arterial stiffness
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Suzanne E. Gilbey ◽  
Christopher M. Reid ◽  
Rachel R. Huxley ◽  
Mario J. Soares ◽  
Yun Zhao ◽  

It is well reported that individuals spend up to 90% of their daily time indoors, with between 60% to 90% of this time being spent in the home. Using a cross-sectional study design in a population of 111 healthy adults (mean age: 52.3 ± 9.9 years; 65% women), we investigated the association between exposure to total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor residential environments and measures of central arterial stiffness, known to be related to cardiovascular risk. Indoor VOC concentrations were measured along with ambulatory measures of pulse pressure (cPP), augmentation index (cAIx) and cAIx normalized for heart rate (cAIx75), over a continuous 24-h period. Pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) was determined during clinical assessment. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between measures of arterial stiffness and VOCs after adjusting for covariates. Higher 24-h, daytime and night-time cAIx was associated with an interquartile range increase in VOCs. Similar effects were shown with cAIx75. No significant effects were observed between exposure to VOCs and cPP or cfPWV. After stratifying for sex and age (≤50 years; >50 years), effect estimates were observed to be greater and significant for 24-h and daytime cAIx in men, when compared to women. No significant effect differences were seen between age groups with any measure of arterial stiffness. In this study, we demonstrated that residential indoor VOCs exposure was adversely associated with some measures of central arterial stiffness, and effects were different between men and women. Although mechanistic pathways remain unclear, these findings provide a possible link between domestic VOCs exposure and unfavourable impacts on individual-level cardiovascular disease risk.

2022 ◽  
Zhuoting Zhu ◽  
Yifan Chen ◽  
Wei Wang ◽  
Yueye Wang ◽  
Wenyi Hu ◽  

Background: Retinal parameters could reflect systemic vascular changes. With the advances of deep learning technology, we have recently developed an algorithm to predict retinal age based on fundus images, which could be a novel biomarker for ageing and mortality. Objective: To investigate associations of retinal age gap with arterial stiffness index (ASI) and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: A deep learning (DL) model was trained based on 19,200 fundus images of 11,052 participants without any past medical history at baseline to predict the retinal age. Retinal age gap (retinal age predicted minus chronological age) was generated for the remaining 35,917 participants. Regression models were used to assess the association between retinal age gap and ASI. Cox proportional hazards regression models and restricted cubic splines were used to explore the association between retinal age gap and incident CVD. Results: We found each one-year increase in retinal age gap was associated with increased ASI (β=0.002, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.001-0.003, P<0.001). After a median follow-up of 5.83 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 5.73-5.97), 675 (2.00%) developed CVD. In the fully adjusted model, each one-year increase in retinal age gap was associated with a 3% increase in the risk of incident CVD (hazard ratio [HR]=1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.06, P=0.012). In the restricted cubic splines analysis, the risk of incident CVD increased significantly when retinal age gap reached 1.21 (HR=1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.10; P-overall <0.0001; P-nonlinear=0.0681). Conclusion: We found that retinal age gap was significantly associated with ASI and incident CVD events, supporting the potential of this novel biomarker in identifying individuals at high risk of future CVD events.

2022 ◽  
Wenbin Fu ◽  
Lin Zhao ◽  
Jian-xing Zhang ◽  
Si-ting Ye ◽  
Ling-cui Meng ◽  

Abstract Background Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic arterial disease. Atherosclerosis related diseases, like myocardial infarctions (MI) and strokes have the highest mortality and disability rate. However, limited evidence verified the effects of acupuncture on arterial stiffness for subclinical atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that acupuncture could improve arterial stiffness in subclinical atherosclerosis and resist plaque progression. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of acupuncture on arterial elasticity via ultrafast pulse wave velocity (ufPWV) and explore the effect of acupuncture on lipid level and platelet function for subclinical atherosclerosis patients.MethodsThis was a randomized parallel controlled trial included 44 patients. Patients were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to acupuncture group and sham acupuncture group. Patients completed 24 treatments in total within 12 weeks of intervention. The primary outcome was ultrafast pulse wave velocity (ufPWV) assessed after every 4-weeks treatment; the secondary outcomes were carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), blood lipid levels, fibrinogen (FIB) and blood platelet. Intention-to-treat (ITT) principle was applied and data sets were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 software.ResultsAmong the 44 randomly assigned patients, changes of right-side BS value in TA group (0.841) at week 12 were greater than SA group (-0.189), with a mean difference of 1.030 (95% CI, 0.320, 1.739; P=0.006). Similar results were observed in right-side ES, left-side BS, left-side ES at week 12. As to secondary outcomes, compared with SA group(1.08mm), the TA group(0.98mm) showed a significant decline in mean of left-side IMT at week 12. (Z= -2.118; P=0.034). There were no serious adverse events.ConclusionsAmong patients with Carotid intima-media thickening, both-side carotids arterial elasticity is significantly improved after 12-week acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture. The effects of acupuncture are more noticeable at week 12 during end-systole.Trial registrationThe trial was registered at (NO. ChiCTR1900025551, 31/08/2019)

