Infection Prevention
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Arash Nemat ◽  
Mohammad Faiq Sediqi ◽  
Yasir Ahmad Mohammed Elhadi ◽  
Mohammad Yasir Essar ◽  
Nahid Raufi ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic emerged from Wuhan, China and has spread across the world and raised public health concerns. To curb the spread of the disease, the government has imposed prevention measures. The objective of this study was to examine the compliance of people with infection prevention practices during the third wave of the pandemic to provide an updated insight into the situation and help policy makers in designing effective measures. Methods This was an online survey of the general population in Afghanistan from April, 2021 to May, 2021. Non-probability convenience sampling technique was used to recruit the respondents. The target sample size was found to be around 1,094 respondents. Data collection was guided through self-administered questionnaire developed by the researchers according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Results From 1,094 respondents, 78% were male. Majority of the respondents were aged ≤ 30 years and had an undergraduate education. Nearly, 1 in 3 participants were healthcare workers and 70% were living in households with 5 or more family members. Overall, 70% of the respondents reported good preventive practices. No significant association found between male and female participants with regard to preventive practices against the COVID-19. The frequency of good preventive practices was significantly higher in participants more than 30 years old (p = 0.035), people with a post-graduate education (p = 0.025), healthcare workers (p = 0.002), and households with less than five family members (p = 0.002). Conclusion Generally, the public in Afghanistan are following infection prevention rules. However, there are certain areas which require further improvement such as observing social distance and avoid shaking hands when meeting others. Negligence of these prevention practices can lead to the increase of infection transmission among people. Public awareness should be continued to keep the people supportive of the government policies. Social media, television advertisements, and similar platforms may be used for this purpose.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yo Ishigaki ◽  
Koji Enoki ◽  
Shinji Yokogawa

Within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, CO2 sensors that measure ventilation conditions and thereby reduce the risk of airborne infection, are gaining increasing attention. We investigated and verified the accuracy of 12 relatively low-cost sensor models that retail for less than $45 and are advertised as infection control measures on a major e-commerce site. Our results indicate that 25% of the tested sensors can be used to identify trends in CO2 concentration, if correctly calibrated. However, 67% of sensors did not respond to the presence of CO2, which suggests that a type of pseudo-technique is used to display the CO2 concentration. We recommend that these sensors are not suitable for infection prevention purposes. Furthermore, 58% of the investigated sensors showed significant responses to the presence of alcohol. Owing to the widespread use of alcohol in preventing the spread of infectious diseases, sensors that react to alcohol can display inaccurate values, resulting in inappropriate ventilation behavior. Therefore, we strongly recommended that these sensors not be used. Based on our results, we offer practical recommendations to the average consumer, who does not have special measuring equipment, on how to identify inaccurate CO2 sensors.


Author(s):  
Sara Tomczyk ◽  
Julie Storr ◽  
Claire Kilpatrick ◽  
Benedetta Allegranzi

Abstract Background The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has again demonstrated the critical role of effective infection prevention and control (IPC) implementation to combat infectious disease threats. Standards such as the World Health Organization (WHO) IPC minimum requirements offer a basis, but robust evidence on effective IPC implementation strategies in low-resource settings remains limited. We aimed to qualitatively assess IPC implementation themes in these settings. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with IPC experts from low-resource settings, guided by a standardised questionnaire. Applying a qualitative inductive thematic analysis, IPC implementation examples from interview transcripts were coded, collated into sub-themes, grouped again into broad themes, and finally reviewed to ensure validity. Sub-themes appearing ≥ 3 times in data were highlighted as frequent IPC implementation themes and all findings were summarised descriptively. Results Interviews were conducted with IPC experts from 29 countries in six WHO regions. Frequent IPC implementation themes including the related critical actions to achieve the WHO IPC core components included: (1) To develop IPC programmes: continuous advocacy with leadership, initial external technical assistance, stepwise approach to build resources, use of catalysts, linkages with other programmes, role of national IPC associations and normative legal actions; (2) To develop guidelines: early planning for their operationalization, initial external technical assistance and local guideline adaption; (3) To establish training: attention to methods, fostering local leadership, and sustainable health system linkages such as developing an IPC career path; (4) To establish health care-associated (HAI) surveillance: feasible but high-impact pilots, multidisciplinary collaboration, mentorship, careful consideration of definitions and data quality, and “data for action”; (5) To implement multimodal strategies: clear communication to explain multimodal strategies, attention to certain elements, and feasible but high-impact pilots; (6) To develop monitoring, audit and feedback: feasible but high-impact pilots, attention to methods such as positive (not punitive) incentives and “data for action”; (7) To improve staffing and bed occupancy: participation of national actors to set standards and attention to methods such as use of data; and (8) To promote built environment: involvement of IPC professionals in facility construction, attention to multimodal strategy elements, and long-term advocacy. Conclusions These IPC implementation themes offer important qualitative evidence for IPC professionals to consider.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nicky McCreesh ◽  
Aaron S Karat ◽  
Kathy Baisley ◽  
Karin Diaconu ◽  
Fiammetta Bozzani ◽  
...  

