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2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (6) ◽  
pp. 0-0

How to balance resources, environment, and economic growth to achieve sustainable development is a challenge for developing countries. In 2013, China implemented a high-stringency environmental regulation—the Clean Air Action, which has effectively controlled air pollution. To explore the economic cost of environmental regulation, this paper investigates the policy effect on employment in the industrial sector. However, there are still controversies about whether environmental regulations impact employment. Based on the city-level data and firm-level data, this study applied a quasi-natural experiment for policy evaluation and used the mediating effect model for mechanism analysis. The difference-in-difference estimation results show that environmental regulation has a significant impact on employment. The mechanism analysis verifies that output adjustment, capital input, and green innovation are the main channels, by which environmental regulation distresses employment. The findings of this paper could be extended to other countries at a similar stage of development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 304 ◽  
pp. 114230
Yifei Zhu ◽  
Changqing Xu ◽  
Dingkun Yin ◽  
Jiaxin Xu ◽  
Yuqi Wu ◽  

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 141
Camille Esneau ◽  
Alexandra Cate Duff ◽  
Nathan W. Bartlett

Rhinoviruses (RVs) have been reported as one of the main viral causes for severe respiratory illnesses that may require hospitalization, competing with the burden of other respiratory viruses such as influenza and RSV in terms of severity, economic cost, and resource utilization. With three species and 169 subtypes, RV presents the greatest diversity within the Enterovirus genus, and despite the efforts of the research community to identify clinically relevant subtypes to target therapeutic strategies, the role of species and subtype in the clinical outcomes of RV infection remains unclear. This review aims to collect and organize data relevant to RV illness in order to find patterns and links with species and/or subtype, with a specific focus on species and subtype diversity in clinical studies typing of respiratory samples.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 541
Liyun Cui ◽  
Peiyuan Chen ◽  
Liang Wang ◽  
Ying Xu ◽  
Hao Wang

Recently, the massive accumulation of waste iron tailings powder (WITP) has resulted in significant environmental pollution. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an original mortar replacement (M) method to reuse waste solids and reduce cement consumption. In the experiment, the author employed an M method which replaces water, cement, and sand with WITP under constant water/cement and found that the strength development can be significantly improved. Specifically, a mortar with 20% WITP replacement can obtain a 30.95% improvement in strength development. To study the internal mechanism, we performed experiments such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), and SEM. The results demonstrate that the nucleation effect and pozzolanic effect of WITP can help promote cement hydration, and MIP reveals that WITP can effectively optimize pore structure. In addition, 1 kg 20% WITP mortar reduced cement consumption by 20%, which saves 19.98% of the economic cost. Comprehensively, our approach achieves the effective utilization of WITP and provides a favorable reference for practical engineering.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 462
Fenghui Wu ◽  
Can Yang ◽  
Guangfei Qu ◽  
Liangliang Liu ◽  
Bangjin Chen ◽  

Phosphogypsum (PG) treatment is one of the research hotspots in the field of environmental protection. Many researchers both at home and abroad have devoted themselves to studies on harmless resource treatment of PG, but the treatment technology is unable to meet the demand of PG consumption due to the huge production and storage demands. In order to solve the problem of PG pollution, this study explored the different solidified effects of various modification formulations on the hazardous components in PG, using industrial solid waste calcium carbide slag (CCS) as an alkaline regulator; Portland cement (PC), polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and CaCl2 as the main raw materials of the solidification and stabilization formula and the water content in PG as the reaction medium. The results showed that CCS (0.5%), PC (0.4%) and PAC (0.3%) had a more significant solidified effect on phosphorus (P) and fluoride (F). PAC was added in two steps and reacted under normal temperature and pressure, and its leaching toxicity meets the requirements of relevant standards, which laid an excellent foundation for PG-based ecological restoration materials and filling materials, with low economic cost, simple process and strong feasibility. This will provide great convenience for the later mining and metallurgy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Alessia Rubini ◽  
Cristina Vilaplana-Prieto ◽  
Marta Flor-Alemany ◽  
Lorena Yeguas-Rosa ◽  
Miriam Hernández-González ◽  

Abstract Background The Mediterranean Diet (MD) is recognized as heart-healthy, but the economic cost associated with this type of diet has scarcely been studied. The objective of the present study is to explore the cost and adherence of a low-income region population to the MD and its relationship with income. Methods A population-based study was carried out on 2,833 subjects between 25 and 79 years of age, 54% women, selected at random from the municipalities of Vegas Altas, La Siberia and La Serena in the province of Badajoz, Extremadura (Spain). Average monthly cost of each product included in the MD was computed and related to adherence to the MD using the Panagiotakos Index and average disposable income. Results The monthly median cost was 203.6€ (IQR: 154.04-265.37). Food-related expenditure was higher for men (p<0.001), age cohort between 45 and 54 years (p<0.013) and those living in urban areas (p<0.001). A positive correlation between food-related expenditure and the MD adherence was found. Monthly median cost represents 15% of average disposable income, ranging between 11% for the group with low MD adherence and 17% for the group with high MD adherence. Conclusions The monthly cost of the MD was positively correlated with the degree of adherence to this dietary pattern. Given that the estimated monthly cost is similar to that of other Spanish regions with a higher income level, the economic effort required to be able to afford the Mediterranean diet is higher. This may represent a barrier to access, which should be analyzed in detail by public decision-makers.

