dietary intake
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Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 378
Author(s):  
Maria Ramirez Prieto ◽  
Mylène Ratelle ◽  
Brian Douglas Laird ◽  
Kelly Skinner

A dietary transition away from traditional foods and toward a diet of the predominantly unhealthy market is a public health and sociocultural concern throughout Indigenous communities in Canada, including those in the sub-Arctic and remote regions of Dehcho and Sahtú of the Northwest Territories, Canada. The main aim of the present study is to describe dietary intakes for macronutrients and micronutrients in traditional and market food from the Mackenzie Valley study. We also show the trends of contributions and differences of dietary intakes over time from 1994 data collected and reported by the Centre for Indigenous People’s Nutrition and Environment (CINE) in 1996. Based on 24-h dietary recall data, the study uses descriptive statistics to describe the observed dietary intake of the Dene First Nations communities in the Dehcho and Sahtú regions of the NWT. Indigenous people in Canada, like the sub-Arctic regions of Dehcho and Sahtú of the NWT, continue to consume traditional foods, although as a small percentage of their total dietary intake. The observed dietary intake calls for action to ensure that traditional food remains a staple as it is critical for the wellbeing of Dene in the Dehcho and Sahtú regions and across the territory.


Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 310
Author(s):  
Kevin J. Scully ◽  
Laura T. Jay ◽  
Steven Freedman ◽  
Gregory S. Sawicki ◽  
Ahmet Uluer ◽  
...  

Measures of body fat and lean mass may better predict important clinical outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) than body mass index (BMI). Little is known about how diet quality and exercise may impact body composition in these patients. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition, 24-h dietary recall, and physical activity were assessed in a cross-sectional analysis of 38 adolescents and adults with CF and 19 age-, race-, and gender-matched healthy volunteers. Compared with the healthy volunteers, participants with CF had a lower appendicular lean mass index (ALMI), despite no observed difference in BMI, and their diets consisted of higher glycemic index foods with a greater proportion of calories from fat and a lower proportion of calories from protein. In participants with CF, pulmonary function positively correlated with measures of lean mass, particularly ALMI, and negatively correlated with multiple measures of body fat after controlling for age, gender, and BMI. Higher physical activity levels were associated with greater ALMI and lower body fat. In conclusion, body composition measures, particularly ALMI, may better predict key clinical outcomes in individuals with CF than BMI. Future longitudinal studies analyzing the effect of dietary intake and exercise on body composition and CF-specific clinical outcomes are needed.


Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 304
Author(s):  
Osnat Kaniel ◽  
Shiri Sherf-Dagan ◽  
Amir Szold ◽  
Peter Langer ◽  
Boris Khalfin ◽  
...  

One anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) is an emerging bariatric procedure, yet data on its effect on the gastrointestinal tract are lacking. This study sought to evaluate the incidence of small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) following OAGB; explore its effect on nutritional, gastrointestinal, and weight outcomes; and assess post-OABG occurrence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) and altered gut microbiota composition. A prospective pilot cohort study of patients who underwent primary-OAGB surgery is here reported. The pre-surgical and 6-months-post-surgery measurements included anthropometrics, glucose breath-tests, biochemical tests, gastrointestinal symptoms, quality-of-life, dietary intake, and fecal sample collection. Thirty-two patients (50% females, 44.5 ± 12.3 years) participated in this study, and 29 attended the 6-month follow-up visit. The mean excess weight loss at 6 months post-OAGB was 67.8 ± 21.2%. The glucose breath-test was negative in all pre-surgery and positive in 37.0% at 6 months (p = 0.004). Positive glucose breath-test was associated with lower reported dietary intake and folate levels and higher vitamin A deficiency rates (p ≤ 0.036). Fecal elastase-1 test (FE1) was negative for all pre-surgery and positive in 26.1% at 6 months (p = 0.500). Both alpha and beta diversity decreased at 6 months post-surgery compared to pre-surgery (p ≤ 0.026). Relatively high incidences of SIBO and PEI were observed at 6 months post-OAGB, which may explain some gastrointestinal symptoms and nutritional deficiencies.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. 416-425
Author(s):  
Brajesh Brajesh ◽  
Chander Shekhar

