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Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 199
Author(s):  
Aisjah R. Ryadin ◽  
Dennis Janz ◽  
Dominik Schneider ◽  
Aiyen Tjoa ◽  
Bambang Irawan ◽  
...  

To secure high yield, tropical oil palm plantations are fertilized, and understory vegetation is controlled by chemical clearing with herbicides. These treatments cause a drastic turnover of soil microbes and cause loss of beneficial mycorrhizal fungi. Here, we tested if reduced fertilization and weeding instead of conventional treatments restored beneficial ecological groups associated with roots. We conducted our study one year after the start of the reduced management in large-scale oil palm plantations. We hypothesized that reduced fertilizer application and weeding result in shifts of the root-associated species composition because changes in the management regimes affect belowground biomass and nutrients in soil and roots. Alternatively, we hypothesized that the legacy of massive soil fertilization and herbicide application preclude compositional shifts of root-associated biota within short time periods. We did not find any significant treatment effects on root nutrient contents, root biomass, and nutrients in soil. At the level of species (based on operational taxonomic units obtained by Illumina sequencing) or phyla, no significant effects of reduced management were observed. However, distinct functional groups showed early responses to the treatments: nematodes decreased in response to weeding; yeasts and ectomycorrhizal-multitrophic fungi increased under fertilizer treatments; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased under fertilizer reduction. Since the responsive ecological groups were represented by low sequence abundances, their responses were masked by very high sequence abundances of saprotrophic and pathotrophic fungi. Thus, the composition of the whole root-associated community was unaffected by reduced management. In conclusion, our results show that changes in management regimes start to re-wire critical constituents of soil–plant food webs.


Author(s):  
И.А. Бондорина ◽  
А.В. Кабанов ◽  
Н.А. Мамаева ◽  
Ю.А. Хохлачева

Коллекционный фонд лаборатории декоративных растений (ЛДР) ГБС РАН существует с 1947 г. В настоящее время в его состав входят декоративные многолетники из 221 рода и 57 семейств (1039 видов и разновидностей, а также 5047 сортов и садовых форм). Современная политика формирования коллекций в основном направлена на создание крупных и/или оригинальных собраний. Цель представленной работы состоит в изучении количественных и качественных характеристик современного коллекционного фонда лаборатории декоративных растений ГБС РАН, а также структурных особенностей крупных коллекций в его составе. В интродукционных исследованиях наиболее широко использованы эколого-фитоценотический метод и метод родовых комплексов. В структуре видовой части коллекционного фонда ЛДР доминируют представители флор Европы, Азии и Северной Америки, так как эти регионы традиционно считаются наиболее перспективными донорами материала для интродукции декоративных растений. Преобладающими экологическими группами в его составе являются лесные, степные и луговые виды. При формировании сортовых коллекций реализованы различные подходы. Отечественные селекционные достижения доминируют в коллекциях Syringa, Lilium и Phlox. На создание выборки зарубежных сортов, представляющих историю селекции культуры, сориентирована коллекция рода Paeonia. История селекции культуры в СССР наиболее полно представлена на базе коллекции Clematis. Основные этапы микроэволюционного развития культуры продемонстрированы на примере родов Astilbe и Iris. Аспект сохранения ретро-сортов наиболее полно реализован на коллекции Hemerocallis. Подбор перспективного для условий региона сортимента – основное направление расширения коллекции рода Rosa. Аспект отбора наиболее перспективных раннецветущих сортов у культур с поздними сроками цветения наиболее успешно реализован для Dendranthema и Symphyotrichum. На подбор перспективного для условий средней полосы России ассортимента, отражающего морфобиологическое разнообразие культуры, сориентированы коллекции Hosta и Tulipa. Для целей селекции используются ресурсы коллекций Dahlia, Astilbe и Iris. Collection fund of the Laboratory of Ornamental Plants (LOP) MBG RAS has been in existence since 1947. Currently, it includes ornamental perennials from 221 genera and 57 families (1039 species and varieties, as well as 5047 varieties and garden forms). The current policy of forming collections is mainly aimed at creating large and/or original collections. The purpose of the present work is to study the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the modern collection fund LOP MBG RAS, as well as the structural features of large collections in its composition. The most widely used methods in the introduction studies are the ecological-phytocenotic method and the method of generic complexes. The structure of the species part of the collection fund of the LOP is dominated by representatives of the flora of Europe, Asia and North America, since these regions are traditionally considered the most promising donors of material for the introduction of ornamental plants. The predominant ecological groups in its composition are forest, steppe and meadow species. When forming varietal collections, various approaches are implemented. Domestic breeding achievements dominate the Syringa, Lilium and Phlox collections. The collection of the genus Paeonia is aimed at creating a sample of foreign varieties that represent the history of culture selection. The history of culture selection in the USSR is most fully presented on the basis of the Clematis collection. The main stages of microevolutionary development of culture are demonstrated by the example of the genera Astilbe and Iris. The aspect of preserving retro varieties is most fully implemented on the Hemerocallis collection. The selection of a promising assortment for the conditions of the region is the main direction of expanding the collection of the genus Rosa. The aspect of selecting the most promising early-flowering varieties in crops with late flowering dates is most successfully implemented for Dendranthema and Symphyotrichum. The Hosta and Tulipa collections are focused on the selection of a range that is promising for the conditions of the central part of Russia, reflecting the morphobiological diversity of the culture. For breeding purposes, the resources of the Dahlia, Astilbe, and Iris collections are used.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (11) ◽  
pp. 5-33
Author(s):  
Mikhail Knyazev ◽  
◽  
Elena Podgaevskaya ◽  
Natalia Zolotareva ◽  
Alyona Tretyakova ◽  
...  

