activation markers
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Niels C. Lory ◽  
Mikolaj Nawrocki ◽  
Martina Corazza ◽  
Joanna Schmid ◽  
Valéa Schumacher ◽  

Antigen recognition by the T-cell receptor induces a cytosolic Ca2+ signal that is crucial for T-cell function. The Ca2+ channel TRPM2 (transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 2) has been shown to facilitate influx of extracellular Ca2+ through the plasma membrane of T cells. Therefore, it was suggested that TRPM2 is involved in T-cell activation and differentiation. However, these results are largely derived from in vitro studies using T-cell lines and non-physiologic means of TRPM2 activation. Thus, the relevance of TRPM2-mediated Ca2+ signaling in T cells remains unclear. Here, we use TRPM2-deficient mice to investigate the function of TRPM2 in T-cell activation and differentiation. In response to TCR stimulation in vitro, Trpm2-/- and WT CD4+ and CD8+ T cells similarly upregulated the early activation markers NUR77, IRF4, and CD69. We also observed regular proliferation of Trpm2-/- CD8+ T cells and unimpaired differentiation of CD4+ T cells into Th1, Th17, and Treg cells under specific polarizing conditions. In vivo, Trpm2-/- and WT CD8+ T cells showed equal specific responses to Listeria monocytogenes after infection of WT and Trpm2-/- mice and after transfer of WT and Trpm2-/- CD8+ T cells into infected recipients. CD4+ T-cell responses were investigated in the model of anti-CD3 mAb-induced intestinal inflammation, which allows analysis of Th1, Th17, Treg, and Tr1-cell differentiation. Here again, we detected similar responses of WT and Trpm2-/- CD4+ T cells. In conclusion, our results argue against a major function of TRPM2 in T-cell activation and differentiation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Marine Peyneau ◽  
Vanessa Granger ◽  
Paul-Henri Wicky ◽  
Dounia Khelifi-Touhami ◽  
Jean-François Timsit ◽  

AbstractCOVID-19 can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome, leading to death in many individuals. Evidence of a deleterious role of the innate immune system is accumulating, but the precise mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the links between circulating innate phagocytes and severity in COVID-19 patients. We performed in-depth phenotyping of neutrophil and monocyte subpopulations and measured soluble activation markers in plasma. Additionally, anti-microbial functions (phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and NETosis) were evaluated on fresh cells from patients. Neutrophils and monocytes had a strikingly disturbed phenotype, and elevated concentrations of activation markers (calprotectin, myeloperoxidase, and neutrophil extracellular traps) were measured in plasma. Critical patients had increased CD13low immature neutrophils, LOX-1 + and CCR5 + immunosuppressive neutrophils, and HLA-DRlow downregulated monocytes. Markers of immature and immunosuppressive neutrophils were strongly associated with severity. Moreover, neutrophils and monocytes of critical patients had impaired antimicrobial functions, which correlated with organ dysfunction, severe infections, and mortality. Together, our results strongly argue in favor of a pivotal role of innate immunity in COVID-19 severe infections and pleads for targeted therapeutic options.

2022 ◽  
Christoph Kessel ◽  
Isabelle Kone-Paut ◽  
Stephanie Tellier ◽  
Alexandre Belot ◽  
Katja Masjosthusmann ◽  

Abstract Purpose A recent phase II open-label study of the interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) anakinra in treating IVIG-resistant Kawasaki Disease (KD) patients reported promising results. Here, we aimed to characterize the immunological impact of IL-1 blockade in this unique study population. Methods Patients’ and control sera and supernatants of cells (whole blood, neutrophils, coronary artery endothelial cells) stimulated with recombinant IL-1β were analyzed for single or multiple marker (n=22) expression by ELISA or multiplexed bead array assay. Data were analyzed using unsupervised hierarchical clustering, multiple correlation and multi-comparison statistics and were compared to retrospective analyses of KD transcriptomics. Results Inflammation in IVIG-resistant KD (n=16) is hallmarked by over-expression of innate immune mediators (particularly IL-6>CXCL10>S100A12>IL-1Ra). Those as well as levels of immune or endothelial cell activation markers (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1) declined most significantly in course of anakinra treatment. Prior as well as following IL-1R blockade, over-expression of leucine-rich-α2-glycoprotein 1 (LRG1) associated best with remnant inflammatory activity and the necessity to escalate anakinra dosage and separated inflammatory KD patients from sJIA-MAS (n=13) and MIS-C (n=4). Protein as well as retrospective gene expression analyses indicated tight association of LRG1 with IL-1β signaling and neutrophilia, while particularly neutrophil stimulation with recombinant IL-1β resulted in concentration-dependent LRG1 release. Conclusion Our study identifies LRG1 as known trigger of endothelial activation and cardiac re-modelling to associate with IL-1β signaling in KD. Besides a potential patho-mechanistic implication of these findings, our data suggest blood leukocyte and neutrophil counts to best predict response to IL-1Ra treatment in IVIG-resistant KD.

