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Crystals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
Huan Xu ◽  
Xin Hou ◽  
Lan Chen ◽  
Yang Mei ◽  
Baoping Zhang

Optical properties of wurtzite violet InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) structures, with the same well-plus-barrier thickness, grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on c-plane sapphire substrates, were investigated using temperature-dependent photoluminescence (TDPL) and excitation-power-dependent photoluminescence (PDPL). Two samples were compared: one had a thicker well (InGaN/GaN 3/5 nm); the other had a thicker barrier (InGaN/GaN 2/6 nm). It was found that the GaN barrier thickness in the InGaN/GaN MQWs plays an important role in determining the optical characteristics of the MQWs. The peak energy of the two samples varied with temperature in an S-shape. The thicker-barrier sample had a higher turning point from blueshift to redshift, indicating a stronger localization effect. From the Arrhenius plot of the normalized integrated PL intensity, it was found that the activation energy of the nonradiative process also increased with a thicker barrier thickness. The radiation recombination process was dominated in the sample of the thicker barrier, while the non-radiation process cannot be negligible in the sample of the thicker well.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 626
Seokhun Kwon ◽  
Seokwon Lee ◽  
Joouk Kim ◽  
Chulmin Park ◽  
Hosung Jung ◽  

Recently, as air pollution and particulate matter worsen, the importance of a platform that can monitor the air environment is emerging. Especially, among air pollutants, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a toxic gas that can not only generate secondary particulate matter, but can also derive numerous toxic gases. To detect such NO2 gas at low concentration, we fabricated a GNWs/NiO-WO3/GNWs heterostructure-based gas sensor using microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) and sputter, and we confirmed the NO2 detection characteristics between 10 and 50 ppm at room temperature. The morphology and carbon lattice characteristics of the sensing layer were investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy. In the gas detection measurement, the resistance negative change according to the NO2 gas concentration was recorded. Moreover, it reacted even at low concentrations such as 5–7 ppm, and showed excellent recovery characteristics of more than 98%. Furthermore, it also showed a change in which the reactivity decreased with respect to humidity of 33% and 66%.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 271
Daniele Capista ◽  
Maurizio Passacantando ◽  
Luca Lozzi ◽  
Enver Faella ◽  
Filippo Giubileo ◽  

We propose a simple method to fabricate a photodetector based on the carbon nanotube/silicon nitride/silicon (CNT/Si3N4/Si) heterojunction. The device is obtained by depositing a freestanding single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film on a silicon substrate using a dry transfer technique. The SWCNT/Si3N4/Si heterojunction is formed without the thermal stress of chemical vapor deposition used for the growth of CNTs in other approaches. The CNT film works as a transparent charge collecting electrode and guarantees a uniform photocurrent across the sensitive area of the device. The obtained photodetector shows a great photocurrent that increases linearly with the incident light intensity and grows with the increasing wavelength in the visible range. The external quantum efficiency is independent of the light intensity and increases with the wavelength, reaching 65% at 640 nm.

Gianluca Milano ◽  
Luca Boarino ◽  
Ilia Valov ◽  
Carlo Ricciardi

Abstract Memristive and resistive switching devices are considered promising building blocks for the realization of artificial neural networks and neuromorphic systems. Besides conventional top-down memristive devices based on thin films, resistive switching devices based on nanowires (NWs) have attracted great attention, not only for the possibility of going beyond current scaling limitations of the top-down approach, but also as model systems for the localization and investigation of the physical mechanism of switching. This work reports on the fabrication of memristive devices based on ZnO NWs, from NW synthesis to single NW-based memristive cell fabrication and characterization. The bottom-up synthesis of ZnO NWs was performed by low-pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) according to a self-seeding Vapor-Solid (VS) mechanism on a Pt substrate over large scale (∼ cm2), without the requirement of previous seed deposition. The grown ZnO NWs are single crystalline with wurtzite crystal structure and are vertically aligned respect to the growth substrate. Single NWs were then contacted by means of asymmetric contacts, with an electrochemically active and an electrochemically inert electrode, to form NW-based electrochemical metallization memory (ECM) cells that show reproducible resistive switching behaviour and neuromorphic functionalities including short-term synaptic plasticity and Paired Pulse Facilitation (PPF). Besides representing building blocks for NW-based memristive and neuromorphic systems, these single crystalline devices can be exploited as model systems to study physicochemical processing underlaying memristive functionalities thanks to the high localization of switching events on the ZnO crystalline surface.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 265
Luis A. Velosa-Moncada ◽  
Jean-Pierre Raskin ◽  
Luz Antonio Aguilera-Cortés ◽  
Francisco López-Huerta ◽  
Agustín L. Herrera-May

