laser) to enhance lichen removal from granite

2022 ◽  
Vol 168 ◽  
pp. 105373
J.S. Pozo-Antonio ◽  
T. Rivas ◽  
M.E. López de Silanes ◽  
A. Ramil ◽  
A.J. López
C.M. Sung ◽  
M. Levinson ◽  
M. Tabasky ◽  
K. Ostreicher ◽  
B.M. Ditchek

Directionally solidified Si/TaSi2 eutectic composites for the development of electronic devices (e.g. photodiodes and field-emission cathodes) were made using a Czochralski growth technique. High quality epitaxial growth of silicon on the eutectic composite substrates requires a clean silicon substrate surface prior to the growth process. Hence a preepitaxial surface cleaning step is highly desirable. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of surface cleaning methods on the epilayer/substrate interface and the characterization of silicon epilayers grown on Si/TaSi2 substrates by TEM.Wafers were cut normal to the <111> growth axis of the silicon matrix from an approximately 1 cm diameter Si/TaSi2 composite boule. Four pre-treatments were employed to remove native oxide and other contaminants: 1) No treatment, 2) HF only; 3) HC1 only; and 4) both HF and HCl. The cross-sectional specimens for TEM study were prepared by cutting the bulk sample into sheets perpendicular to the TaSi2 fiber axes. The material was then prepared in the usual manner to produce samples having a thickness of 10μm. The final step was ion milling in Ar+ until breakthrough occurred. The TEM samples were then analyzed at 120 keV using the Philips EM400T.

2017 ◽  
Vol 68 (9) ◽  
pp. 1974-1977
Silvia Izabella Pop ◽  
Dana Cristina Bratu ◽  
Violeta Valentina Merie ◽  
Mariana Pacurar ◽  
Catalin Petru Simon ◽  

The objective of this study was to analyse morphological and surface topography variations of two types of mini-implants after using different chemical and physical cleaning methods and autoclaved sterilization. One hundred mini-implants from two different manufacturers were used in this study. The mini-implants from each manufacturer were divided in five groups, each consisting of ten samples: G0 new, unused, G1 ultrasonically cleaned, G2 chemically cleaned, G3 sandblasted, G4 cleaned with distilled water. SEM analyses of the mini-implants were performed. Only procedures used in samples from group G2 and G3 removed the tissue remains from the mini-implants surface.

Peter Scott

The vacuum cleaner was an archetypal new economy product of the early twentieth century. It offered both major time savings and qualitative advantages over previous household cleaning methods—the brush, broom, and manual carpet sweeper—and was sold in a novel way (by household demonstration). The direct sales techniques pioneered by vacuum manufacturers in the United States were to have a profound impact on the way vacuums were sold in Britain, and globally. Yet by 1939 their household diffusion was relatively slow compared to refrigerators or washing machines. This chapter explores why the industry evolved a structure based on high prices, high cost distribution methods (door-to-door sales), and a strong emphasis on non-price competition, based on differentiation through features. It also shows how door-to-door selling eventually came to constitute both a key firm-level competitive advantage and a substantial industry-level constraint on product diffusion.

Matthias Weber ◽  
Anja Niehoff ◽  
Markus A. Rothschild

AbstractThis work deals with the examination of tool marks in human cartilage. We compared the effectiveness of several cleaning methods on cut marks in porcine cartilage. The method cleaning by multiple casts achieved the significantly highest scores (P = 0.02). Furthermore, we examined the grain-like elevations (dots) located on casts of cut cartilage. The results of this study suggest that the casting material forms these dots when penetrating cartilage cavities, which are areas where the strong collagen fibres leave space for the chondrocytes. We performed fixation experiments to avoid this, without success. In addition, 31 casting materials were compared regarding contrast under light-microscope and 3D tool marks scanner. Under the light-microscope, brown materials achieved significantly higher values than grey (P = 0.02) or black (P = 0.00) whereas under the 3D scanner, black materials reached higher contrast values than grey (P = 0.04) or brown (P = 0.047). To compare the accuracy and reproducibility of 6 test materials for cartilage, we used 10 knives to create cut marks that were subsequently scanned. During the alignment of the individual signals of each mark, the cross-correlation coefficients (Xmax) and lags (LXmax) were calculated. The signals of the marks in agarose were aligned with significantly fewer lags and achieved significantly higher cross-correlation coefficients compared to all tested materials (both P = 0.00). Moreover, we determined the cross-correlation coefficients (XC) for known-matches (KM) per material. Agarose achieved significantly higher values than AccuTrans®, Clear Ballistics™, and gelatine (all P = 0.00). The results of this work provide valuable insights for the forensic investigation of marks in human costal cartilage.

Ultrasound ◽  
2017 ◽  
Vol 25 (1) ◽  
pp. 53-57 ◽  
Susan C Westerway ◽  
Jocelyne M Basseal

Best practice guidelines for the disinfection of ultrasound transducers and infection prevention in ultrasound departments are generally recommended by either government health groups or the ultrasound societies of individual countries. The literature shows a wide variance in not only transducer cleaning methods but basic hygiene practices in the ultrasound workplace. This paper describes results from a UK survey of disinfection of ultrasound transducers and hygiene practice in the workplace. The survey revealed that some ultrasound practitioners did not follow current guidelines with regard to the correct disinfection method of transducers, cords or ultrasound machine keyboards. Furthermore, the survey exposed the lack of training from the product manufacturers on how to use the disinfection product appropriately. These inconsistencies may be responsible for compliance issues and highlight the need for an awareness campaign and a unified approach to infection control by ultrasound practitioners.

2013 ◽  
Vol 1538 ◽  
pp. 291-302
Edward Yi Chang ◽  
Hai-Dang Trinh ◽  
Yueh-Chin Lin ◽  
Hiroshi Iwai ◽  
Yen-Ku Lin

ABSTRACTIII-V compounds such as InGaAs, InAs, InSb have great potential for future low power high speed devices (such as MOSFETs, QWFETs, TFETs and NWFETs) application due to their high carrier mobility and drift velocity. The development of good quality high k gate oxide as well as high k/III-V interfaces is prerequisite to realize high performance working devices. Besides, the downscaling of the gate oxide into sub-nanometer while maintaining appropriate low gate leakage current is also needed. The lack of high quality III-V native oxides has obstructed the development of implementing III-V based devices on Si template. In this presentation, we will discuss our efforts to improve high k/III-V interfaces as well as high k oxide quality by using chemical cleaning methods including chemical solutions, precursors and high temperature gas treatments. The electrical properties of high k/InSb, InGaAs, InSb structures and their dependence on the thermal processes are also discussed. Finally, we will present the downscaling of the gate oxide into sub-nanometer scale while maintaining low leakage current and a good high k/III-V interface quality.

Desalination ◽  
2010 ◽  
Vol 261 (3) ◽  
pp. 338-346 ◽  
Abraham Sagiv ◽  
Raphael Semiat

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