scholarly journals Epidemiology, diagnosis, and assessment of diabetes mellitus in the elderly population: a purposive review

The elderly population with diabetes mellitus is rapidly growing worldwide and has become a major social burden with significant impact on health and economics. This social category requires considerations that are not traditionally associated with diabetes mellitus management. Several epidemiological studies have shown that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus increases with advancing age. According to the recent International Diabetes Federation (IDF) published data, the number of people with diabetes mellitus among those 65 and over has reached 136 million (19.3%) with more frequent diabetes mellitus complications and co-morbidities compared to the young counterparts. Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of death and the quality of life is strongly impacted by geriatric syndromes such as poor vision, dementia and functional dependence. The elderly diabetic population is classified into three categories; the robust, the fragile and the patient at the end of life. In practical terms, they can also be classified into two categories: the autonomous patients and the dependent patients, requiring support and assistance. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, elderly, epidemiology, geriatric syndromes, geriatric evaluation.

2019 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 33-36
Animesh Gupta ◽  
Soumya K. Inamadar ◽  
Ashish Goel

Geriatric syndromes consist of common clinical conditions affecting the elderly population. They lead to multiple, interacting medical and social deficits that increase the risk of adverse health outcomes, including dependence, institutionalization and also death. Research over the last few decades, in this area of medicine, has led to evolution of newer syndromes that pose a greater challenge to the physician. The present review aims to provide a synopsis of some of the newer syndromes like frailty, osteosarcopenia, sleep disorders and oropharyngeal dysphagia that have emerged in geriatric literature in recent times.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 183
Anna Izzo ◽  
Elena Massimino ◽  
Gabriele Riccardi ◽  
Giuseppe Della Pepa

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents a major health burden for the elderly population, affecting approximately 25% of people over the age of 65 years. This percentage is expected to increase dramatically in the next decades in relation to the increased longevity of the population observed in recent years. Beyond microvascular and macrovascular complications, sarcopenia has been described as a new diabetes complication in the elderly population. Increasing attention has been paid by researchers and clinicians to this age-related condition—characterized by loss of skeletal muscle mass together with the loss of muscle power and function—in individuals with T2DM; this is due to the heavy impact that sarcopenia may have on physical and psychosocial health of diabetic patients, thus affecting their quality of life. The aim of this narrative review is to provide an update on: (1) the risk of sarcopenia in individuals with T2DM, and (2) its association with relevant features of patients with T2DM such as age, gender, body mass index, disease duration, glycemic control, presence of microvascular or macrovascular complications, nutritional status, and glucose-lowering drugs. From a clinical point of view, it is necessary to improve the ability of physicians and dietitians to recognize early sarcopenia and its risk factors in patients with T2DM in order to make appropriate therapeutic approaches able to prevent and treat this condition.

1987 ◽  
Vol 32 (2) ◽  
pp. 81-86 ◽  
E.R. Jeans ◽  
E. Helmes ◽  
H. Merskey ◽  
J. Mcd. Robertson ◽  
K.A. Rand

The epidemiology of dementia in Canada is not known. However, we report figures on the frequency of dementia in institutions in Ontario based upon the use of a multidimensional observation scale for the assessment of the elderly. These findings on institutionalized patients can be extrapolated to the whole elderly population, but the procedure is clearly too conservative by comparison with findings in other countries and in the light of the known occurrence of numbers of demented patients outside institutions. Ratios in different sutidies for the numbers of patients with dementia outside institutions and within institutions range from 1:1 to 6:1. Using a ratio of 2:1 and applying it to age specific population figures, a prevalence of dementia in Canada of 222,324 for those over 65 is obtained with a rate of 9.4% in that age group. When the figures projected in this way are compared with five epidemiological studies for the rate of dementia elsewhere, the Canadian figure which we have obtained ranks fourth out of six. This estimate provides potential figures on which to base the planning of services, provided that the inferential nature of the estimates is fully recognized.

Beata Dziedzic ◽  
Zofia Sienkiewicz ◽  
Anna Leńczuk-Gruba ◽  
Ewa Kobos ◽  
Wiesław Fidecki ◽  

Introduction: A sharp rise in the population of elderly people, who are more prone to somatic and mental diseases, combined with the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetes-associated complications in this age group, have an impact on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. Aim of the work: The work of the study was the evaluation of the prevalence of depressive symptoms in the elderly population diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods: The pilot study was conducted in 2019 among 200 people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, aged 65 years and above, receiving treatment in a specialist diabetes outpatient clinic. The study was based on a questionnaire aimed at collecting basic sociodemographic and clinical data and the complete geriatric depression scale (GDS, by Yesavage) consisting of 30 questions. Results: The study involved 200 patients receiving treatment in a diabetes outpatient clinic. The mean age of the study subjects was 71.4 ± 5.0 years. The vast majority of the subjects (122; 61%) were women, with men accounting for 39% of the study population (78 subjects). A statistically significant difference in the GDS (p < 0.01) was shown for marital status, body mass index (BMI), duration of diabetes, and the number of comorbidities. Patients with results indicative of symptoms of mild and severe depression were found to have higher BMI, longer disease duration, and a greater number of comorbidities. There were no statistically significant differences in the level of HbA1c. Conclusions: In order to verify the presence of depressive symptoms in the group of geriatric patients with diabetes mellitus, an appropriate screening programme must be introduced to identify those at risk and refer them to specialists, so that treatment can be promptly initiated. Screening tests conducted by nurses might help with patient identification.

2002 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 127-144
GJF Saldanha ◽  
CG Clough ◽  
N Ward

Little is known about the frequency of headache in the elderly population as few epidemiological studies have been carried out. In one year in the USA, 70% of the general population had a headache, 5% of whom sought medical attention. In a large population-based study carried out in East Boston, US, some 17% of patients over 65 yrs of age reported frequent headache, with 53% of women and 36% of men reporting headache in the previous year.

2015 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
pp. CMED.S24742 ◽  
Anna-Maria Borissova ◽  
Alexander Shinkov ◽  
Roussanka Kovatcheva ◽  
Jordan Vlahov ◽  
Lilia Dakovska ◽  

Aim The aim of this study was to compare two nationwide cross-sectional studies of diabetes prevalence in Bulgaria (2006 and 2012) and to assess its dynamics. Material and Methods The two studies included 2396 and 2033 subjects, respectively. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) diagnostic criteria were applied, and the data were weighed for type of settlement and age. Results Diabetes prevalence was found to be 7.9% in 2006 and 9.55% in 2012, P = 0.06, showing an increase of 20.9%. The absolute increase was 0.9% in the females and 2.3% in the males ( P < 0.09). The increase was the largest in those aged 50–59: [9.4%, 2006 vs. 15.7%, 2012, P < 0.01]. Diabetes prevalence increased in the 20–60-year olds by 6.8% and decreased in the elderly by 6.1%. Obesity increased from 26.7 to 32.7%, P < 0.02. Conclusions A significant increase in diabetes prevalence was found that necessitates healthcare measures and resources for community-based awareness and prevention programs.

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