Ryan J. Pewowaruk ◽  
Claudia Korcarz ◽  
Yacob Tedla ◽  
Gregory Burke ◽  
Philip Greenland ◽  

Background: Elastic arteries stiffen via 2 main mechanisms: (1) load-dependent stiffening from higher blood pressure and (2) structural stiffening due to changes in the vessel wall. It is unknown how these different mechanisms contribute to incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Methods: The MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) is a longitudinal study of 6814 men and women without CVD at enrollment, from 6 communities in the United States. MESA participants with B-mode carotid ultrasound and brachial blood pressure at baseline Exam in (2000–2002) and CVD surveillance (mean follow-up 14.3 years through 2018) were included (n=5873). Peterson’s elastic modulus was calculated to represent total arterial stiffness. Structural stiffness was calculated by adjusting Peterson’s elastic modulus to a standard blood pressure of 120/80 mm Hg with participant-specific models. Load-dependent stiffness was the difference between total and structural stiffness. Results: In Cox models adjusted for traditional risk factors, load-dependent stiffness was significantly associated with higher incidence of CVD events (hazard ratio/100 mm Hg, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.09–1.34] P <0.001) events while higher structural stiffness was not (hazard ratio, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.99–1.07] P =0.10). Analysis of participants who were normotensive (blood pressure <130/80, no antihypertensives) at baseline exam (n=2122) found higher load-dependent stiffness was also associated with significantly higher incidence of hypertension (hazard ratio, 1.53 [95% CI, 1.35–1.75] P <0.001) while higher structural stiffness was not (hazard ratio, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.99–1.07] P =0.16). Conclusions: These results provide valuable new insights into mechanisms underlying the association between arterial stiffness and CVD. Load-dependent stiffness was significantly associated with CVD events but structural stiffness was not.

Shahryar M. Chowdhury ◽  
Eric M. Graham ◽  
Carolyn L. Taylor ◽  
Andrew Savage ◽  
Kimberly E. McHugh ◽  

Background Heart failure phenotyping in single‐ventricle Fontan patients is challenging, particularly in patients with normal ejection fraction (EF). The objective of this study was to identify Fontan patients with abnormal diastolic function, who are high risk for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and characterize their cardiac mechanics, exercise function, and functional health status. Methods and Results Data were obtained from the Pediatric Heart Network Fontan Cross‐sectional Study database. EF was considered abnormal if <50%. Diastolic function was defined as abnormal if the diastolic pressure:volume quotient (lateral E:e’/end‐diastolic volume) was >90th percentile (≥0.26 mL ‐1 ). Patients were divided into: controls=normal EF and diastolic function; systolic dysfunction (SD) = abnormal EF with normal diastolic function; diastolic dysfunction (DD) = normal EF with abnormal diastolic pressure:volume quotient. Exercise function was quantified as percent predicted peak VO 2 . Physical Functioning Summary Score (FSS) was reported from the Child Health Questionnaire. A total of 239 patients were included, 177 (74%) control, 36 (15%) SD, and 26 (11%) DD. Median age was 12.2 (5.4) years. Arterial elastance, a measure of arterial stiffness, was higher in DD (3.6±1.1 mm Hg/mL) compared with controls (2.5±0.8 mm Hg/mL), P <0.01. DD patients had lower predicted peak VO 2 compared with controls (52% [20] versus 67% [23], P <0.01). Physical FSS was lower in DD (45±13) and SD (44±13) compared with controls (50±7), P <0.01. Conclusions Fontan patients with abnormal diastolic function and normal EF have decreased exercise tolerance, decreased functional health status, and elevated arterial stiffness. Identification of patients at high risk for HFpEF is feasible and should be considered when evaluating Fontan patients.

2022 ◽  
Adrian Farid Elzarki ◽  
Seshagiri Rao Nandula ◽  
Hassan Awal ◽  
Gary L Simon ◽  
Sabyasachi Sen