Precise prediction of mechanical behavior of thin films at the nanoscale requires techniques that consider size effects and fabrication-related issues. Here, we propose a test methodology to estimate the Young’s modulus of nanometer-thick films using micromachined bilayer cantilevers. The bilayer cantilevers which comprise a well-known reference layer and a tested film deflect due to the relief of the residual stresses generated during the fabrication process. The mechanical relationship between the measured residual stresses and the corresponding deflections was used to characterize the tested film. Residual stresses and deflections were related using analytical and finite element models that consider intrinsic stress gradients and the use of adherence layers. The proposed methodology was applied to low pressure chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride tested films with thicknesses ranging from 46 nm to 288 nm. The estimated Young’s modulus values varying between 213.9 GPa and 288.3 GPa were consistent with nanoindentation and alternative residual stress-driven techniques. In addition, the dependence of the results on the thickness and the intrinsic stress gradient of the materials was confirmed. The proposed methodology is simple and can be used to characterize diverse materials deposited under different fabrication conditions.

Jiali CHEN ◽  
Peiyu Ji ◽  
Maoyang Li ◽  
Tianyuan Huang ◽  
Lanjian Zhuge ◽  

Abstract Herein, we report the successful preparation of Ag–decorated vertical–oriented graphene sheets (Ag/VGs) via helicon wave plasma chemical vapor deposition (HWP–CVD) and radio frequency plasma magnetron sputtering (RF–PMS). VGs were synthesized in a mixture of argon and methane (Ar/CH4) by HWP–CVD, and then the silver nanoparticles on the prepared VGs were modified using the RF-PMS system under different sputtering times and RF power levels. The morphology and structure of the Ag nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the results revealed that Ag nanoparticles were evenly dispersed on the mesoporous wall of the VGs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the diameter of the Ag particles increased with the increase of silver loading, and the average size was between 10.49 nm and 25.9 nm, which were consistent with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. Ag/VGs were investigated as effective electrocatalysts for use in an alkaline aqueous system. Due to the uniquely ordered and interconnected wall structure of VGs, the area of active sites increased with the Ag loading, which made the Ag/VGs have high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR)/oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performance. The double–layer capacitance (Cdl) of the Ag/VGs under different silver loadings were studied, and the results showed that highest silver content is the best (1.04 mF/cm2). The results showed that, Ag/VGs expected to be a credible electrocatalytic material.

Coatings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 94
Pepen Arifin ◽  
Heri Sutanto ◽  
Sugianto ◽  
Agus Subagio

We report the growth of non-polar GaN and AlGaN films on Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (PA-MOCVD). Low-temperature growth of GaN or AlN was used as a buffer layer to overcome the lattice mismatch and thermal expansion coefficient between GaN and Si(111) and GaN’s poor wetting on Si(111). As grown, the buffer layer is amorphous, and it crystalizes during annealing to the growth temperature and then serves as a template for the growth of GaN or AlGaN. We used scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization to investigate the influence of the buffer layer on crystal structure, orientation, and the morphology of GaN. We found that the GaN buffer layer is superior to the AlN buffer layer. The thickness of the GaN buffer layer played a critical role in the crystal quality and plane orientation and in reducing the cracks during the growth of GaN/Si(111) layers. The optimum GaN buffer layer thickness is around 50 nm, and by using the optimized GaN buffer layer, we investigated the growth of AlGaN with varying Al compositions. The morphology of the AlGaN films is flat and homogenous, with less than 1 nm surface roughness, and has preferred orientation in a-axis.

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