Shilpa Atwal ◽  
Jitender Thakur

Background: To study the ethical versus generic prescription of statins Methods: Study was conducted on Patients with indications for statins presenting to cardiology OPD,Medicine OPD and Endocrinology OPD and started on statins at PGIMER, Chandigarh, within a period of 9 months. Results: In our study population, amongst the primary prevention group, a larger percentage about 56% were receiving generic prescription of statins and about 44% were receiving ethical prescription of statins .Whereas in secondary prevention group, about 45.5% of patients were receiving generic prescription and 54.5% were receiving ethical prescription . Concluded: In our study population patients were equally prescribed on ethical (49.8%) and generic prescriptions (50.2%). Keywords: Statin, Ethical, Generic

Shilpa Atwal ◽  
Jitender Thakur

Background: To study the use of guidelines in statins prescription at tertiary care centre of North India Methods: Study was conducted on Patients with indications for statins presenting to cardiology OPD,Medicine OPD and Endocrinology OPD and started on statins at PGIMER, Chandigarh, within a period of 9 months. Results: In our study, 81.9% of total study population were receiving statins according to guideline and 18.1% were receiving statins not according to guideline. In the primary prevention group,91(83.5%) patients were receiving statins according to guideline and 18(16.5%) were receiving not according to guideline. In the secondary prevention group, 108(80.6%) patients were receiving statins according to guideline and 26(19.4%) patients were receiving statins not according to guideline. Concluded: In our study, more than two third of patients in our study were receiving prescriptions according to guideline Keywords: Statin, Guideline, Use

PLoS ONE ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 15 (11) ◽  
pp. e0242424
Finn Sigglekow ◽  
Simon Horsburgh ◽  
Lianne Parkin

Background Maintaining adherence to statins reduces the risk of an initial cardiovascular disease (CVD) event in high-risk individuals (primary prevention) and additional CVD events following the first event (secondary prevention). The effectiveness of statin therapy is limited by the level of adherence maintained by the patient. We undertook a nationwide study to compare adherence and discontinuation in primary and secondary prevention patients. Methods Dispensing data from New Zealand community pharmacies were used to identify patients who received their first statin dispensing between 2006 and 2011. The Medication Possession Ratio (MPR) and proportion who discontinued statin medication was calculated for the year following first statin dispensing for patients with a minimum of two dispensings. Adherence was defined as an MPR ≥ 0.8. Previous CVD was identified using hospital discharge records. Multivariable logistic regression was used to control for demographic and statin characteristics. Results Between 2006 and 2011 289,666 new statin users were identified with 238,855 (82.5%) receiving the statin for primary prevention compared to 50,811 (17.5%) who received it for secondary prevention. The secondary prevention group was 1.55 (95% CI 1.51–1.59) times as likely to be adherent and 0.67 (95% CI 0.65–0.69) times as likely to discontinue statin treatment than the primary prevention group. An early gap in statin coverage increased the odds of discontinuing statin treatment. Conclusion Adherence to statin medication is higher in secondary prevention than primary prevention. Within each group, a range of demographic and treatment factors further influences adherence.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
S. Samra ◽  
M. Habeb ◽  
R. Nafae

Abstract Background A few people infected by the coronavirus become seriously ill, while others show little to no signs of the symptoms, or are asymptomatic. Recent researches are pointing to the fact that the ABO blood group might play an important role in a person’s susceptibility and severity of COVID-19 infection. Aim of the study: try to understand the relationship between ABO groups and COVID-19 (susceptibility and severity). Results A total of (507) patients were included in this study. The study population was divided based on the ABO blood group into types A+, A−, B+, AB, O+, and O−. Blood group A was associated with high susceptibility of infection: group A, 381 (75.1%); and less common in group O, 97 (19.2%), group B, 18 (3.5%), and group AB, 11 (2.2%). The severity of COVID-19 infection was common in non-blood group O where (20 (7.1%), 4 (26.7%), 2 (11%), and 1 (9%) in type A+, A−, B+, and AB, respectively), while in type O 3.1%. And mechanically ventilated patients were 22 (5.9%), 2 (13.4%), 2 (11.1%), and 1 (1%). Mortality was high in blood groups A and B, 16 (4.37%) and 1 (5.5%), respectively, while in blood group O, it was 1%. Conclusion The incidence, severity, and mortality of COVID-19 were common in non-blood group O. While blood group O was protected against COVID-19.

