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BMC Surgery ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Manu Vats ◽  
Lovenish Bains ◽  
Pawan Lal ◽  
Shramana Mandal

Abstract Background Gallbladder cancer is a very aggressive type of biliary tract cancer. The only curative treatment is complete surgical excision of the tumour. However, even after surgery, there is still a risk of recurrence of the cancer. Case presentation A 63-year-old gentleman presented with the complaint of a non-healing ulcer at upper abdomen for the last 1 month. He had undergone a laparoscopic cholecystectomy at a private centre 4 months ago. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of epigastric port site metastasis from a primary from gall bladder adenocarcinoma. After undergoing completion radical cholecystectomy with wide local excision of the epigastric ulcer, he received 6 cycles of concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Eighteen months later, he presented to us with bilateral axillary swellings. Investigations confirmed isolated bilateral axillary metastasis and the patient underwent a bilateral axillary lymphadenectomy (Level 3). However, PET scan after 6 months showed widespread metastasis and the patient succumbed to the illness 1 month later. Conclusion Axillary metastasis probably occurs due to the presence of microscopic systemic metastasis at the time of development of port site metastasis. An R0 resection of the malignancy is the only viable option for effective therapy. The present case highlights the rare involvement of isolated bilateral axillary lymph nodes as a distant metastatic site with no evidence of disease in the locoregional site. However, the prognosis after metastasis remains dismal despite multiple treatment modalities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
You Wu ◽  
Nan Li ◽  
Rong Zhang ◽  
Ping Bai

Abstract Background This study aimed to analyze the clinical and pathological features of extrauterine endometrial stromal sarcoma (EESS) and explore an effective therapeutic regimen to reduce the recurrence rate in low-grade EESS patients. Methods Ten LG-EESS patients who were treated at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Cancer Institute and Hospital from June 1999 to June 2019 were collected and analyzed. Results (1) Patient demographics are summarized in manuscript. Preoperative CA125 examination showed that 8 patients had a median level of 49.5 U/L (15.4–168.0 U/L). (2) All ten patients underwent tumor cytoreductive surgery. Five patients underwent optimal tumor resection and achieved an R0 resection. After the initial surgery, 7 patients who had multiple metastasis were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, 2 patients with vaginal ESS were treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and 6 patients with ER/PR positive received hormone therapy with or without chemotherapy. (2) Most EESS patients had multiple tumors. The omentum was the most commonly affected site, followed by the ovaries. (3) The median follow-up was 94 (range: 27–228) months, and recurrence was observed in 3 patients (n = 10, 30%) who underwent non-optimal surgery and no hormone therapy. The 5-year and 10-year DFS rates were both 70%, as shown in Fig. 2. OS was both 100% at 5 and 10 years. Conclusion As a conclusion, EESS is a rare disease and LG-EESS has a good prognosis. Surgery remains the available treatment for patients. LG-EESS has a risk of late recurrence which requires a long-term follow-up. With a limited sample size, our study shows optimal tumor reductive surgery and adjuvant hormone therapy may significantly reduce the risk of recurrence.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Hiroaki Matsui ◽  
Naoto Tamai ◽  
Toshiki Futakuchi ◽  
Shunsuke Kamba ◽  
Akira Dobashi ◽  

Abstract Background Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is technically difficult and requires considerable training. The authors have developed a multi-loop traction device (MLTD), a new traction device that offers easy attachment and detachment. We aimed to evaluate the utility of MLTD in ESD. Methods This ex vivo pilot study was a prospective, block-randomized, comparative study of a porcine stomach model. Twenty-four lesions were assigned to a group that undertook ESD using the MLTD (M-ESD group) and a group that undertook conventional ESD (C-ESD group) to compare the speed of submucosal dissection. In addition, the data of consecutive 10 patients with eleven gastric lesions was collected using electronic medical records to clarify the inaugural clinical outcomes of gastric ESD using MLTD. Results The median (interquartile range) speed of submucosal dissection in the M-ESD and C-ESD groups were 141.5 (60.9–177.6) mm2/min and 35.5 (20.8–52.3) mm2/min, respectively; submucosal dissection was significantly faster in the M-ESD group (p < 0.05). The rate of en bloc resection and R0 resection was 100% in both groups, and there were no perforation in either group. The MLTD attachment time was 2.5 ± 0.9 min and the MLTD extraction time was 1.0 ± 1.1 min. Clinical outcomes of MLTD in gastric ESD were almost the same as those of ex vivo pilot study. Conclusions MLTD increased the speed of submucosal dissection in ESD and was similarly effective when used by expert and trainee endoscopists without perforation. MLTD can potentially ensure a safer and faster ESD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Shuai Wang ◽  
Jiahao Jiang ◽  
Jian Gao ◽  
Gang Chen ◽  
Yue Fan ◽  

