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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Esther Herrera-Luis ◽  
Annie Li ◽  
Angel C. Y. Mak ◽  
Javier Perez-Garcia ◽  
Jennifer R. Elhawary ◽  

Abstract Introduction DNA methylation studies have associated methylation levels at different CpG sites or genomic regions with lung function. Moreover, genetic ancestry has been associated with lung function in Latinos. However, no epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of lung function has been performed in this population. Here, we aimed to identify DNA methylation patterns associated with lung function in pediatric asthma among Latinos. Results We conducted an EWAS in whole blood from 250 Puerto Rican and 148 Mexican American children and young adults with asthma. A total of five CpGs exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold of p = 1.17 × 10−7 in the combined analyses from Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans: cg06035600 (MAP3K6, p = 6.13 × 10−8) showed significant association with pre-bronchodilator Tiffeneau–Pinelli index, the probes cg00914963 (TBC1D16, p = 1.04 × 10−7), cg16405908 (MRGPRE, p = 2.05 × 10−8), and cg07428101 (MUC2, p = 5.02 × 10−9) were associated with post-bronchodilator forced vital capacity (FVC), and cg20515679 (KCNJ6) with post-bronchodilator Tiffeneau–Pinelli index (p = 1.13 × 10−8). However, these markers did not show significant associations in publicly available data from Europeans (p > 0.05). A methylation quantitative trait loci analysis revealed that methylation levels at these CpG sites were regulated by genetic variation in Latinos and the Biobank-based Integrative Omics Studies (BIOS) consortium. Additionally, two differentially methylated regions in REXOC and AURKC were associated with pre-bronchodilator Tiffeneau–Pinelli index (adjusted p < 0.05) in Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. Moreover, we replicated some of the previous differentially methylated signals associated with lung function in non-Latino populations. Conclusions We replicated previous associations of epigenetic markers with lung function in whole blood and identified novel population-specific associations shared among Latino subgroups.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Anna Witasp ◽  
Karin Luttropp ◽  
Abdul Rashid Qureshi ◽  
Peter Barany ◽  
Olof Heimbürger ◽  

AbstractChronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging public health priority associated with high mortality rates and demanding treatment regimens, including life-style changes, medications or even dialysis or renal transplantation. Unavoidably, the uremic milieu disturbs homeostatic processes such as DNA methylation and other vital gene regulatory mechanisms. Here, we aimed to investigate how dialysis or kidney transplantation modifies the epigenome-wide methylation signature over 12 months of treatment. We used the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip on whole blood samples from CKD-patients undergoing either dialysis (n = 11) or kidney transplantation (n = 12) and 24 age- and sex-matched population-based controls. At baseline, comparison between patients and controls identified several significant (PFDR < 0.01) CpG methylation differences in genes with functions relevant to inflammation, cellular ageing and vascular calcification. Following 12 months, the global DNA methylation pattern of patients approached that seen in the control group. Notably, 413 CpG sites remained differentially methylated at follow-up in both treatment groups compared to controls. Together, these data indicate that the uremic milieu drives genome-wide methylation changes that are partially reversed with kidney failure replacement therapy. Differentially methylated CpG sites unaffected by treatment may be of particular interest as they could highlight candidate genes for kidney disease per se.

Genki Yamato ◽  
Tomoko Kawai ◽  
Norio Shiba ◽  
Junji Ikeda ◽  
Yusuke Hara ◽  

We investigated genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in 64 pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Based on unsupervised clustering with 567 most variably methylated CpG sites, patients were categorized into four clusters associated with genetic alterations. Clusters 1 and 3 were characterized by the presence of known favorable prognostic factors, such as RUNX1-RUNX1T1 fusion and KMT2A rearrangement with low MECOM expression, and biallelic CEBPA mutations (all 8 patients), respectively. Clusters 2 and 4 comprised patients exhibiting molecular features associated with adverse outcomes, namely FLT3-ITD, KMT2A-PTD, and high PRDM16 expression. Depending on the methylation values of the 1243 CpG sites that were significantly different between FLT3-ITD positive and negative AML, patients were categorized into three clusters: A, B, and C. The STAT5-binding motif was most frequently found close to the 1,243 CpG sites. All eight patients with FLT3-ITD in Cluster A harbored high PRDM16 expression and experienced adverse events, whereas only one of seven patients with FLT3-ITD in the other clusters experienced adverse events. PRDM16 expression levels were also related to DNA methylation patterns, which were drastically changed at the cutoff value of PRDM16/ABL1 = 0.10. The assay for transposase-accessible chromatin sequencing of AMLs supported enhanced chromatin accessibilities around genomic regions, such as HOXB cluster genes, SCHIP1, and PRDM16, which were associated with DNA methylation changes in AMLs with FLT3-ITD and high PRDM16 expression. Our results suggest that DNA methylation levels at specific CpG sites are useful to support genetic alterations and gene expression patterns of patients with pediatric AML.

Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 96
Esbeidy García-Flores ◽  
José Manuel Rodríguez-Pérez ◽  
Verónica Marusa Borgonio-Cuadra ◽  
Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón ◽  
Juan Calderón-Colmenero ◽  

The TBX5 gene regulates morphological changes during heart development, and it has been associated with epigenetic abnormalities observed in congenital heart defects (CHD). The aim of this research was to evaluate the association between DNA methylation levels of the TBX5 gene promoter and congenital septal defects. DNA methylation levels of six CpG sites in the TBX5 gene promoter were evaluated using pyrosequencing analysis in 35 patients with congenital septal defects and 48 controls. Average methylation levels were higher in individuals with congenital septal defects than in the controls (p < 0.004). In five CpG sites, we also found higher methylation levels in patients than in the controls (p < 0.05). High methylation levels were associated with congenital septal defects (OR = 3.91; 95% CI = 1.02–14.8; p = 0.045). The analysis of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) showed that the methylation levels of the TBX5 gene could be used as a risk marker for congenital septal defects (AUC = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.56–0.80; p = 0.004). Finally, an analysis of environmental factors indicated that maternal infections increased the risk (OR = 2.90; 95% CI = 1.01–8.33; p = 0.048) of congenital septal defects. Our data suggest that a high DNA methylation of the TBX5 gene could be associated with congenital septal defects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
N. Kuzub ◽  
V. Smialkovska ◽  
V. Momot ◽  
V. Moseiko ◽  
O. Lushchak ◽  

Epigenetic clocks are the models, which use CpG methylation levels for the age prediction of an organism. Although there were several epigenetic clocks developed there is a demand for development and evaluation of the relatively accurate and sensitive epigenetic clocks that can be used for routine research purposes. In this study, we evaluated two epigenetic clock models based on the 4 CpG sites and 2 CpG sites in the human genome using the pyrosequencing method for their methylation level estimation. The study sample included 153 people from the Ukrainian population with the age from 0 to 101. Both models showed a high correlation with the chronological age in our study sample (R2 = 0.85 for the 2 CpG model and R2 = 0.92 for the 4 CpG model). We also estimated the accuracy metrics of the age prediction in our study sample. For the age group from 18 to 80 MAD was 5.1 years for the 2 CpG model and 4.1 years for the 4 CpG model. In this regard, we can conclude, that the models evaluated in the study have good age predictive accuracy, and can be used for the epigenetic age evaluation due to the relative simplicity and time-effectiveness.

Jae-Won Cho ◽  
Hyo Sup Shim ◽  
Chang Young Lee ◽  
Seong Yong Park ◽  
Min Hee Hong ◽  

AbstractLung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) is a subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). LUSC occurs at the bronchi, shows a squamous appearance, and often occurs in smokers. To determine the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms of tumorigenesis, we performed a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in tumor and adjacent normal tissues from LUSC patients. With the Infinium Methylation EPIC Array, > 850,000 CpG sites, including ~350,000 CpG sites for enhancer regions, were profiled, and the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) overlapping promoters (pDMRs) and enhancers (eDMRs) between tumor and normal tissues were identified. Dimension reduction based on DMR profiles revealed that eDMRs alone and not pDMRs alone can differentiate tumors from normal tissues with the equivalent performance of total DMRs. We observed a stronger negative correlation of LUSC-specific gene expression with methylation for enhancers than promoters. Target genes of eDMRs rather than pDMRs were found to be enriched for tumor-associated genes and pathways. Furthermore, DMR methylation associated with immune infiltration was more frequently observed among enhancers than promoters. Our results suggest that methylation of enhancer regions rather than promoters play more important roles in epigenetic regulation of tumorigenesis and immune infiltration in LUSC.

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 96
Alex Caulton ◽  
Ken G. Dodds ◽  
Kathryn M. McRae ◽  
Christine Couldrey ◽  
Steve Horvath ◽  