2015 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 329-331 ◽  
Laila Helaly ◽  
Md Zakir Hossain Sarker ◽  
MA Mannan ◽  
Md Tafazzal Hossain ◽  
Shafi Ahmed ◽  

Objective : The present prospective randomized clinical trial was carried out to assess whether combined cefepime and amikacin as empirical antibiotic therapy was more effective than combined ceftriaxone and gentamicin in the treatment of febrile neutropenic children with malignant diseases.Material & Methods : The study was conducted in the Pediatric Hematology and Oncology unit of BSMMU over a period of 2 years. (From January 2006 to December 2007) Hospitalised pediatric cancer patients who developed febrile neutropenia following chemotherapy or radiotherapy were the study population. A total 64 cases were consecutively included in the study and were randomly assigned to either cefepime & amikacin group (Group- A) or ceftriaxone & gentamicin group (Group-B). The Group-A received cefepime 1500 mg/m2/dose infused over 15 minutes in two divided doses intravenously(IV) while amikacin was administered as thrice daily dose of 200 mg/m2/dose. Patients of Group-B received ceftriaxone 1500 mg/m2/dose in two divided doses and gentamicin 60 mg/m2/dose thrice daily IV. The therapy was continued until absolute neutrophil counts reached >1000 neutrophils/mm3. The treatment outcome was considered successful if fever resolves within 4 days and does not recur within 7 days of completion of therapy. Of the 64 patients, 13 cases were excluded from the final analysis.Results : Bacteria were isolated from culture in only 16.7% of cases Group-A and 9.5% of group-B. Patients E. coli was the most common isolate found in blood specimen (37%). Following intervention, 90% of cefepime & amikacin group and 85.6% of ceftriaxone & gentamicin group improved absolute neutrophil count to >1000/mm3 of blood. Persistence of fever after start of study drug and duration of antibiotic therapy were significantly less in the former group than those in later group (p = 0.049 and p = 0.004 respectively). Only 1 patient of group B had recurrence of infection within 7 days of treatment completion. The mean duration of hospital stay was less in the former group (7.97 ± 2.61 days) than that in the latter group (11.00 ± 3.42 days) (p = 0.06). Evaluation of final outcome shows that majority (86.6%) of cefepime & amikacin group had successful outcome, while majority of ceftriaxone & gentamicin group (81%) failed to resolve infection with continuation of fever for > 4 days.Conclusion : The study concluded that combined cefepime and amikacin is a better option for empirical treatment of fever and neutropenia in children with malignancies than combined ceftriaxone and gentamicin (p<0.001).Northern International Medical College Journal Vol.5(2) 2014: 329-331

Shi Ying Tan ◽  
Heather Cronin ◽  
Stephen Byrne ◽  
Adrian O’Donovan ◽  
Antoinette Tuthill

Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Use of aspirin has been shown to be of benefit for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes; benefits in primary prevention have not been clearly proven. Aims This study aims to (a) determine if aspirin is prescribed appropriately in type 2 diabetes for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and (b) evaluate whether there are differences in aspirin prescribing according to where people receive their care. Design Cross-sectional study Methods The medical records of individuals with type 2 diabetes aged over 18 years and attending Elmwood Primary Care Centre and Cork University Hospital Diabetes outpatient clinics (n = 400) between February and August 2017 were reviewed. Results There were 90 individuals exclusively attending primary care and 310 persons attending shared care. Overall, 49.0% (n = 196) of those were prescribed aspirin, of whom 42.3% were using it for secondary prevention. Aspirin was used significantly more in people attending shared care (p < 0.001). About 10.8% of individuals with diabetes and CVD attending shared care met guidelines for, but were not prescribed aspirin. Conclusion A significant number of people with type 2 diabetes who should have been prescribed aspirin for secondary prevention were not receiving it at the time of study assessment. In contrast, a substantial proportion who did not meet criteria for aspirin use was prescribed it for primary prevention.

2016 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 189-194 ◽  
Mushtaque Ahmad Rana ◽  
Mohammad Abu Faisal ◽  
Mohammad Enamul Karim ◽  
Abu Raihan Siddique ◽  
Dewan Saifuddin Ahmed ◽  

Malnutrition is a common but frequently overlooked problem among patients with cirrhosis of liver. Malnourished cirrhotic patients have a higher rate of complications and an overall increased mortality. Identifying these patients is of great clinical importance. This study was carried out to assess nutritional status of cirrhotic patients to identify those who are malnourished and to see the relationship between severity of liver disease and malnutrition. 105 patients were selected by purposive type sampling. Nutritional status was assessed by 3 anthropometric assessment tools- body mass index (BMI), mid upper arm muscle circumference (MAMC) and triceps skin fold thickness (TST). Severity of liver disease was assessed by Child-Pugh (CP) score. Severe malnutrition was defined as MAMC and TST <5th percentile, calculated from standard tables, and as BMI <16. Among 105 patients 18, 49 and 38 were of Child-Pugh group (CP group) A, B and C respectively. Anthropometric assessment revealed that, when assessed by MAMC 63% of the study population were severely malnourished. Based on MAMC, severe malnutrition was present in 39%, 63% and 73% patients in CP group A, B and C, respectively (P<0.05). So, percentage of severely malnourished patient increased with the increase in severity of liver disease. Based on TST, 28%, 34% and 50% patients were severely malnourished in CP-A, CP-B and in CP-C (p>0.05) respectively which showed a trend similar to that by MAMC. Whereas, based on BMI, 0%, 8% and 2% patients were severely malnourished respectively (p>0.05). It showed a decrease in the percentage of severely malnourished patient in CP group C than in CP group B. In this study, nutritional assessment by TST and MAMC revealed that severe malnutrition was common in our study population and assessment by MAMC showed a statistically significant association of severity of liver disease with severe malnutrition.Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.15(2) 2016 p.189-194

