organic chemical
Recently Published Documents





Crystals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
Huan Xu ◽  
Xin Hou ◽  
Lan Chen ◽  
Yang Mei ◽  
Baoping Zhang

Optical properties of wurtzite violet InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) structures, with the same well-plus-barrier thickness, grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on c-plane sapphire substrates, were investigated using temperature-dependent photoluminescence (TDPL) and excitation-power-dependent photoluminescence (PDPL). Two samples were compared: one had a thicker well (InGaN/GaN 3/5 nm); the other had a thicker barrier (InGaN/GaN 2/6 nm). It was found that the GaN barrier thickness in the InGaN/GaN MQWs plays an important role in determining the optical characteristics of the MQWs. The peak energy of the two samples varied with temperature in an S-shape. The thicker-barrier sample had a higher turning point from blueshift to redshift, indicating a stronger localization effect. From the Arrhenius plot of the normalized integrated PL intensity, it was found that the activation energy of the nonradiative process also increased with a thicker barrier thickness. The radiation recombination process was dominated in the sample of the thicker barrier, while the non-radiation process cannot be negligible in the sample of the thicker well.

Coatings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 94
Pepen Arifin ◽  
Heri Sutanto ◽  
Sugianto ◽  
Agus Subagio

We report the growth of non-polar GaN and AlGaN films on Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (PA-MOCVD). Low-temperature growth of GaN or AlN was used as a buffer layer to overcome the lattice mismatch and thermal expansion coefficient between GaN and Si(111) and GaN’s poor wetting on Si(111). As grown, the buffer layer is amorphous, and it crystalizes during annealing to the growth temperature and then serves as a template for the growth of GaN or AlGaN. We used scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization to investigate the influence of the buffer layer on crystal structure, orientation, and the morphology of GaN. We found that the GaN buffer layer is superior to the AlN buffer layer. The thickness of the GaN buffer layer played a critical role in the crystal quality and plane orientation and in reducing the cracks during the growth of GaN/Si(111) layers. The optimum GaN buffer layer thickness is around 50 nm, and by using the optimized GaN buffer layer, we investigated the growth of AlGaN with varying Al compositions. The morphology of the AlGaN films is flat and homogenous, with less than 1 nm surface roughness, and has preferred orientation in a-axis.

Xinbo Hu ◽  
Anatolii A Polyanskii ◽  
Dmytro Abraimov ◽  
Andrey V. Gavrilin ◽  
Hubertus W Weijers ◽  

Abstract Industrial production of REBa2Cu3O7-δ (REBCO) coated conductors made it possible to construct the 32 T magnet, the first successful all-superconducting user magnet to exceed 30 T, which now serves users as SCM4 (Superconducting Magnet) at the NHMFL. Here we present an analysis of the damage that occurred in late-stage proof testing of the 32 T prototype coil after many essential facets of the design had been proven through more than 100 intentionally triggered quenches at fields up to 24 T. This prototype coil was then subjected to accelerated charge-discharge cycles at a rate 44 times faster than its design ramp rate to attempt to address its fatigue tolerance. The extra hysteresis loss of the fast ramps led to heating of the end pancakes which induced, after 55 fatigue cycles, 3 spontaneous quenches at progressively lower currents. Recognizing that the coil was damaged, the pancakes were then unwound and their REBCO tapes run through our continuous in-field transport Ic and remnant-field magnetization monitoring device, YateStar, which revealed 3 highly localized zones of low Ic in the end pancake that induced quench. Careful examination of these zones, especially the most intensely damaged one, revealed that the worst hot spot reached at least 779C during the quenches. Magneto-optical imaging showed that this damaged zone was about 5 mm in diameter and indeed the perpendicular damage length induced in neighboring turns by this localized quench heating was almost as great. Although there is much present concern about fatigue crack propagation from edge defects, we actually attribute this damage not to fatigue but to fluctuations in vortex pinning density due to imperfect BaZrO3 (BZO) nanorod growth that locally reduced the critical current Ic. These localized low-Ic regions then had to shed their excess current into the copper stabilizer, producing intense heating. We provide transmission and scanning electron microscopy evidence for local fluctuations of the BZO pinning structure and relate it to recent work that shows significant variations of 4 K, high field Ic values due to apparent production fluctuations of the growth conditions of the Zr-doped Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) REBCO used for this test magnet.

Aswani Gopakumar Saraswathy Vilasam ◽  
Ponnappa Kechanda Prasanna ◽  
Xiaoming Yuan ◽  
Zahra Azimi ◽  
Felipe Kremer ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
Anita Jemec Kokalj ◽  
Andraž Dolar ◽  
Damjana Drobne ◽  
Marjan Marinšek ◽  
Matej Dolenec ◽  

AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic has increased the use of disposable plastics, including medical masks, which have become a necessity in our daily lives. As these are often improperly disposed of, they represent an important potential source of microplastics in the environment. We prepared microplastics from polypropylene medical masks and characterised their size, shape, organic chemical leaching, and acute toxicity to the planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna. The three layers of the masks were separately milled and characterised. Each of the inner frontal, middle filtering, and outer layers yielded different types of microplastics: fibres were obtained from the inner and outer layer, but irregular fragments from the middle layer. The shape of the obtained microplastics differed from the initial fibrous structure of the intact medical mask layers, which indicates that the material is deformed during cryo-milling. The chemical compositions of plastics-associated chemicals also varied between the different layers. Typically, the inner layer contained more chemicals related to antimicrobial function and flavouring. The other two layers also contained antioxidants and their degradation products, plasticisers, cross-linking agents, antistatic agents, lubricants, and non-ionic surfactants. An acute study with D. magna showed that these microplastics do not cause immobility but do physically interact with the daphnids. Further long-term studies with these microplastics are needed using a suite of test organisms. Indeed, studies with other polypropylene microplastics have shown numerous adverse effects on other organisms at concentrations that have already been reported in the environment. Further efforts should be made to investigate the environmental hazards of polypropylene microplastics from medical masks and how to handle this new source of environmental burden.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 012303
Xiujun Hao ◽  
Yan Teng ◽  
He Zhu ◽  
Jiafeng Liu ◽  
Hong Zhu ◽  

Abstract We demonstrate a high-operating-temperature (HOT) mid-wavelength InAs/GaSb superlattice heterojunction infrared photodetector grown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition. High crystalline quality and the near-zero lattice mismatch of a InAs/GaSb superlattice on an InAs substrate were evidenced by high-resolution X-ray diffraction. At a bias voltage of –0.1 V and an operating temperature of 200 K, the device exhibited a 50% cutoff wavelength of ~ 4.9 μm, a dark current density of 0.012 A/cm2, and a peak specific detectivity of 2.3 × 109 cm·Hz1/2 /W.

Boya Xiong ◽  
Mario A. Soriano ◽  
Kristina M. Gutchess ◽  
Nicholas Hoffman ◽  
Cassandra J. Clark ◽  

Hydrogeologic transport contributes to limited organic chemical contamination in a region of intense gas extraction, even 10 years post-development.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document