Maria Regina Vindasari, Helmi, Nurfitri Imro’ah

Setiap perusahaan pasti menginginkan proses produksi yang terkendali. Terkait hal itu, pemilihan peta kendali sebagai alat pengendalian kualitas statistik merupakan keputusan yang penting. Umumnya produk yang dihasilkan sebuah perusahaan memiliki jumlah yang bervariasi setiap periodenya serta pengendalian kualitas yang dilakukan lebih sering menghitung kecacatan dari produk yang dihasilkan. Peta kendali yang sesuai pada kasus tersebut adalah peta kendali atribut. Peta kendali atribut adalah peta kendali yang digunakan apabila karakteristik yang digunakan bersifat cacat atau tidak cacat. Pada kasus ini, dapat dipilih peta kendali 15u">  karena jumlah produksi yang dihasilkan bervariasi dan cacat yang dihitung adalah jumlah cacat pada per satuan produk. Perkembangan peta kendali atribut yang semakin pesat memunculkan peta kendali baru yang dinamakan peta kendali Decision on Belief (DOB). Peta kendali ini dikatakan lebih cepat dalam melihat pergeseran data. Terkait hal itu, dilakukan perbandingan kinerja antara peta kendali DOB dan peta kendali 15u">  untuk menganalisis proses produksi crumb rubber pada PT. PQL. Penelitian dilakukan dengan terlebih dahulu membuat peta kendali 15u">  dan peta kendali DOB. Setelah itu dilakukan analisis perbandingan kinerja dari peta kendali DOB dan peta kendali 15u"> . Hasil dari penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa kinerja dari peta kendali DOB lebih cepat mendeteksi pergeseran data sehingga dapat meminimalisir kemungkinan terjadinya proses yang tidak terkendali. Kata Kunci: Pengendalian kualitas statistik, Peta kendali 15u"> , Peta kendali DOB.

2014 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 2487-2495 ◽  
Santiago E. Paje ◽  
Victor F. Vazquez ◽  
Fernando Teran ◽  
Urbano Vinuela

Goutam Chandra Karar ◽  
Nipu Modak

The experimental investigation of reciprocating motion between the aluminum doped crumb rubber /epoxy composite and the steel ball has been carried out under Reciprocating Friction Tester, TR-282 to study the wear and coefficient of frictions using different normal loads (0.4Kg, 0.7Kgand1Kg), differentfrequencies (10Hz, 25Hz and 40Hz).The wear is a function of normal load, reciprocating frequency, reciprocating duration and the composition of the material. The percentage of aluminum presents in the composite changesbut the other components remain the same.The four types of composites are fabricated by compression molding process having 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% Al. The effect of different parameters such as normal load, reciprocating frequency and percentage of aluminum has been studied. It is observed that the wear and coefficient of friction is influenced by the parameters. The tendency of wear goes on decreasing with the increase of normal load and it is minimum for a composite having 10%aluminum at a normal load of 0.7Kg and then goes on increasing at higher loads for all types of composite due to the adhesive nature of the composite. The coefficient of friction goes on decreasing with increasing normal loads due to the formation of thin film as an effect of heat generation with normal load.

Environments ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (6) ◽  
pp. 47
Lim Min Khiong ◽  
Md. Safiuddin ◽  
Mohammad Abdul Mannan ◽  

This paper presents the results of a laboratory-based experimental investigation on the properties of asphalt binder and hot-mix asphalt (HMA) mixes modified by locally available crumb rubber, which was used as a partial replacement of asphalt by weight. In this study, fine crumb rubber with a particle size in the range of 0.3–0.6 mm, obtained from scrap tires, was added to the asphalt binder through the wet process. Crumb rubber contents of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 19% by weight of asphalt were added to the virgin binder in order to prepare the modified asphalt binder samples, while the unmodified asphalt binder was used as the control sample. The crumb rubber modified binder samples were examined for measuring viscosity indirectly using the penetration test, and temperature resistance using the softening point test. Later, both the modified and unmodified asphalt binders were used to produce HMA mixes. Two categories of HMA mix commonly used in Malaysia—namely, AC 14 (dense-graded) and SMA 14 (gap-graded)—were produced using the modified asphalt binders containing 5%, 10%, 15%, and 19% crumb rubber. Two AC 14 and SMA 14 control mixes were also produced, incorporating the unmodified asphalt binder (0% crumb rubber). All of the AC 14 and SMA 14 asphalt mixes were examined in order to determine their volumetric properties, such as bulk density, voids in total mix (VTM), voids in mineral aggregate (VMA), and voids filled with asphalt (VFA). In addition, the Marshall stability, Marshall flow, and stiffness of all of the AC 14 and SMA 14 mixes were determined. Test results indicated that the modified asphalt binders possessed higher viscosity and temperature resistance than the unmodified asphalt binder. The viscosity and temperature resistance of the asphalt binders increased with the increase in their crumb rubber content. The increased crumb rubber content also led to improvements in the volumetric properties (bulk density, VTM, VMA, and VFA) of the AC 14 and SMA 14 mixes. In addition, the performance characteristics of the AC 14 and SMA 14 mixes—such as Marshall stability, Marshall flow, and stiffness—increased with the increase in crumb rubber content. However, the AC 14 mixes performed much better than the SMA 14 mixes. The overall research findings suggest that crumb rubber can be used to produce durable and sustainable HMA mixes, with manifold environmental benefits, for use in flexible pavements carrying the heavy traffic load of highways.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (5) ◽  
pp. 1145
Wei Li ◽  
Sen Han ◽  
Xiaokang Fu ◽  
Ke Huang