Background and ObjectivesThe treatment of unresectable thymic epithelial tumours (TETs) remains controversial. Here, we present the efficacy and safety of induction therapy followed by surgery for unresectable TET.MethodsEighty-one patients with unresectable TETs treated with induction therapy followed by surgery were selected from a retrospective review of consecutive TETs from January 2005 to January 2021. Clinicopathological data were analyzed to assess tumour responses, resectability, adverse events, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).ResultsInduction therapy produced a major tumour response rate of 69.1%, a tumour response grade (TRG) 1-3 rate of 84.0% and an R0 resection rate of 74.1%. The most common toxic effects were all-grade neutropenia (35.8%) and anaemia (34.6%). The 10-year OS and PFS rates were 45.7% and 35.2%. Multivariate analysis showed that ypTNM stage, ypMasaoka stage, complete resection, and TRG were significant independent prognostic factors. Exploratory research revealed that different induction modalities and downstaging of T, N, M, TNM, or Masaoka classifications did not significantly alter the pooled hazard ratio for survival.ConclusionsInduction therapy followed by surgery is well tolerated in patients with unresectable TETs, with encouraging R0 resection rates. Multimodality management provides good control of tumors for unresectable TET patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Masatoshi Murakami ◽  
Nao Fujimori ◽  
Akihisa Ohno ◽  
Kazuhide Matsumoto ◽  
Katsuhito Teramatsu ◽  

Abstract Background/Aims Recently neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for pancreatic cancer has been shown to be superior to upfront surgery, but it remains a matter of debate for resectable cases. In clinical practice, some resectable cases may become unresectable after NAC. This study aimed to reveal the outcomes after NAC and to clarify the characteristics of unresected cases. Methods The medical records of 142 patients who underwent NAC between 2016 and 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient characteristics, effectiveness of NAC, and outcomes were compared between the surgical group and non-surgical group (NSG). Furthermore, the risk of recurrence limited to in the patients who received NAC with gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel, which were mostly administered in this cohort, following R0/R1 resection was assessed. Results The overall and R0 resection rates after NAC were 89.1% and 79.7%, respectively. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) > 2.78 (p = 0.0120) and anatomical borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (p = 0.0044) revealed a statistically significantly correlation with the NSG. On the other hand, NAC week < 8 (p = 0.0285), radiological response, stable disease or progression disease (p = 0.0212), and pathological stage > IIA (P = 0.0003) were significantly associated with recurrence. The tumor response rate was approximately 26.1%, and three patients with ≥ 30% reduction of primary tumor lost excision opportunities because of metastasis, interstitial pneumonia, and vascular invasion. Conclusions This study shows incomplete tumor shrinkage benefits, but pre-NAC NLR is a predictive factor for predicting operability after NAC. The NLR can be easily calculated by normal blood test, and can be considered as a suitable marker of operability.

Marianna Maspero ◽  
Carlo Sposito ◽  
Antonio Benedetti ◽  
Matteo Virdis ◽  
Maria Di Bartolomeo ◽  

Abstract Purpose No consensus exists on the resection extent needed to ensure oncological safety in gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). This study aims to assess the impact of margin adequacy according to Japanese Gastric Cancer Association (JGCA) guidelines on overall survival (OS). Patients and Methods Patients who underwent surgery for stage I–III GAC at our institution between 2010 and 2017 were included. Margin adequacy according to JGCA, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), and European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) guidelines was assessed, and their predictive value on OS was evaluated with Harrell’s C-index. Patients were analyzed according to their margins’ adherence to JGCA guidelines, and a propensity score matching (PSM) was run. Indication to either total gastrectomy (TG) or distal gastrectomy (DG) according to each guideline was also assessed. Results A total of 279 patients were included, of whom 220 (79%) underwent DG. Adequate margins according to JGCA were obtained in 209 patients (75%). On multivariate analysis, JGCA margin adequacy was independently associated with OS, together with American Society of Anesthesiologist class, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, lymphadenectomy extent, R0 resection, and postoperative N stage. After PSM, patients with JGCA adequate margins showed better OS, recurrence-free survival (RFS), and local RFS than patients with JGCA inadequate margins. For 220 DG, JGCA guidelines would have recommended TG in 25 patients (11%), NCCN in 30 (14%), and ESMO in 90 (41%) (p < 0.001). Conclusion Adequacy of surgical resection margins to JGCA guidelines leads to improved survival outcomes and allows for a more organ-preserving approach than Western guidelines.

2022 ◽  
Vol Volume 14 ◽  
pp. 37-47
Ding-Zhong Peng ◽  
Gui-Lin Nie ◽  
Bei Li ◽  
Yu-Long Cai ◽  
Jiong Lu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (01) ◽  
pp. E127-E134
Roberta Maselli ◽  
Marco Spadaccini ◽  
Paul J. Belletrutti ◽  
Piera Alessia Galtieri ◽  
Simona Attardo ◽  