2021 ◽  
Rui Peng ◽  
Wen Dai ◽  
Di Li ◽  
Yan Li

Abstract Backgrounds: Gonadal hormone deficiency is associated with the development of depression, but what mediates this association is unclear. To test the possibility that it reflects neuroimmune and neuroinflammatory processes, we analyzed how gonadal hormone deficiency and replacement affect microglial activation and inflammatory response during the development of depressive symptomatology in gonadectomized male mice. Methods: Adult male ICR mice received gonadectomy. Gonadal hormone levels, neuroinflammation, mciroglial activation and depressive behaviors were evaluated 7 days, 14 days, and 30 days later. Furthermore, the neuroprotective mechanism of treatment with testosterone and estradiol on depressive symptomatology were also observed.Results: Testosterone level and the ratio of testosterone to estradiol in the serum and brain tissue of mice exposed to 3-35 days of chronic unpredictable stress were much lower than in control animals. Gonadal hormone sustained deficiency in gonadectomized mice and subsequent led to acute inflammation at day 7 following castration. Activating microglia in mice exposed to 7 days of castration subsequently suppressed the proliferation of microglia, such that their numbers in hippocampus and cortex were lower than the numbers in sham-operated mice after 30 days of castration. Here, we showed that gonadal hormone deficiency induces Traf6-mediated microglia activation, a type of inflammatory mediator. Microglia treated in this way for long time showed down-regulation of activation markers, abnormal morphology and depressive-like behaviors. Restoration and maintenance of a fixed ratio of testosterone to estradiol significantly suppressed microglial activation, neuronal necroptosis, dramatically inducing hippocampal neurogenesis and reducing depressive behaviors via the suppression of Traf6/TAK1 pathway. Conclusions: These findings suggest that activated or immunoreactive microglia contribute to gonadal hormone deficiency-induced depression, as well as testosterone and estradiol exert synergistic anti-depressant effects via suppressing microglial activaton in gonadectomized male mice, possibly through Traf6 signaling.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 118
Horia Bumbea ◽  
Ana Maria Vladareanu ◽  
Ion Dumitru ◽  
Viola Maria Popov ◽  
Cristina Ciufu ◽  

Background and objectives: In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), extensive bleeding is one of the most frequent causes of death. Impaired activation and aggregation processes were identified in previous studies on platelet behaviour associated with this disease. This study’s aim was to examine platelet function in correlation with other haemorrhage risk factors (fever, sepsis, recent bleeding, uraemia, leucocytosis, haematocrit value, treatment). Design and methods: The analysis of platelet surface proteins (Glycoprotein Ib-IX (CD42b, CD42a), Glycoprotein IIb-IIIa (CD41, CD61), p-selectin (CD62P), granulophysin (CD63)) was conducted by flowcytometry from samples of whole blood in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia in different stages of diagnosis and therapy (n = 22) in comparison with healthy human controls (n = 10). Results and interpretations: Our results show a significant decrease in fluorescence level associated with platelet activation markers (CD63 (14.11% vs. 40.78 % p < 0.05); CD62P (15.26% vs. 28.23% p < 0.05)); adhesion markers (CD42b (69.08% vs. 84.41% p < 0.05)) and aggregation markers (CD61 (83.79% vs. 98.62% p < 0.001)) in patients compared to controls. The levels of CD41 (80.62% vs. 86.31%, p = 0.290) and CD42a (77.98% vs. 94.15%, p = 0.99) demonstrate no significant differences in the two groups. Conclusion: The AML patients present changes in adhesion receptors and activation markers, suggesting a functional defect or denatured intracellular signalling in platelets. The exposed data indicate that flow cytometry can effectively identify multiple functional platelet impairments in AML pathogenesis.

