scholarly journals A novel predictive model for capturing threats for facilitating effective social distancing in COVID-19

Salma Firdose ◽  
Surendran Swapna Kumar ◽  
Ravinda Gayan Narendra Meegama

Social distancing is one of the simple and effective shields for every individual to control spreading of virus in present scenario of pandemic coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, existing application of social distancing is a basic model and it is also characterized by various pitfalls in case of dynamic monitoring of infected individual accurately. Review of existing literature shows that there has been various dedicated research attempt towards social distancing using available technologies, however, there are further scope of improvement too. This paper has introduced a novel framework which is capable of computing the level of threat with much higher degree of accuracy using distance and duration of stay as elementary parameters. Finally, the model can successfully classify the level of threats using deep learning. The study outcome shows that proposed system offers better predictive performance in contrast to other approaches.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (13) ◽  
pp. 4442
Zijie Niu ◽  
Juntao Deng ◽  
Xu Zhang ◽  
Jun Zhang ◽  
Shijia Pan ◽  

It is important to obtain accurate information about kiwifruit vines to monitoring their physiological states and undertake precise orchard operations. However, because vines are small and cling to trellises, and have branches laying on the ground, numerous challenges exist in the acquisition of accurate data for kiwifruit vines. In this paper, a kiwifruit canopy distribution prediction model is proposed on the basis of low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images and deep learning techniques. First, the location of the kiwifruit plants and vine distribution are extracted from high-precision images collected by UAV. The canopy gradient distribution maps with different noise reduction and distribution effects are generated by modifying the threshold and sampling size using the resampling normalization method. The results showed that the accuracies of the vine segmentation using PSPnet, support vector machine, and random forest classification were 71.2%, 85.8%, and 75.26%, respectively. However, the segmentation image obtained using depth semantic segmentation had a higher signal-to-noise ratio and was closer to the real situation. The average intersection over union of the deep semantic segmentation was more than or equal to 80% in distribution maps, whereas, in traditional machine learning, the average intersection was between 20% and 60%. This indicates the proposed model can quickly extract the vine distribution and plant position, and is thus able to perform dynamic monitoring of orchards to provide real-time operation guidance.

2020 ◽  
Vol 41 (Supplement_2) ◽  
S Rao ◽  
Y Li ◽  
R Ramakrishnan ◽  
A Hassaine ◽  
D Canoy ◽  

Abstract Background/Introduction Predicting incident heart failure has been challenging. Deep learning models when applied to rich electronic health records (EHR) offer some theoretical advantages. However, empirical evidence for their superior performance is limited and they remain commonly uninterpretable, hampering their wider use in medical practice. Purpose We developed a deep learning framework for more accurate and yet interpretable prediction of incident heart failure. Methods We used longitudinally linked EHR from practices across England, involving 100,071 patients, 13% of whom had been diagnosed with incident heart failure during follow-up. We investigated the predictive performance of a novel transformer deep learning model, “Transformer for Heart Failure” (BEHRT-HF), and validated it using both an external held-out dataset and an internal five-fold cross-validation mechanism using area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) and area under the precision recall curve (AUPRC). Predictor groups included all outpatient and inpatient diagnoses within their temporal context, medications, age, and calendar year for each encounter. By treating diagnoses as anchors, we alternatively removed different modalities (ablation study) to understand the importance of individual modalities to the performance of incident heart failure prediction. Using perturbation-based techniques, we investigated the importance of associations between selected predictors and heart failure to improve model interpretability. Results BEHRT-HF achieved high accuracy with AUROC 0.932 and AUPRC 0.695 for external validation, and AUROC 0.933 (95% CI: 0.928, 0.938) and AUPRC 0.700 (95% CI: 0.682, 0.718) for internal validation. Compared to the state-of-the-art recurrent deep learning model, RETAIN-EX, BEHRT-HF outperformed it by 0.079 and 0.030 in terms of AUPRC and AUROC. Ablation study showed that medications were strong predictors, and calendar year was more important than age. Utilising perturbation, we identified and ranked the intensity of associations between diagnoses and heart failure. For instance, the method showed that established risk factors including myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation and flutter, and hypertension all strongly associated with the heart failure prediction. Additionally, when population was stratified into different age groups, incident occurrence of a given disease had generally a higher contribution to heart failure prediction in younger ages than when diagnosed later in life. Conclusions Our state-of-the-art deep learning framework outperforms the predictive performance of existing models whilst enabling a data-driven way of exploring the relative contribution of a range of risk factors in the context of other temporal information. Funding Acknowledgement Type of funding source: Private grant(s) and/or Sponsorship. Main funding source(s): National Institute for Health Research, Oxford Martin School, Oxford Biomedical Research Centre