Background: Maternal dietary diversity during pregnancy is a major determinant of birth weight and birth size of infant. During pregnancy, mother diet is highly dependent on their topographical, cultural, and sociodemographic circumstances. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the association between the maternal dietary intake with child birth weight and birth size along with the sociodemographic factors in India. Materials and Methods: The data for this study were drawn from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), 2005 to 2006 and 2015 to 2016 held in India. Inferential statistical analysis Chi-square was built to test was used to examine the association between maternal dietary patterns, and logistic regression model was used to analyze the effect of mother’s dietary patterns on child birth weight and size by controlling the sociodemographic factors. Results: Mother’s daily intake of fish, meat, green leafy vegetables, and fruits was associated with higher birth weight or size and lower risk of intrauterine growth retardation. Women with ?2 dietary diversity categories had significantly higher proportion of low birth weight (LBW) and size of babies comparatively to those in the ?2 dietary diversity categories, there were lesser chance of LBW and small size of babies with women’s dietary diversity 3 (odds ranges from 1.09 to 1.44) or ?4 (odds ranges from 1.15 to 1.59). Furthermore, low birth order, mother’s underweight status, low maternal education, and wealth status significantly have positive association with the poor birth outcomes. Conclusion: The birth weight and size of newborns were found positively associated with the mother’s dietary intake. To meet the aim of maternal dietary diversity and to achieve the double bonus, the government should focus more on supplementation and food security programs during pregnancy that also include nutritional education as well as behavioral and social change interventions strategies.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Gudrun Sproesser ◽  
Matthias Aulbach ◽  
Thomas Gültzow ◽  
Laura M König

An intuitive style in eating decision-making, for example, basing decisions on one’s gut feeling, has been related to a less healthy diet, whereas deliberately deciding what to eat, such as making plans about eating behavior, has been related to a healthier diet. The present study investigated whether nutrition knowledge, food preferences, and habit strength for healthy and unhealthy eating moderate these relationships. In total, 1245 participants took part in a preregistered cross-sectional online survey. Results revealed that neither nutrition knowledge, nor liking of healthy or unhealthy foods, nor habit strength for healthy or unhealthy eating interacted with the preference for intuition or deliberation in eating decision-making in affecting dietary intake. Instead, including the potential moderating variables in analyses rendered the effect of a preference for intuition largely non-significant. In contrast, the positive effect of a preference for deliberation was largely stable even when including the potential moderating variables. Thus, the present study confirms the general health-promoting effect of a preference for deliberation in eating decision-making. In contrast, results speak in favor of a generally minor role of a preference for intuition for healthy or unhealthy eating.


Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 285
Author(s):  
Johanna H. Nel ◽  
Nelia P. Steyn ◽  
Marjanne Senekal

Nutrition intervention decisions should be evidence based. Single 24-h recalls are often used for measuring dietary intake in large dietary studies. However, this method does not consider the day-to-day variation in populations’ diets. We illustrate the importance of adjustment of single 24-h recall data to remove within-person variation using the National Cancer Institute method to calculate usual intake when estimating risk of deficiency/excess. We used an example data set comprising a single 24-h recall in a total sample of 1326 1–<10-year-old children, and two additional recalls in a sub-sample of 11%, for these purposes. Results show that risk of deficiency was materially overestimated by the single unadjusted 24-h recall for vitamins B12, A, D, C and E, while risk of excess was overestimated for vitamin A and zinc, when compared to risks derived from usual intake. Food sources rich in particular micronutrients seemed to result in overestimation of deficiency risk when intra-individual variance is not removed. Our example illustrates that the application of the NCI method in dietary surveys would contribute to the formulation of more appropriate conclusions on risk of deficiency/excess in populations to advise public health nutrition initiatives when compared to those derived from a single unadjusted 24-h recall.