This article for the first time presents a detailed checklist of the flora of dicotyledonous plants (Asteraceae, Cichorioideae) of Sverdlovsk Region, based on the long-term filed research, a critical study of herbarium materials and literature sources. Part VII of the checklist includes 91 species and 6 interspecific hybrids of wild plants. The information on all the species is given on the occurrence in botanical-geographical districts and administrative districts of the region. In the checklist for species bioecological features are indicated (life form according to K. Raunkiaer and I. G. Serebryakov, coenotic groups and ecological groups in relation to moistning), zonal and longitudinal arealogic group, economic significance. As for the alien species, origin, migration thecnique, and level of naturalization achieved in the region are additionally indicated. Species that need protection in the region are noted.


Author(s):  
O.N. Baryshnikova ◽  
M.V. Mikharevich ◽  
S.P. Grushin ◽  
V.O. Saybert

The study is aimed at reconstructing the natural and climatic conditions of the Upper Ob River region (south of Western Siberia) in the early Middle Ages (4th–8th centuries A.D.), based on the paleosol data obtained from the fortified settlements of Maly Gonbinsky Kordon-2/11 and Maly Gonbinsky Kordon-2 / 6-3. Settlements are located on the terrace of the right bank of the Ob River. The fortification elements are represented by a horse-shoe-shaped system of a ditch and a rampart, adjacent to the edge of the above-floodplain terrace, inside which there were dwellings and outbuildings. Archaeological investigations of the settlements permitted to study the sediments of the first terrace above the floodplain and to select core samples for palynological analysis. Applica-tion of this method allowed reconstruction of the vegetation during the occupational period of the complex of monuments MGK-2. For interpreting of the actual data, the method of landscape analysis was employed. The need for its application for carrying out paleogeographic reconstructions is warranted by the presence of the relict elements in the morphological structure of the landscapes. To establish their paleogeographic status, within the framework of this study, there was determined the percentage ratio of the amount of pollen and seeds of plants extracted from the deposits of the first above-floodplain terrace, corresponding to the existence of the Odintsovo Culture and belonging to different ecological groups. As the result, the dominance of sparse birch forests and forb dry meadows in the landscape structure of that time was established, whereas the vegetation associations featu-ring pine forests were in the status of progressive elements of the landscape structure. Also, supersedence of birch forb forests by green moss pine forests was revealed. The use of the landscape approach allowed recon-struction of natural conditions of the territory occupied by the complex of fortified settlements of MGK-2. On the basis of the digital elevation model, 3D visualization of the surface of the sediments overlapping the cultural layer of the monuments was rendered, which shows the location of the objects at the lowest elevations of the surface I above the floodplain terrace and the effects of the surface water flow. This necessitated construction of a drai-nage system, the main elements of which might be represented by shallow ditches.