2021 ◽  
Dina R. Weilhammer ◽  
Nicholas R. Hum ◽  
Feliza A. Bourguet ◽  
Aimy Sebastian ◽  
Doris Lam ◽  

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne virus capable of causing hepatitis, encephalitis, blindness, hemorrhagic syndrome, and death in humans and livestock. Upon aerosol infection with RVFV, the brain is a major site of viral replication and tissue damage, yet pathogenesis in this organ has been understudied. Here, we investigated the immune response in the brain of RVFV infected mice. In response to infection, microglia initiate robust transcriptional upregulation of antiviral immune genes, as well as increased levels of activation markers and cytokine secretion that is dependent on mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) and independent of toll-like receptors 3 and 7. In vivo, Mavs-/- mice displayed enhanced susceptibility to RVFV as determined by increased brain viral burden and higher mortality. Single-cell RNA sequence analysis identified microglia-specific defects in type I interferon and interferon responsive gene expression in Mavs-/- mice, as well as dysregulated lymphocyte infiltration. The results of this study provide a crucial step towards understanding the precise molecular mechanisms by which RVFV infection is controlled in the brain and will help inform the development of vaccines and antiviral therapies that are effective in preventing encephalitis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 110
Camille Jacques ◽  
Mathias Chatelais ◽  
Karim Fekir ◽  
Louis Fauconnier ◽  
Manon Mellier ◽  

This study aimed at evaluating the effects of the micro-immunotherapy medicine (MIM) 2LEID, both in vitro and in vivo, on several components of the innate and adaptive immune system. MIM increased the phagocytic activity of macrophages, and it augmented the expression of the activation markers CD69 and HLA-DR in NK cells and monocytes/macrophages, respectively. The effect of MIM was evaluated in a model of respiratory infection induced by influenza A virus administration to immunocompetent mice in which it was able to improve neutrophil recruitment within the lungs (p = 0.1051) and slightly increased the circulating levels of IgM (p = 0.1655). Furthermore, MIM stimulated the proliferation of CD3-primed T lymphocytes and decreased the secretion of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 in CD14+-derived macrophages. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were finally used to explore the effect of MIM on endothelial cells, in which it slightly increased the expression of immune-related markers such as HLA-I, CD137L, GITRL, PD-L1 and ICAM-1. In conclusion, the present study suggests that MIM might be a promising nonspecific (without antigen specificity) immunostimulant drug in preventing and early treating respiratory infections, but not only exclusively, as it would gently support several facets of the immune system and host defenses.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13660
Mawj Mandwie ◽  
Jocelyn Karunia ◽  
Aram Niaz ◽  
Kevin A. Keay ◽  
Giuseppe Musumeci ◽  

High-fat diet (HFD)-induced comorbid cognitive and behavioural impairments are thought to be the result of persistent low-grade neuroinflammation. Metformin, a first-line medication for the treatment of type-2 diabetes, seems to ameliorate these comorbidities, but the underlying mechanism(s) are not clear. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are neuroprotective peptides endowed with anti-inflammatory properties. Alterations to the PACAP/VIP system could be pivotal during the development of HFD-induced neuroinflammation. To unveil the pathogenic mechanisms underlying HFD-induced neuroinflammation and assess metformin’s therapeutic activities, (1) we determined if HFD-induced proinflammatory activity was present in vulnerable brain regions associated with the development of comorbid behaviors, (2) investigated if the PACAP/VIP system is altered by HFD, and (3) assessed if metformin rescues such diet-induced neurochemical alterations. C57BL/6J male mice were divided into two groups to receive either standard chow (SC) or HFD for 16 weeks. A further HFD group received metformin (HFD + M) (300 mg/kg BW daily for 5 weeks) via oral gavage. Body weight, fasting glucose, and insulin levels were measured. After 16 weeks, the proinflammatory profile, glial activation markers, and changes within the PI3K/AKT intracellular pathway and the PACAP/VIP system were evaluated by real-time qPCR and/or Western blot in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. Our data showed that HFD causes widespread low-grade neuroinflammation and gliosis, with regional-specific differences across brain regions. HFD also diminished phospho-AKT(Ser473) expression and caused significant disruptions to the PACAP/VIP system. Treatment with metformin attenuated these neuroinflammatory signatures and reversed PI3K/AKT and PACAP/VIP alterations caused by HFD. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that metformin treatment rescues HFD-induced neuroinflammation in vulnerable brain regions, most likely by a mechanism involving the reinstatement of PACAP/VIP system homeostasis. Data also suggests that the PI3K/AKT pathway, at least in part, mediates some of metformin’s beneficial effects.

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