Author(s):  
Jessica Rose Szczepanski ◽  
Ruth E. Litchfield ◽  
Erica A. Beirman ◽  
Lisa M. Nolting ◽  
Ulrike Genschel

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Charles Apprey ◽  
Bernice Adu Baah-Nuako ◽  
Veronica Tawiah Annaful ◽  
Atinuke Olusola Adebanji ◽  
Victoria Dzogbefia

Purpose This study aims to assess dietary intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among tanker truck drivers in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional study design enrolled 212 fuel tanker drivers. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary and biochemical data were collected. MetS was assessed using the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) 2005 criteria. A three-day 24-h dietary recall was used to assess dietary intake. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the predicting factors of MetS among study participants. Findings The prevalence of MetS was 19.6% according to NCEP ATP III criteria. The prevalence of obesity, high BP, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidemia among participants were 7.5, 39.7, 37.7 and 57.3%, respectively. The energy intake for 176 (88.4%) of the participants was inadequate. The predicting factors of MetS were age (OR: 1.3, p = 0.04), glycated haemoglobin (OR: 9.6, p = 0.004), systolic blood pressure (OR: 1.2 95%, p = 0.01) and service years (OR: 0.8, p = 0.01). Research limitations/implications The current study focused on MetS among tanker truck drivers in Kumasi metropolis, which makes the current findings only limited to drivers of tanker truck within the municipality. Additionally, the 24-h dietary recall could be subjected to recall bias. However, the study is still of relevance as it becomes the first to target such a group within the municipality, taking into consideration the importance of these tanker truck drivers in driving the economy of Ghana. Originality/value This study highlights dietary intake and MetS among fuel tanker drivers previously underreported in the Ghanaian population. Findings of this study would inform further studies on lifestyle-related determinants of MetS among other cohort of drivers in other settings within the country.


Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 280
Author(s):  
Seok Tyug Tan ◽  
Chin Xuan Tan ◽  
Seok Shin Tan

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) isolation has altered individuals’ food purchasing behaviour and dietary intake patterns. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the changes in dietary intake patterns and their impacts on the weight status of young adults in Malaysia during the COVID-19 lockdown. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 1045 young adults in Malaysia. The changes in dietary intake patterns were assessed using the Dietary Diversity Questionnaire with slight modifications, while anthropometric measurements including body height, body weight before the pandemic and current body weight were self-reported. Results: Overall, nearly half of the respondents (48.8%) gained weight during the confinement, with an average increment of 4.06 ± 3.23 kg. Of 1045, 45.3% reported consuming more fruits and 60.2% had higher plain water intake during the pandemic. It is observed that 41.0% to 66.8% of the young adults changed their dietary intake patterns during the pandemic. Increased consumption in cereals and grains (β = 0.084, p = 0.015, 95% CI = 0.017–0.160), as well as oils and fats (β = 0.123, p = 0.001, 95% CI = 0.059–0.241), was positively associated with weight gain during the pandemic. On the contrary, an increased plain water intake was negatively associated with weight gain during the lockdown (β = −0.100, p = 0.003, 95% CI = −0.171–−0.034). Findings in the current study also suggested that cutting back cereals and grains (β = 0.156, p < 0.001, 95% CI = 0.122–0.288), as well as oils and fats (β = 0.091, p = 0.012, 95% CI = 0.022–0.183), contributed significantly to weight loss during the pandemic confinement. Conclusion: In conclusion, the enforcement of the Movement Control Order (MCO) drove up the prevalence of overweight/obesity among young adults in Malaysia. Increased consumption of cereals and grains and oils and fats contributed to weight gain in the pandemic lockdown. Nonetheless, a noticeable proportion of young adults in Malaysia shifted to a healthier food choice by increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables.


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