Robust biomarkers of chronological age have been developed in humans and model mammalian species such as rats and mice using DNA methylation data. The concept of these so-called “epigenetic clocks” has emerged from a large body of literature describing the relationship between genome-wide methylation levels and age. Epigenetic clocks exploit this phenomenon and use small panels of differentially methylated cytosine (CpG) sites to make robust predictions of chronological age, independent of tissue type. Here, we present highly accurate livestock epigenetic clocks for which we have used the custom mammalian methylation array “HorvathMammalMethyl40” to construct the first epigenetic clock for domesticated goat (Capra hircus), cattle (Bos taurus), Red (Cervus elaphus) and Wapiti deer (Cervus canadensis) and composite-breed sheep (Ovis aries). Additionally, we have constructed a ‘farm animal clock’ for all species included in the study, which will allow for robust predictions to be extended to various breeds/strains. The farm animal clock shows similarly high accuracy to the individual species’ clocks (r > 0.97), utilizing only 217 CpG sites to estimate age (relative to the maximum lifespan of the species) with a single mathematical model. We hypothesise that the applications of this livestock clock could extend well beyond the scope of chronological age estimates. Many independent studies have demonstrated that a deviation between true age and clock derived molecular age is indicative of past and/or present health (including stress) status. There is, therefore, untapped potential to utilize livestock clocks in breeding programs as a predictor for age-related production traits.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 65
Tahir Usman ◽  
Nawab Ali ◽  
Yachun Wang ◽  
Ying Yu

The present study was designed to evaluate the gene expression and DNA methylation level in the promoter region of the CD4 and the JAK-STAT-pathway-related genes. A total of 24 samples were deployed in the gene expression and 118 samples were used in the DNA methylation study. Student’s t-tests were used to analyze the gene expression and DNA methylation. The evaluation of DNA methylation in promoter regions of JAK2 and STAT5A revealed hypo-methylation levels of CpG sites and higher gene expression in cows diagnosed with mastitis as compared to the healthy control, and vice versa in those with CD4. DNA methylation was negatively correlated with gene expression in JAK2, STAT5A, and CD4 genes. Six, two, and four active transcription factors were identified on the CpG sites in the promoter regions of JAK2, STAT5A, and CD4 genes, respectively. Regarding correlation analysis, the DNA methylation levels of CD4 showed significantly higher positive correlations with somatic cell counts (p < 0.05). Findings of the current study inferred that aberrant DNA methylation in the CpG sites at the 1 kb promoter region in JAK2, STAT5A, and CD4 genes due to mastitis in cows can be used as potential epigenetic markers to estimate bovine mastitis susceptibility in dairy cattle.

Fucai Tang ◽  
Zeguang Lu ◽  
Hanqi Lei ◽  
Yongchang Lai ◽  
Zechao Lu ◽  

Background: As an epigenetic alteration, DNA methylation plays an important role in early Wilms tumorigenesis and is possibly used as marker to improve the diagnosis and classification of tumor heterogeneity.Methods: Methylation data, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data, and corresponding clinical information were downloaded from the Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatments (TARGET) database. The prognostic values of DNA methylation subtypes in Wilms tumor were identified.Results: Four prognostic subtypes of Wilms tumor patients were identified by consensus cluster analysis performed on 312 independent prognostic CpG sites. Cluster one showed the best prognosis, whereas Cluster two represented the worst prognosis. Unique CpG sites identified in Cluster one that were not identified in other subtypes were assessed to construct a prognostic signature. The prognostic methylation risk score was closely related to prognosis, and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.802. Furthermore, the risk score based on prognostic signature was identified as an independent prognostic factor for Wilms tumor in univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Finally, the abundance of B cell infiltration was higher in the low-risk group than in the high-risk group, based on the methylation data.Conclusion: Collectively, we divided Wilms tumor cases into four prognostic subtypes, which could efficiently identify high-risk Wilms tumor patients. Prognostic methylation risk scores that were significantly associated with the adverse clinical outcomes were established, and this prognostic signature was able to predict the prognosis of Wilms tumor in children, which may be useful in guiding clinicians in therapeutic decision-making. Further independent studies are needed to validate and advance this hypothesis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
Duan Zeng ◽  
Shen He ◽  
Nan Zhao ◽  
Manji Hu ◽  
Jie Gao ◽  

Based on our previous studies and other evidence, miR-124 is an important biomarker and therapeutic target for major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to clarify the role of miR-124 methylation in MDD and antidepressant effects from the perspective of epigenetics. MethylTarget™ was used to detect methylation levels of the three miR-124 precursor genes (MIR124-1, MIR124-2, and MIR124-3) in 33 pre- and post-treatment MDD patients and 33 healthy controls. A total of 11 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) islands in the three miR-124 precursor genes, including 222 CpG sites, were detected. All CpG islands were hypomethylated in MDD patients when compared to healthy controls and seven CpG regions were still identified with a statistically significant difference after Bonferroni correction. In addition, 137 of 222 CpG sites were found a statistical difference between MDD patients and controls, and 40 CpG sites were still statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. After performing the LASSO regression model, seven biomarkers with differential methylation among 40 CpG sites were identified. Mean methylation score was lower in MDD patients (z = −5.84, p = 5.16E-9). The AUC value reached 0.917 (95% CI: 0.854–0.981) to discriminate MDD and controls. No changes in methylation of the three miR-124 precursor genes were found in MDD patients following antidepressant treatment. The methylation of miR-124 could be a promising diagnostic biomarker for MDD.

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