Abstract Background To determine the effects of integrase inhibitor (INSTI) in comparison to non INSTI based regimens such as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) based regimens on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in HIV+ patients without overt history of CVD or diabetes, with normal CD4:CD8 count. For CVD risk assessment we primarily used hematopoietic CD34+ progenitor cells, as a biomarker.Methods19 male subjects ages 32-61 years with BMI 21.0- 36.0, were enrolled. This was a single time point, cross-sectional, observational study. Subjects were enrolled under 2 groups (either on INSTI based regimen with 13 subjects or NNRTI (non-INSTI) based regimens with 6 subjects) who were taking stable doses of HAART. The medication regimens were a combination of one NRTI (typically tenofovir-emtricitabine) plus one INSTI or NNRTI. Our outcome measures were focused on cardiovascular and endothelial cell function and systemic inflammation. Our primary outcome measures were peripheral blood derived hematopoietic progenitor cell number (CD34 and CD133 positive), CD34+ cell function and gene expression studies. Our secondary outcomes were arterial stiffness measures and serum-based markers of inflammation. ResultsA significant increase in percentage number of progenitor cells, CD133+ cells (P=0.004) was noted along with an increase of double progenitor mark positive CD133+/CD34+ progenitor cell population was observed in INSTI group as compared to NNRTI group, by flow-cytometry. mRNA gene expression for antioxidant gene catalase was noted along with a trend towards a decrease in gene expression of inflammatory marker IL6 (p=0.06) was observed in CD34+ from INSTI group vs NNRTI group. The plasma IL-6 and CRP levels did not change significantly between the groups. Neutrophil-Lymphocyte ratio (NLR), an important marker of inflammation, was noted to be lower in INSTI group. A mean fasting glucose level was also lower in the INSTI group compared to NNRTI group (p=0.03). Interestingly, Urine- Microalbumin levels were higher in the INSTI group compared to NNRTI group (p=0.08), while eGFR levels were lower in the INSTI group (p=0.002). The arterial stiffness measures did not show statistically significant differences between the two groups. ConclusionWe conclude that the INSTI regimen may provide a better CVD risk profile compared to NNRTI based HAART regimen; however the increased albuminuria along with lower eGFR, noted in INSTI group is of concern. Because of the small size, these results would need replication in additional studies before changing clinical practice.Clinical Trial Registration Identifier: NCT03782142

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Chen Wang ◽  
Haoyu Wu ◽  
Yuanming Xing ◽  
Yulan Ye ◽  
Fangzhou He ◽  

AbstractEndothelial dysfunction and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) plasticity are critically involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension and arterial stiffness. MicroRNAs can mediate the cellular communication between vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and neighboring cells. Here, we investigated the role of endothelial-derived extracellular microRNA-92a (miR-92a) in promoting arterial stiffness by regulating EC–VSMC communication. Serum miR-92a level was higher in hypertensive patients than controls. Circulating miR-92a level was positively correlated with pulse wave velocity (PWV), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and serum endothelin-1 (ET-1) level, but inversely with serum nitric oxide (NO) level. In vitro, angiotensin II (Ang II)-increased miR-92a level in ECs mediated a contractile-to-synthetic phenotype change of co-cultured VSMCs. In Ang II-infused mice, locked nucleic acid-modified antisense miR-92a (LNA-miR-92a) ameliorated PWV, SBP, DBP, and impaired vasodilation induced by Ang II. LNA-miR-92a administration also reversed the increased levels of proliferative genes and decreased levels of contractile genes induced by Ang II in mouse aortas. Circulating serum miR-92a level and PWV were correlated in these mice. These findings indicate that EC miR-92a may be transported to VSMCs via extracellular vesicles to regulate phenotype changes of VSMCs, leading to arterial stiffness.

Christian Nejm Roderjan ◽  
Aline de Hollanda Cavalcanti ◽  
Arthur Fernandes Cortez ◽  
Bernardo Chedier ◽  
Fernanda Oliveira de Carvalho Carlos ◽  

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 244
Leticia Gómez-Sánchez ◽  
Emiliano Rodríguez-Sánchez ◽  
Rafel Ramos ◽  
Ruth Marti-Lluch ◽  
Marta Gómez-Sánchez ◽  

The aim of this study was to analyse the association of diet with arterial stiffness and vascular ageing in a Caucasian population with intermediate cardiovascular risk. We recruited 2475 individuals aged 35–75 years with intermediate cardiovascular risk. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was measured using a VaSera VS-1500® device. Vascular ageing was defined in two steps. Step 1: The 20 individuals who presented kidney disease, peripheral arterial disease, or heart failure were classified as early vascular ageing (EVA). Step 2: The individuals with percentiles by age and sex above the 90th percentile of baPWV among the participants of this study were classified as EVA, and the rest of the individuals were classified as non-EVA. The diet of the participants was analysed with two questionnaires: (1) the diet quality index (DQI) questionnaire and (2) the Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence questionnaire. The mean age of the sample was 61.34 ± 7.70 years, and 61.60% were men. Adherence to the MD was 53.30%. The DQI was 54.90%. Of the entire sample, 10.70% (11.15% of the men and 9.95% of the women) were EVA. In the multiple linear regression analysis, for each additional point in the DQI questionnaire, there was a decrease of −0.081 (95%CI (confidence intervals) −0.105–−0.028) in baPWV; in the MD adherence questionnaire, there was a decrease of −0.052 (95%CI −0141–−0.008). When performing the analysis, separated by sex, the association remained significant in men but not in women. In the logistic regression analysis, there was an increase in MD adherence and a decrease in the probability of presenting EVA, both with the DQI questionnaire (OR (odds ratio) = 0.65; 95%CI 0.50–0.84) and with the MD adherence questionnaire (OR = 0.75; 95%CI 0.58–0.97). In the analysis by sex, the association was only maintained in men (with DQI, OR = 0.54; 95%CI 0.37–0.56) (with MD, OR = 0.72; 95%CI 0.52–0.99). The results of this study suggest that a greater score in the DQI and MD adherence questionnaires is associated with lower arterial stiffness and a lower probability of presenting EVA. In the analysis by sex, this association is only observed in men.

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