transient receptor potential channels
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yi-Li Zheng ◽  
Xuan Su ◽  
Yu-Meng Chen ◽  
Jia-Bao Guo ◽  
Ge Song ◽  

Neuropathic pain (NP) is poorly managed, and in-depth mechanisms of gene transcriptome alterations in NP pathogenesis are not yet fully understood. To determine microRNA-related molecular mechanisms of NP and their transcriptional regulation in NP, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and CINAHL Complete (EBSCO) were searched from inception to April 2021. Commonly dysregulated miRNAs in NP were assessed. The putative targets of these miRNAs were determined using TargetScan, Funrich, Cytoscape and String database. A total of 133 literatures containing miRNA profiles studies and experimentally verify studies were included. Venn analysis, target gene prediction analysis and functional enrichment analysis indicated several miRNAs (miR-200b-3p, miR-96, miR-182, miR-183, miR-30b, miR-155 and miR-145) and their target genes involved in known relevant pathways for NP. Targets on transient receptor potential channels, voltage-gated sodium channels and voltage-gated calcium channels may be harnessed for pain relief. A further delineation of signal processing and modulation in neuronal ensembles is key to achieving therapeutic success in future studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wayland W. L. Cheng ◽  
Mark J. Arcario ◽  
John T. Petroff

Lipids modulate the function of many ion channels, possibly through direct lipid-protein interactions. The recent outpouring of ion channel structures by cryo-EM has revealed many lipid binding sites. Whether these sites mediate lipid modulation of ion channel function is not firmly established in most cases. However, it is intriguing that many of these lipid binding sites are also known sites for other allosteric modulators or drugs, supporting the notion that lipids act as endogenous allosteric modulators through these sites. Here, we review such lipid-drug binding sites, focusing on pentameric ligand-gated ion channels and transient receptor potential channels. Notable examples include sites for phospholipids and sterols that are shared by anesthetics and vanilloids. We discuss some implications of lipid binding at these sites including the possibility that lipids can alter drug potency or that understanding protein-lipid interactions can guide drug design. Structures are only the first step toward understanding the mechanism of lipid modulation at these sites. Looking forward, we identify knowledge gaps in the field and approaches to address them. These include defining the effects of lipids on channel function in reconstituted systems using asymmetric membranes and measuring lipid binding affinities at specific sites using native mass spectrometry, fluorescence binding assays, and computational approaches.

Rose Ellen Dixon ◽  
Manuel F. Navedo ◽  
Marc D Binder ◽  
L. Fernando Santana

Ion channels play a central role in the regulation of nearly every cellular process. Dating back to the classic 1952 Hodgkin-Huxley model of the generation of the action potential, ion channels have always been thought of as independent agents. A myriad of recent experimental findings exploiting advances in electrophysiology, structural biology, and imaging techniques, however, have posed a serious challenge to this long-held axiom as several classes of ion channels appear to open and close in a coordinated, cooperative manner. Ion channel cooperativity ranges from variable-sized oligomeric cooperative gating in voltage-gated, dihydropyridine-sensitive Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 channels to obligatory dimeric assembly and gating of voltage-gated Nav1.5 channels. Potassium channels, transient receptor potential channels, hyperpolarization cyclic nucleotide-activated channels, ryanodine receptors (RyRs), and inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) have also been shown to gate cooperatively. The implications of cooperative gating of these ion channels range from fine tuning excitation-contraction coupling in muscle cells to regulating cardiac function and vascular tone, to modulation of action potential and conduction velocity in neurons and cardiac cells, and to control of pace-making activity in the heart. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms leading to cooperative gating of ion channels, their physiological consequences and how alterations in cooperative gating of ion channels may induce a range of clinically significant pathologies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Mingchao Li ◽  
Li Zhang ◽  
Zixiu Liu ◽  
Li Zhang ◽  
Runlin Xing ◽  

Synovitis is the primary driving factor for the occurrence and development of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) and plays a crucial role during this process. Our previous works revealed that transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channels mediate the amplification of KOA synovitis. In recent years, essential oils have been proved to have blocking effect on transient receptor potential channels. Meanwhile, the therapeutic effect of Sanse Powder on KOA synovitis has been confirmed in clinical trials and basic studies; although, the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, Sanse Powder essential oil nanoemulsion (SP-NEs) was prepared, and then chemical composition, physicochemical properties, and stability were investigated. Besides, both in MIA-induced KOA rats and in LPS-stimulated FLSs, we investigated whether SP-NES could alleviate KOA synovitis by interfering with AMP-activated protein kinase- (AMPK-) mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an energy sensing pathway proved to negatively regulate the TRPA1. Our research shows that the top three substances in SP-NEs were tumerone, delta-cadinene, and Ar-tumerone, which accounted for 51.62% of the total, and should be considered as the main pharmacodynamic ingredient. Less inflammatory cell infiltration and type I collagen deposition were found in the synovial tissue of KOA rats treated with SP-NEs, as well as the downregulated expressions of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, and TRPA1. Besides, SP-NEs increased the phosphorylation level of AMPK and decreased the phosphorylation level of mTOR in the KOA model, and SP-NEs also upregulated expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and PPARγ coactivator-1α and downstream signaling molecules of AMPK-mTOR in vivo and in vitro. To conclude, a kind of Chinese herbal medicine for external use which is effective in treating synovitis of KOA was extracted and prepared into essential oil nanoemulsion with stable properties in the present study. It may alleviate synovitis in experimental KOA through the negative regulation of TRPA1 by AMPK-mTOR signaling.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (23) ◽  
pp. 12812
Matthias Bosman ◽  
Dustin N. Krüger ◽  
Kasper Favere ◽  
Callan D. Wesley ◽  
Cédric H. G. Neutel ◽  