Background Elevated rates of tuberculosis in health care workers demonstrate the high rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) transmission in health facilities in high burden settings. In the context of a project taking a whole systems approach to tuberculosis infection prevention and control (IPC), we aimed to evaluate the potential impact of conventional and novel IPC measures on Mtb transmission to patients and other clinic attendees. Methods An individual-based model of patient movements through clinics, ventilation in waiting areas, and Mtb transmission was developed, and parameterised using empirical data from eight clinics in two provinces in South Africa. Seven interventions - co-developed with health professionals and policy-makers - were simulated: 1. queue management systems with outdoor waiting areas, 2. ultraviolet germicidal irradiation systems (UVGI), 3. appointment systems, 4. opening windows and doors, 5. surgical mask wearing by clinic attendees, 6. simple clinic retrofits, and 7. increased coverage of long antiretroviral therapy prescriptions and community medicine collection points through the CCMDD service. Results In the model, 1. outdoor waiting areas reduced the transmission to clinic attendees by 83% (interquartile range [IQR] 76-88%), 2. UVGI by 77% (IQR 64-85%), 3. appointment systems by 62% (IQR 45-75%), 4. opening windows and doors by 55% (IQR 25-72%), 5. masks by 47% (IQR 42-50%), 6. clinic retrofits by 45% (IQR 16-64%), and 7. increasing the coverage of CCMDD by 22% (IQR 12-32%). Conclusions The majority of the interventions achieved median reductions in the rate of transmission to clinic attendees of at least 45%, meaning that a range of highly effective intervention options are available, that can be tailored to the local context. Measures that are not traditionally considered to be IPC interventions, such as appointment systems, may be as effective as more traditional IPC measures, such as mask wearing.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
sharline madera ◽  
Nicole McNeil ◽  
Paula Hayakawa Serpa ◽  
Jack Kamm ◽  
Christy Pak ◽  
...  

Introduction: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important pathogen in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) that carries significant morbidity and mortality. Improving our understanding of MRSA transmission dynamics, especially among high risk patients, is an infection prevention priority. Methods: We investigated a cluster of clinical MRSA cases in the NICU using a combination of epidemiologic review and whole genome sequencing (WGS) of isolates from clinical and surveillance cultures obtained from patients and healthcare personnel (HCP). Results: Phylogenetic analysis identified two genetically distinct phylogenetic clades and revealed multiple silent transmission events between HCP and infants. The predominant outbreak strain harbored multiple virulence factors. Epidemiologic investigation and genomic analysis identified a HCP colonized with the dominant MRSA outbreak strain who cared for the majority of NICU patients who were infected or colonized with the same strain, including one NICU patient with severe infection seven months before the described outbreak. These results guided implementation of infection prevention interventions that prevented further transmission events. Conclusion: Silent transmission of MRSA between HCP and NICU patients likely contributed to a NICU outbreak involving a virulent MRSA strain. WGS enabled data-driven decision making to inform implementation of infection control policies that mitigated the outbreak. Prospective WGS coupled with epidemiologic analysis can be used to detect transmission events and prompt early implementation of control strategies.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (1) ◽  
pp. 15249
Author(s):  
Sarah MacEwan ◽  
Eliza Beal ◽  
Alice Gaughan ◽  
Cynthia Sieck ◽  
Ann Scheck McAlearney

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (1) ◽  
pp. 13694
Author(s):  
Megan Gregory ◽  
Sarah MacEwan ◽  
Lindsey Sova ◽  
Alice Gaughan ◽  
Ann Scheck McAlearney

Author(s):  
Carolyn Ingram ◽  
Vicky Downey ◽  
Mark Roe ◽  
Yanbing Chen ◽  
Mary Archibald ◽  
...  

Workplaces can be high-risk environments for SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks and subsequent community transmission. Identifying, understanding, and implementing effective workplace SARS-CoV-2 infection prevention and control (IPC) measures is critical to protect workers, their families, and communities. A rapid review and meta-analysis were conducted to synthesize evidence assessing the effectiveness of COVID-19 IPC measures implemented in global workplace settings through April 2021. Medline, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library were searched for studies that quantitatively assessed the effectiveness of workplace COVID-19 IPC measures. The included studies comprised varying empirical designs and occupational settings. Measures of interest included surveillance measures, outbreak investigations, environmental adjustments, personal protective equipment (PPE), changes in work arrangements, and worker education. Sixty-one studies from healthcare, nursing home, meatpacking, manufacturing, and office settings were included, accounting for ~280,000 employees based in Europe, Asia, and North America. Meta-analyses showed that combined IPC measures resulted in lower employee COVID-19 positivity rates (0.2% positivity; 95% CI 0–0.4%) than single measures such as asymptomatic PCR testing (1.7%; 95% CI 0.9–2.9%) and universal masking (24%; 95% CI 3.4–55.5%). Modelling studies showed that combinations of (i) timely and widespread contact tracing and case isolation, (ii) facilitating smaller worker cohorts, and (iii) effective use of PPE can reduce workplace transmission. Comprehensive COVID-19 IPC measures incorporating swift contact tracing and case isolation, PPE, and facility zoning can effectively prevent workplace outbreaks. Masking alone should not be considered sufficient protection from SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in the workplace.


Author(s):  
Anna Augustynowicz ◽  
Michał Wójcik ◽  
Beata Bachurska ◽  
Janusz Opolski ◽  
Aleksandra Czerw ◽  
...  
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