2021 ◽  
pp. 0272989X2110190
Isabelle J. Rao ◽  
Jacqueline J. Vallon ◽  
Margaret L. Brandeau

Background The World Health Organization and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that both infected and susceptible people wear face masks to protect against COVID-19. Methods We develop a dynamic disease model to assess the effectiveness of face masks in reducing the spread of COVID-19, during an initial outbreak and a later resurgence, as a function of mask effectiveness, coverage, intervention timing, and time horizon. We instantiate the model for the COVID-19 outbreak in New York, with sensitivity analyses on key natural history parameters. Results During the initial epidemic outbreak, with no social distancing, only 100% coverage of masks with high effectiveness can reduce the effective reproductive number [Formula: see text] below 1. During a resurgence, with lowered transmission rates due to social distancing measures, masks with medium effectiveness at 80% coverage can reduce [Formula: see text] below 1 but cannot do so if individuals relax social distancing efforts. Full mask coverage could significantly improve outcomes during a resurgence: with social distancing, masks with at least medium effectiveness could reduce [Formula: see text] below 1 and avert almost all infections, even with intervention fatigue. For coverage levels below 100%, prioritizing masks that reduce the risk of an infected individual from spreading the infection rather than the risk of a susceptible individual from getting infected yields the greatest benefit. Limitations Data regarding COVID-19 transmission are uncertain, and empirical evidence on mask effectiveness is limited. Our analyses assume homogeneous mixing, providing an upper bound on mask effectiveness. Conclusions Even moderately effective face masks can play a role in reducing the spread of COVID-19, particularly with full coverage, but should be combined with social distancing measures to reduce [Formula: see text] below 1. [Box: see text]

Mr. Kiran Mudaraddi

The paper presents a deep learning-based methodology for detecting social distancing in order to assess the distance between people in order to mitigate the impact of the coronavirus pandemic. The input was a video frame from the camera, and the open-source object detection was pre-trained. The outcome demonstrates that the suggested method is capable of determining the social distancing measures between many participants in a video.

2021 ◽  
Abhishek Mukhopadhyay ◽  
G S Rajshekar Reddy ◽  
Subhankar Ghosh ◽  
Murthy L R D ◽  
Pradipta Biswas

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Amin Ul Haq ◽  
Jian Ping Li ◽  
Samad Wali ◽  
Sultan Ahmad ◽  
Zafar Ali ◽  

Artificial intelligence (AI) based computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems can effectively diagnose critical disease. AI-based detection of breast cancer (BC) through images data is more efficient and accurate than professional radiologists. However, the existing AI-based BC diagnosis methods have complexity in low prediction accuracy and high computation time. Due to these reasons, medical professionals are not employing the current proposed techniques in E-Healthcare to effectively diagnose the BC. To diagnose the breast cancer effectively need to incorporate advanced AI techniques based methods in diagnosis process. In this work, we proposed a deep learning based diagnosis method (StackBC) to detect breast cancer in the early stage for effective treatment and recovery. In particular, we have incorporated deep learning models including Convolutional neural network (CNN), Long short term memory (LSTM), and Gated recurrent unit (GRU) for the classification of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC). Additionally, data augmentation and transfer learning techniques have been incorporated for data set balancing and for effective training the model. To further improve the predictive performance of model we used stacking technique. Among the three base classifiers (CNN, LSTM, GRU) the predictive performance of GRU are better as compared to individual model. The GRU is selected as a meta classifier to distinguish between Non-IDC and IDC breast images. The method Hold-Out has been incorporated and the data set is split into 90% and 10% for training and testing of the model, respectively. Model evaluation metrics have been computed for model performance evaluation. To analyze the efficacy of the model, we have used breast histology images data set. Our experimental results demonstrated that the proposed StackBC method achieved improved performance by gaining 99.02% accuracy and 100% area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC-ROC) compared to state-of-the-art methods. Due to the high performance of the proposed method, we recommend it for early recognition of breast cancer in E-Healthcare.

2021 ◽  
Tuomo Hartonen ◽  
Teemu Kivioja ◽  
Jussi Taipale

Deep learning models have in recent years gained success in various tasks related to understanding information coded in the DNA sequence. Rapidly developing genome-wide measurement technologies provide large quantities of data ideally suited for modeling using deep learning or other powerful machine learning approaches. Although offering state-of-the art predictive performance, the predictions made by deep learning models can be difficult to understand. In virtually all biological research, the understanding of how a predictive model works is as important as the raw predictive performance. Thus interpretation of deep learning models is an emerging hot topic especially in context of biological research. Here we describe plotMI, a mutual information based model interpretation strategy that can intuitively visualize positional preferences and pairwise interactions learned by any machine learning model trained on sequence data with a defined alphabet as input. PlotMI is freely available at

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