1994 ◽  
Vol 94 (2) ◽  
pp. 262-263
Hemalini Mehta ◽  
Robert F. Lemanske

Purpose of the Study. To determine the effects of therapeutic β2 agonists (specifically salbutamol) on growth hormone (GH) response to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) in children with asthma. Study Population. Fifteen prepubertal children with asthma, ages 6-11 (average age of 9) with normal or normal short stature were studied. Those with an endocrine abnormality, nutritional deficiency, psychological deprivation, or other systemic disease were excluded. Only those children with known bronchial asthma, who showed a 15% decrease of the 1-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) with methacholine challenge were included. All patients were asymptomatic, and had not experienced an asthma exacerbation, respiratory infection or allergen exposure in the month preceding the study. No child was on medications. Methods. Subjects were divided into two groups. Both groups had baseline GH response to GHRH determined. After an overnight fast, GH levels were obtained the following morning at -60, 0, and then every 15 minutes until 120 minutes after GHRH administration. Two days following this, Group A received salbutamol (0.125 mg/kg) orally at -60 minutes and GH response to GHRH was remeasured. Group B received aerosolized salbutamol (2 mg over 15 minutes) (details of administration were not specified by the authors). All serum GH levels were measured in duplicate by immunoradiometric assay (sensitivity of 0.1 µg/L). Findings. Basal GH levels were similar in both groups. Orally administered salbutamol (Group A) markedly inhibited GH response to GHRH (peak of 3.7 ± 0.6 vs. 18.6 ± 4.7 g/L). Inhaled salbutamol (Group B), although blunting the GHRH-induced GH response, did so to a lesser extent (peak of 20.0 ± 7.5 vs. 35.8 ± 9.4 g/L, P &lt; .02).

BMJ Open ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
pp. e020309 ◽  
Sofia Axia Karlsson ◽  
Christel Hero ◽  
Ann-Marie Svensson ◽  
Stefan Franzén ◽  
Mervete Miftaraj ◽  

ObjectivesTo analyse the association between refill adherence to lipid-lowering medications, and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.DesignCohort study.SettingNational population-based cohort of Swedish patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Participants86 568 patients aged ≥18 years, registered with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Swedish National Diabetes Register, who filled at least one prescription for lipid-lowering medication use during 2007–2010, 87% for primary prevention.Exposure and outcome measuresRefill adherence of implementation was assessed using the medication possession ratio (MPR), representing the proportion of days with medications on hand during an 18-month exposure period. MPR was categorised by five levels (≤20%, 21%–40%, 41%–60%, 61%–80% and >80%). Patients without medications on hand for ≥180 days were defined as non-persistent. Risk of CVD (myocardial infarction, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and unstable angina) and mortality by level of MPR and persistence was analysed after the exposure period using Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier, adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic status, concurrent medications and clinical characteristics.ResultsThe hazard ratios for CVD ranged 1.33–2.36 in primary prevention patients and 1.19–1.58 in secondary prevention patients, for those with MPR ≤80% (p<0.0001). The mortality risk was similar regardless of MPR level. The CVD risk was 74% higher in primary prevention patients and 33% higher in secondary prevention patients, for those who were non-persistent (p<0.0001). The mortality risk was 6% higher in primary prevention patients and 18% higher in secondary prevention patients, for non-persistent patients (p<0.0001).ConclusionsHigher refill adherence to lipid-lowering medications was associated with lower risk of CVD in primary and secondary prevention patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

2006 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 4-10 ◽  
Eugene S. Paykel

AbstractThe aim of this Editorial is to discuss depression as an important disorder for public health. The literature regarding epidemiology, consequences, adequacy of service delivery and prevention of depression is reviewed. Depression is a common disorder with high lifetime rates, particularly in women, and those experiencing social adversity. It is a major cause of disability, and causes death both by suicide and due to raised rates of physical disorders. Many cases are undiagnosed and treatment is often inadequate. Primary prevention is not yet easily feasible but secondary prevention by earlier recognition, public and professional education, can produce benefits. There is a need for public health programmes aimed at improving recognition, treatment, and reducing consequences.

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