The aims of this paper are to prepare disintegrated high volume crumb rubber asphalt (DHVRA) with low viscosity, good workability and low-temperature performance by adding disintegrating agent (DA) in the preparation process, and to further analyze the disintegrating mechanism and evaluated high-temperature and low-temperature rheological properties. To obtain DHVRA with excellent comprehensive performance, the optimum DA dosage was determined. Based on long-term disintegrating tests and the Fluorescence Microscopy (FM) method, the correlations between key indexes and crumb rubber (CR) particle diameter was analyzed, and the evaluation indicator and disintegrating stage division standard were put forward. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) was used to reveal the reaction mechanism, and the contact angle test method was adopted to evaluate the surface free energy (SFE). In addition, the high-temperature and low-temperature rheological properties were measured, and the optimum CR content was proposed. Results indicated that the optimum DA dosage was 7.5‰, and the addition of DA promoted the melt decomposition of CR, reduced the viscosity and improved the storage stability. The 135 °C rotational viscosity (RV) of DHVRA from mixing for 3 h could be reduced to 1.475 Pa·s, and the softening point difference was even less than 2 °C. The linear correlation between 135 °C RV and the diameter of CR particle in rubber asphalt system was as high as 0.968, and the viscosity decay rate (VDR) was used as the standard to divide the disintegrating process into a fast disintegrating stage, stable disintegrating stage and slight disintegrating stage. Compared to common rubber asphalt (CRA), DHVRA has an absorption peak at 960 cm−1 caused by trans olefin = C-H, and higher molecular weight and polar component of surface energy. Compared with CRA, although the high-temperature performance of DHVRA decreases slightly, the low-temperature relaxation ability can be greatly improved.

Recycling ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 19
Christina Makoundou ◽  
Kenth Johansson ◽  
Viveca Wallqvist ◽  
Cesare Sangiorgi

The substitution of mineral aggregates with crumb rubber (CR) from waste end-of-life tires (ELTs) in the asphalt concretes, has been considered a sustainable paving industry approach. The rubber has been used to construct pavements with proven enhanced resilience and improved durability. However, some issues related to the rubber’s surface adhesion or swelling may arise with these practices and generate complications (binder consumption, temperatures, mixing times). One possible solution to overcome the materials’ compatibility problems is to pre-treat the CR’s surface before its incorporation into the asphalt mixes to allow a surface functionalization that can enhance coverage and cohesion inside the mixes. The physical treatments using radiations-based beam are already exploited in the plastic recycling industries avoiding the use of chemicals in considerable amounts. Such treatments permit the recovering of large quantities of polymer-based materials and the enhancement of interfacial properties. This article provides an overview of existing surface treatments of polymers and especially rubber, including gamma ray, UV-ozone, microwaves, and plasma. Several studies have shown an overall improvement of the rubber surface’s reactive properties due to contaminant removal or roughness enhancement attributed to cross-linking or scission reactions occurring on the rubber’s surface layer. With those properties, the asphalt mixes’ phase stability properties are increased when the pre-treated rubber is incorporated. The treatments would permit to increase the CR quantities, yet reduce the layer stiffness, and improve the durability and the sustainability of future advanced road pavements.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (15) ◽  
pp. 8172
Kechen Wang ◽  
Xiangyu Chu ◽  
Jiao Lin ◽  
Qilin Yang ◽  
Zepeng Fan ◽  

Tire—pavement interaction behaviours result in large amounts of wearing waste matter, which attaches to the surface of the pavement and is directly exposed to the surrounding environment. This kind of matter imposes a great challenge to the environment of the road area. The current study is devoted to carrying out a comprehensive investigation of the formation mechanism of tire—pavement wearing waste (TPWW), as well as the resulting environmental risks. A self-developed piece of accelerated polishing equipment, the Harbin advanced polishing machine (HAPM), was employed to simulate the wearing process between vehicle tires and pavement surfaces, and the TPWW was collected to conduct morphological, physical, and chemical characterisations. The results from this study show that the production rate of TPWW decreases with the increase in polishing duration, and the coarse particles (diameters greater than 0.425 mm) account for most of the TPWW obtained. The fine fraction (diameter smaller than 0.425 mm) of the TPWW comprises variously sized and irregularly shaped rubber particles from the tire, as well as uniformly sized and angular fine aggregates. The environmental analysis results show that volatile alkanes (C9–C16) are the major organic contaminants in TPWW. The Open-Graded Friction Course (OGFC) asphalt mixture containing crumb rubber as a modifier showed the highest risk of heavy metal pollution, and special concern must be given to tire materials for the purpose of improving the environmental conditions of road areas. The use of polyurethane as a binder material in the production of pavement mixtures has an environmental benefit in terms of pollution from both organic contaminants and heavy metals.

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