serum concentrations
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Qing Duanmu ◽  
Bie Tan ◽  
Jing Wang ◽  
Bo Huang ◽  
Jianjun Li ◽  

Dietary supplementation with aromatic amino acids (AAAs) has been demonstrated to alleviate intestinal inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the piglets. But the mechanism of AAA sensing and utilization under inflammatory conditions is not well-understood. The study was conducted with 32 weanling piglets using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (diet and LPS challenge) in a randomized complete block design. Piglets were fed as basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 0.16% tryptophan (Trp), 0.41% phenylalanine (Phe), and 0.22% tyrosine (Tyr) for 21 days. The results showed that LPS treatment significantly reduced the concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK) and total protein but increased leptin concentration, the activities of alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase in serum. Dietary supplementation with AAAs significantly increased the serum concentrations of CCK, peptide YY (PYY), and total protein but decreased the blood urea nitrogen. LPS challenge reduced the ileal threonine (Thr) digestibility, as well as serum isoleucine (Ile) and Trp concentrations, but increased the serum concentrations of Phe, Thr, histidine (His), alanine (Ala), cysteine (Cys), and serine (Ser) (P < 0.05). The serum-free amino acid concentrations of His, lysine (Lys), arginine (Arg), Trp, Tyr, Cys, and the digestibilities of His, Lys, Arg, and Cys were significantly increased by feeding AAA diets (P < 0.05). Dietary AAA supplementation significantly increased the serum concentrations of Trp in LPS-challenged piglets (P < 0.05). In the jejunal mucosa, LPS increased the contents of Ala and Cys, and the mRNA expressions of solute carrier (SLC) transporters (i.e., SLC7A11, SLC16A10, SLC38A2, and SLC3A2), but decreased Lys and glutamine (Gln) contents, and SLC1A1 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). In the ileal mucosa, LPS challenge induced increasing in SLC7A11 and SLC38A2 and decreasing in SLC38A9 and SLC36A1 mRNA expressions, AAAs supplementation significantly decreased mucosal amino acid (AA) concentrations of methionine (Met), Arg, Ala, and Tyr, etc. (P < 0.05). And the interaction between AAAs supplementation and LPS challenge significantly altered the expressions of SLC36A1 and SLC38A9 mRNA (P < 0.05). Together, these findings indicated that AAAs supplementation promoted the AAs absorption and utilization in the small intestine of piglets and increased the mRNA expressions of SLC transports to meet the high demands for specific AAs in response to inflammation and immune response.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Long Zhao ◽  
Jinhua Fu ◽  
Feng Ding ◽  
Juan Liu ◽  
Lin Li ◽  

Normal pregnancy is related to the successful transition from type 1 cellular immunity to type 2 cellular immunity. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether there is abnormal expression of cytokines in the process of inducing Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Interleukin (IL)-33 is a new member of the IL-1 family, and ST2, as IL-33’s receptor, induced the production of type 2 cytokines. In this study, blood samples were collected from 19 non-pregnant women of normal childbearing age, 28 normal pregnant women, and 33 women with RSA. The serum concentrations of IL-33 and ST2 were detected by flow cytometry. Our results showed that the serum concentrations of IL-33 and ST2 in the RSA group were significantly higher than those in the healthy control group (IL-33: P < 0.05; ST2: P < 0.0001), and IL-33 and ST2 had a higher level in the process of RSA predictive value. In addition, this study initially found that the serum concentrations of IL-33 and ST2 were not significantly correlated with the number of weeks of pregnancy, and there was a lower correlation between IL-33 and ST2 during RSA. This result may be related to the small number of cases. This study is the first time to correlate the changes in serum concentrations of IL-33 and ST2 with RSA, which may be a novel biomarker for the prediction and treatment of RSA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Markus Scholz ◽  
Katrin Horn ◽  
Janne Pott ◽  
Arnd Gross ◽  
Marcus E. Kleber ◽  

AbstractPhytosterol serum concentrations are under tight genetic control. The relationship between phytosterols and coronary artery disease (CAD) is controversially discussed. We perform a genome-wide meta-analysis of 32 phytosterol traits reflecting resorption, cholesterol synthesis and esterification in six studies with up to 9758 subjects and detect ten independent genome-wide significant SNPs at seven genomic loci. We confirm previously established associations at ABCG5/8 and ABO and demonstrate an extended locus heterogeneity at ABCG5/8 with different functional mechanisms. New loci comprise HMGCR, NPC1L1, PNLIPRP2, SCARB1 and APOE. Based on these results, we perform Mendelian Randomization analyses (MR) revealing a risk-increasing causal relationship of sitosterol serum concentrations and CAD, which is partly mediated by cholesterol. Here we report that phytosterols are polygenic traits. MR add evidence of both, direct and indirect causal effects of sitosterol on CAD.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-25
Habyeong Kang ◽  
Howard Hu ◽  
Sung Kyun Park