Abstract Background and study aims The role of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for colorectal lesions in Western communities is unclear and its adoption is still limited. The aim of this study is to assess the long-term outcomes of a large cohort of patients treated with colorectal ESD in a tertiary Western center. Patients and methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients treated by ESD for superficial colorectal lesions between February 2011 and November 2019. The primary outcome was the recurrence rate. Secondary outcomes were en-bloc and R0 resection rates, procedural time, adverse events (AEs), and need for surgery. The curative resection rate was assessed for submucosal invasive lesions. Results A total of 327 consecutive patients, median age 69 years (IQR 60–76); 201 men (61.5 %) were included in the analysis. Of the lesions, 90.8 % were resected in an en-bloc fashion. The rate of R0 resection was 83.1 % (217/261) and 44.0 % (29/66) for standard and hybrid ESD techniques, respectively. Submucosal invasion and piecemeal resection independently predicted R1 resections. A total of 18(5.5 %) intra-procedural AEs (perforation:11, bleeding:7) and 12(3.7 %) post-procedural AEs occurred (perforation:2, bleeding: 10). Eighteen adenoma recurrences per 1,000 person-years (15cases, 5.6 %) were detected after a median follow-up time of 36 months. All recurrences were detected within 12 months. No carcinoma recurrences were observed. R1 resection status and intra-procedural AEs independently predicted recurrences with seven vs 150 recurrences per 1,000 person-years in the R0 vs R1 group, respectively. Conclusions Colorectal ESD is a safe and effective option for managing superficial colorectal neoplasia in a Western setting, with short and long-terms outcomes comparable to Eastern studies. En-bloc R0 resection and absence of intra-procedural AEs are associated with reduced risk of recurrence.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 110
Anna M. Czarnecka ◽  
Krzysztof Ostaszewski ◽  
Aneta Borkowska ◽  
Anna Szumera-Ciećkiewicz ◽  
Katarzyna Kozak ◽  

Neoadjuvant therapy for locally advanced disease or potentially resectable metastatic melanoma is expected to improve operability and clinical outcomes over upfront surgery and adjuvant treatment as it is for sarcoma, breast, rectal, esophageal, or gastric cancers. Patients with locoregional recurrence after initial surgery and those with advanced regional lymphatic metastases are at a high risk of relapse and melanoma-related death. There is an unmet clinical need to improve the outcomes for such patients. Patients with resectable bulky stage III or resectable stage IV histologically confirmed melanoma were enrolled and received standard-dose BRAFi/MEKi for at least 12 weeks before feasible resection of the pre-therapy target and then received at least for the next 40 weeks further BRAFi/MEKi. Of these patients, 37 were treated with dabrafenib and trametinib, three were treated with vemurafenib and cobimetinib, five with vemurafenib, and one with dabrafenib alone. All patients underwent surgery with 78% microscopically margin-negative resection (R0) resection. Ten patients achieved a complete pathological response. In patients with a major pathological response with no, or less than 10%, viable cells in the tumor, median disease free survival and progression free survival were significantly longer than in patients with a minor pathological response. No patient discontinued neoadjuvant BRAFi/MEKi due to toxicity. BRAFi/MEKi pre-treatment did not result in any new specific complications of surgery. Fourteen patients experienced disease recurrence or progression during post-operative treatment. We confirmed that BRAFi/MEKi combination is an effective and safe regimen in the perioperative treatment of melanoma. Pathological response to neoadjuvant treatment may be considered as a surrogate biomarker of disease recurrence.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 68
Sami-Alexander Safi ◽  
Lena Haeberle ◽  
Alexander Rehders ◽  
Stephen Fung ◽  
Sascha Vaghiri ◽  

Background: Survival following surgical treatment of ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (PDAC) remains poor. The recent implementation of the circumferential resection margin (CRM) into standard histopathological evaluation lead to a significant reduction in R0 rates. Mesopancreatic fat infiltration is present in ~80% of PDAC patients at the time of primary surgery and recently, mesopancreatic excision (MPE) was correlated to complete resection. To attain an even higher rate of R0CRM− resections in the future, neoadjuvant therapy in patients with a progressive disease seems a promising tool. We analyzed radiographic and histopathological treatment response and mesopancreatic tumor infiltration in patients who received neoadjuvant therapy prior to MPE. The aim of our study was to evaluate the need for MPE following neoadjuvant therapy and if multi-detector computed tomographically (MDCT) evaluated treatment response correlates with mesopancreatic (MP) infiltration. Method: Radiographic, clinicopathological and survival parameters of 27 consecutive patients who underwent neoadjuvant therapy prior to MPE were evaluated. The mesopancreatic fat tissue was histopathologically analyzed and the 1 mm-rule (CRM) was applied. Results: In the study collective, both the rate of R0 resection R0(CRM−) and the rate of mesopancreatic fat infiltration was 62.9%. Patients with MP infiltration showed a lower tumor response. Surgical resection status was dependent on MP infiltration and tumor response status. Patients with MDCT-predicted tumor response were less prone to MP infiltration. When compared to patients after upfront surgery, MP infiltration and local recurrence rate was significantly lower after neoadjuvant treatment. Conclusion: MPE remains warranted after neoadjuvant therapy. Mesopancreatic fat invasion was still evident in the majority of our patients following neoadjuvant treatment. MDCT-predicted tumor response did not exclude mesopancreatic fat infiltration.

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