Clinical and animal studies have demonstrated that chemotherapeutic doxorubicin (DOX) increases arterial stiffness, a predictor of cardiovascular risk. Despite consensus about DOX-impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation as a contributing mechanism, some studies have reported conflicting results on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function after DOX treatment. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of DOX on VSMC function. To this end, mice received a single injection of 4 mg DOX/kg, or mouse aortic segments were treated ex vivo with 1 μM DOX, followed by vascular reactivity evaluation 16 h later. Phenylephrine (PE)-induced VSMC contraction was decreased after DOX treatment. DOX did not affect the transient PE contraction dependent on Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (0 mM Ca2+), but it reduced the subsequent tonic phase characterised by Ca2+ influx. These findings were supported by similar angiotensin II and attenuated endothelin-1 contractions. The involvement of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in DOX-decreased contraction was excluded by using levcromakalim and diltiazem in PE-induced contraction and corroborated by similar K+ and serotonin contractions. Despite the evaluation of multiple blockers of transient receptor potential channels, the exact mechanism for DOX-decreased VSMC contraction remains elusive. Surprisingly, DOX reduced ex vivo but not in vivo arterial stiffness, highlighting the importance of appropriate timing for evaluating arterial stiffness in DOX-treated patients.

2021 ◽  
pp. 107385842110468
Yuying Huang ◽  
Shao-Rui Chen ◽  
Hui-Lin Pan

Calcineurin, the predominant Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase (also known as protein phosphatase 2B), is highly expressed in immune T cells and the nervous system, including the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord. It controls synaptic transmission and plasticity by maintaining the appropriate phosphorylation status of many ion channels present at presynaptic and postsynaptic sites. As such, normal calcineurin activity in neurons and synapses is mainly involved in negative feedback regulation in response to increased neuronal activity and intracellular Ca2+ levels. Calcineurin inhibitors (e.g., cyclosporine and tacrolimus) are widely used as immunosuppressants in tissue and organ transplantation recipients and for treating autoimmune diseases but can cause severe pain in some patients. Furthermore, diminished calcineurin activity at the spinal cord level may play a major role in the transition from acute to chronic neuropathic pain after nerve injury. Restoring calcineurin activity at the spinal cord level produces long-lasting pain relief in animal models of neuropathic pain. In this article, we provide an overview of recent studies on the critical roles of calcineurin in regulating glutamate NMDA and AMPA receptors, voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, potassium channels, and transient receptor potential channels expressed in the spinal dorsal horn and primary sensory neurons.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (3(41)) ◽  
pp. 27-33
Y. Hodovanets ◽  
A. Frunza

Technologies for nursing preterm-born babies have evolved significantly in recent years. However, we still have several unresolved issues, among which acute kidney injury remains one of the most urgent. This pathological clinical syndrome is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, especially in premature infants with severe perinatal pathology. Arrester diagnosis is based on the classification proposed in 2012 by the International Expert Group - Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes. The main criteria for verifying the diagnosis of acute renal injury are an increase in serum creatinine levels and a decrease in urine output. The problem of diagnosis and differential diagnosis of acute renal failure in prematurely born children occupies a leading place, because it is still no consensus on the possibilities of using specific biomarkers of kidney damage, and no nomograms are taking into account the gestational age at birth, body weight and the severity of perinatal pathology.Plasma creatinine is still the most commonly used marker of impaired filtration function, but in recent years there have been numerous scientific discussions and new, highly sensitive, and highly specific markers of renal injury. In particular, it was proposed to consider functional biomarkers and markers of tubular damage as separate categories, since impaired renal function and the injury itself can coexist independently, simultaneously, or a transition of categories is observed. Plasma cystatin C, urinary and serum fractions of alpha-1-microglobulin and beta-2-microglobulin, lipocalin associated with neutrophil gelatinase, and others are promising biomarkers. Attention is focused on the importance of the epigenetic concept in the formation of kidney damage, blocking of the renin- angiotensin-aldosterone-antidiuretic hormone system, and the role of transient receptor potential channels in the modulation of basic renal functions. Metabolic urine profiles are widely studied taking into account gestational age and body weight.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
Eun Jin Go ◽  
Jeongkyu Ji ◽  
Yong Ho Kim ◽  
Temugin Berta ◽  
Chul-Kyu Park

Pain afflicts more than 1.5 billion people worldwide, with hundreds of millions suffering from unrelieved chronic pain. Despite widespread recognition of the importance of developing better interventions for the relief of chronic pain, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this condition. However, transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels in nociceptors have been shown to be essential players in the generation and progression of pain and have attracted the attention of several pharmaceutical companies as therapeutic targets. Unfortunately, TRP channel inhibitors have failed in clinical trials, at least in part due to their thermoregulatory function. Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) have emerged as novel and safe pain therapeutics because of their regulation of exocytosis and pro-nociceptive neurotransmitters. However, it is becoming evident that BoNTs also regulate the expression and function of TRP channels, which may explain their analgesic effects. Here, we summarize the roles of TRP channels in pain, with a particular focus on TRPV1 and TRPA1, their regulation by BoNTs, and briefly discuss the use of BoNTs for the treatment of chronic pain.

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