Abstract Objective: We examined the association between serum antioxidant status and mortality from influenza and pneumonia in US adults. Design: Serum concentrations of antioxidants included vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin E, sum of α- and β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, and lycopene. We computed total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as a measure of composite antioxidant status in serum. Survey-weighted Cox proportional hazard models were used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing quartiles of each antioxidant and TAC. Setting: Data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)-III. Participants: A total of 7428 NHANES-III participants ≥45 years of age. Results: With a weighted-median follow-up of 16.8 years, 154 participants died from influenza/pneumonia. After adjustment for covariates, serum vitamin C, the sum of α- and β-carotene, and TAC were non-linearly associated with influenza/pneumonia mortality, with the statistically significant smallest HRs at the third quartile vs the first quartile [HRs=0.38 (95% CI: 0.19–0.77), 0.29 (0.16–0.51), and 0.30 (0.15–0.59), respectively]. HRs comparing the fourth vs the first quartiles were weaker and non-significant: 0.57 (95% CI: 0.27–1.17), 0.70 (0.41–1.19), and 0.65 (0.31–1.35), respectively. Serum lycopene had a monotonic association with influenza/pneumonia mortality [HR=0.43 (95% CI: 0.23–0.83) comparing the fourth vs the first quartile, P-for-trend=0.01]. Conclusions: The present study suggests that antioxidant intake as reflected by serum concentrations may reduce mortality risk from influenza or pneumonia in the US general population. These findings warrant further confirmation in other populations with different settings (e.g., a shorter-term association with influenza infection).

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Nausikaa Devriendt ◽  
Gonçalo Serrano ◽  
Dominique Paepe ◽  
Sophie Vandenabeele ◽  
Emmelie Stock ◽  

Abstract Background Deficiencies in vitamin A and D and disorders in the vitamin B complex are often present in people with chronic liver diseases. So far, the serum concentrations of these vitamins have not yet been studied in dogs with congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSS), who also have some degree of liver dysfunction. The objective was to assess serum vitamin concentrations in dogs with EHPSS from diagnosis to complete closure. A prospective cohort study was performed using ten client-owned dogs with EHPSS, closed after gradual surgical attenuation. Serum concentrations of vitamin A, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, folic acid, cobalamin and methylmalonic acid (MMA) were measured at diagnosis prior to institution of medical therapy, prior to surgery, and three months after gradual attenuation and complete closure of the EHPSS. Results At diagnosis, median serum concentrations of vitamin A, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and folic acid were 18.2 μg/dL (8.8 - 79.5 μg/dL), 51.8 ng/mL (19.4 - 109.0 ng/mL), and 8.1 μg/L (5.2 - 14.5 μg/L), respectively, which increased significantly postoperatively (88.3 μg/dL (51.6 - 182.2 μg/dL, P=0.005), 89.6 ng/mL (49.3 - >150.0 ng/mL, P =0.005), and 14.8 μg/L (11.5 - 17.7 μg/L, P <0.001), respectively). Median serum cobalamin concentrations were 735.5 ng/L (470 - 1388 ng/L) at diagnosis and did not significantly decrease postoperatively (P =0.122). Both at diagnosis and three months postoperatively 7/10 dogs had hypercobalaminemia. Conclusions Serum concentrations of vitamin A, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and folic acid significantly increase after surgical attenuation. Nevertheless, persistent hypercobalaminemia is suggestive of ongoing liver dysfunction, despite successful surgery.

2022 ◽  
Vol 158 ◽  
pp. 106907
Michael C. Petriello ◽  
M. Abdul Mottaleb ◽  
Tara C. Serio ◽  
Bharat Balyan ◽  
Matthew C. Cave ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 26-32
Somayeh Shabani ◽  
Soheila Talesh Sasani ◽  
Farhad Mashayekhi ◽  

Background: Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) and its receptor, Mesothelial-Epithelial Transition (cMet) factor signaling, play an essential role in controlling synaptogenesis. Objectives: Because of the vital role of HGF and Met signaling in synaptogenesis and spatial learning function of the brain’s hippocampal region, we aimed to study the HGF and soluble cMet (s-cMet) serum levels in children with different stages of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Materials & Methods: A total of 189 ASD patients (mild; n=69, moderate; n=63 and severe; n=57) and 82 control were enrolled in this project. Blood samples were collected from ASD patients referred to Pediatric Neurology Clinic, 17 Shahrivar Hospital, Rasht City, Iran, and serum concentrations of s-cMet and HGF were measured by ELISA. The control children with no clinical characteristics of ASD attended routine blood tests. Results: HGF Mean±SD serum concentration in ASD patients was 239±52.02 pg/mL compared to controls which was 360.04±71.15 pg/mL (P=0.004). Also, the Mean±SD serum concentrations of HGF in mild, moderate, and severe ASD patients were 297.54±69.82, 232.81±56.41, and 189±33.25 ng/mL, respectively, compared to control, which was 360.18±57.40. Besides, the s-cMet Mean±SD serum concentrations in ASD and controls were 143.54±32.50 and 200.25±31.16 pg/mL, respectively (P=0.005). The Mean±SD serum concentrations of s-cMet in the mild, moderate, and severe ASD patients were 172.81±37.69, 129.81±45.55, and 85.18±22.95 ng/mL, respectively, as compared to the control, which was 214.54±34.17 ng/mL. Conclusion: Serum HGF and s-cMet concentration decreased in ASD patients corresponding to disease severity. Also, detecting serum HGF and s-cMet may help classify ASD.

Carla Alvarez Gonzalez ◽  
Juan Luis Carrillo Linares ◽  
Isabel García Muñoz ◽  
Andrea Escalona García ◽  
Pedro Valdivielso

Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is progressive immune-mediated fibrotic condition characterised by a tendency to form tumefactive lesions in different organs and by elevated IgG4 serum concentrations. Urological manifestations are rare and normally occur together with other systemic affections. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are hematopoietic stem cell neoplasms, with different subtypes based on the type of blood cells involved. MDS can be associated with other pathologies or medical treatments. We present an uncommon case of testicular manifestation associated with myelodysplastic syndrome here.

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