Anna Alfocea-Roig ◽  
Sergio Huete-Hernandez ◽  
Alex Maldonado-Alameda ◽  
Jessica Giro-Paloma ◽  
Josep Maria Chimenos-Ribera ◽  

Climate change has become one of the world’s leading threats. Currently, the construction industry has a high environmental footprint. For this reason, the scientific and technological sector is looking for new materials to reduce the environmental consequences of this division. It is well known that the valorisation of different by-products can contribute to the reduction of the energy global consumption and CO2 emissions. Magnesium Phosphate Cement (MPC) can be obtained by using Low Grade Magnesium Oxide (LG-MgO) as a by-product from the industrial process of magnesite calcination. In this research, a Sustainable MPC (Sust-MPC) for different construction purposes is developed by using LG-MgO along with monopotassium phosphate KH2PO4 (MKP) as raw materials. The increasing use of synthetic fibres in clothing, as well as China’s competitive prices on Animal Fibres (AF) market, have led to a commercial interest fibre decrease for wool-like AF in Spain. This study aims to formulate a Sust-MPC cement with Animal Fibre (AF) to reduce the cost of the new material (Sust-MPC-AF) and to increase the thermal insulation, allowing the use of Sust-MPC-AF in several potential applications. Besides, it should be emphasized that the final pH of Sust-MPC is neutral, which allows containing natural fibres. To develop Sust-MPC-AF, some properties such as thermal conductivity, density, Modulus of Elasticity (MoE), flexural strength, and economic cost were evaluated using the Design of Experiments (DoE). The DoE studies allowed obtaining a model for further optimization considering minimum thermal conductivity and cost dosages. The formulation 30L-25EW presents the minimum conductivity (λ=0.140 W·m-1·K-1). Therefore, two optimal dosages (36L-25EW and 24L-22EW) are obtained by considering mixing variables such as AF/Cement ratio (AF/C) and AF/Extra Water ratio (AF/EW).

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 54
Alsayed Alfiky

The compound negative impact of insect pests attacking agricultural ecosystems includes (i) direct yield losses from damaged crops, (ii) the economic cost of the attempt to prevent these losses and (iii) the negative short- and long-term hazard effects of chemical pesticides on human and environmental health. Entomopathogenic fungi (EMPF) are a group of microorganisms that represent the natural enemies of a number of crop pests, presenting an opportunity to harness their evolutionary fine-tuned relationship with their insect hosts as biocontrol agents in integrated pest management programs. The aim of this study was to establish an indigenous EMPF collection via the Galleria mellonella (greater wax moth) entrapment method from the soils of Nile Delta, Egypt. Obtained insect associated fungal isolates were bio-assayed for pathogenicity against the serious pest Spodoptera litura and Tenebrio molitor, and the seven outperforming isolates were selected for molecular identification and thermotolerance assay. Based on ITS sequence analysis and phylogeny, selected isolates were identified as Beauveria bassiana (four isolates), Metarhizium anisopliae (two isolates) and one isolate of Cordyceps javanica. The obtained results demonstrated (i) the efficacy of using insect baiting coupled with molecular identification and pathogenicity screening to isolate EMPF to control insect pests, and (ii) the availability of indigenous virulent EMPF in Nile Delta’s soil, which can be exploited for the development of sustainable crop protection strategies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Peng Chen ◽  
Bin Zhou ◽  
Tao Wang ◽  
Xiao Hu ◽  
Yongqiang Ye ◽  

Background. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) has become a routine procedure in pancreatic surgery. Although robotic distal pancreatectomy (RDP) has not been popularized yet, it has shown new advantages in some aspects, and exploring its learning curve is of great significance for guiding clinical practice. Methods. 149 patients who received RDP and LDP in our surgical team were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into two groups including LDP group and RDP group. The perioperative outcomes, histopathologic results, long-term postoperative complications, and economic cost were collected and compared between the two groups. The cumulative summation (CUSUM) analysis was used to explore the learning curve of RDP. Results. The hospital stay, postoperative first exhaust time, and first feeding time in the RDP group were better than those in the LDP group ( P < 0.05 ). The rate of spleen preservation in patients with benign and low-grade tumors in the RDP group was significantly higher than that of the LDP group ( P = 0.002 ), though the cost of operation and hospitalization was significantly higher ( P < 0.001 ). The learning curve of RDP in our center declined significantly with completing 32 cases. The average operation time, the hospital stay, and the time of gastrointestinal recovery were shorter after the learning curve node than before. Conclusion. RDP provides better postoperative recovery and is not difficult to replicate, but the high cost was still a major disadvantage of RDP.

2022 ◽  
Matthew Philip Culbert ◽  
James P Warren ◽  
Andrew R Dixon ◽  
Hazel Louise Fermor ◽  
Paul A. Beales ◽  

Lower back pain affects a person’s health and mobility as well as creating a large economic cost. This is often caused by degeneration of the intervertebral disc. Current operative and...

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