2021 ◽  
Vol 56 ◽  
Author(s):  
Agnieszka Maria Salamaga

Abstract Herein, the results of studies conducted in the Łagiewnicki Forest in the city of Łódź (central Poland) in 2010–2012 are presented. These were the first long-term observations into myxomycetes in the Łagiewnicki Forest and in central Poland. Investigations were conducted using the route method for the entire forest complex (2010–2012). Additionally, twelve logs were selected in the “Las Łagiewnicki” forest reserve for detailed observations in 2011–2012; these logs belonged to four tree species: Betula pendula Roth, Carpinus betulus L., Quercus sp., and Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. In total, 1,561 specimens were collected and were classified into 96 taxa (91 species and five varieties). Three species ( Diderma saundersii , Oligonema flavidum , and Didymium eximium ) are new to the biota of Poland, while five ( Arcyria stipata , Hemitrichia calyculata , Oligonema schweinitzii , Physarum flavicomum , and Physarum robustum ) are included on the red list of rare myxomycetes in Poland. Stemonitopsis amoena is also classified as a rare species; to date, this species has been reported in one locality in Poland. The scale by Stephenson et al. was used to determine the frequency of occurrence of individual taxa; 55 taxa were classified as rare, nine as sporadic, 26 as common, and six as abundant taxa. Three ecological groups of slime molds were identified based on the type of substrate they colonized: lignicolous (54 taxa), foliicolous (seven taxa), and corticolous (two taxa). No preference for the substrate was noticed in a group of 33 taxa that occurred on different substrate types. The phenology of myxomycete occurrence was also analyzed; 49 taxa occurred throughout the entire vegetative season, while only single records of species that were found in specific months were noted. The biota collected in the “Las Łagiewnicki” forest reserve and that in a Łagiewnicki Forest segment outside it (of the same size and the same occurrence of plant communities as in the reserve) in 2011–2012 were also compared.


2021 ◽  
Vol 937 (2) ◽  
pp. 022061
Author(s):  
V. Shatalin ◽  
I.W. Moryzi ◽  
E.W. Pishchenko ◽  
A. Rostovtsev

Abstract The morphological structure, size-age variability and dynamics of age-related fertility of producers of Baikal omul of pelagic, near-bottom and coastal morpho-ecological groups during the depressive state of the population were studied. There is an improvement in the indicators of the growth rate of fish, maturation and an increase in absolute individual fertility against the background of the dilution of the population and the release of the feeding area. A comparative characteristic of some morphological features of fish among morphological-ecological groups is given. The number of gill rakers on the first gill arch significantly distinguishes different morpho-ecological groups and ranges from 36 to 43 pieces for the near-bottom, from 40 to 46 pieces for the coastal and from 44 to 53 pieces for the pelagic morpho-ecological groups. It is noted that the spawning populations of the coastal and pelagic groups are mainly represented by young individuals. With age, the proportion of females increases in all groups. The largest indices of the pectoral, abdominal and anal fins, responsible for movement in the vertical plane, rotation and stop, are noted in the near-bottom group.


2021 ◽  
Vol 30 (3) ◽  
pp. e009-e009
Author(s):  
Dárlison Fernandes-Carvalho-de-Andrade ◽  

Aim of the study: To assess structure, recruitment and mortality rates of tree species over almost three decades, 14 years before and 15 years after a forest fire. Material and methods: All trees ≥ 5 cm in DBH were identified and measured in 12 permanent plots (50 m x 50 m), in 1983, 1987, 1989, 1995, 2008, and 2012 of a dense ombrophilous forest in Eastern Amazon, Brazil. The analyses were carried out including all sampled species and their ecological groups: shade-tolerant, light-demanding, and pioneer species. Treatments were compared through a Linear Mixed Effect Model. Main results: The 15-year post-fire period is not enough for the old-growth tropical forest to recover its pre-fire conditions of recruitment and mortality rates. The post-fire recruitment and mortality rates increased, mainly the recruitment of pioneer species (p-value < 0.05). Research highlights: In a period of 15 years after the occurrence of a surface fire, the old-growth tropical forest still has high recruitment rates of shade-tolerant and light-demanding species and high incidence of pioneer species, confirming the persistent fire effects on forest dynamics and species composition in this ecosystem.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jorge Assis ◽  
Pierre Failler ◽  
Eliza Fragkopoulou ◽  
David Abecasis ◽  
Gregoire Touron-Gardic ◽  
...  

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) must function as networks with sufficient stepping-stone continuity between suitable habitats to ensure the conservation of naturally connected regional pools of biodiversity in the long-term. For most marine biodiversity, population connectivity is mediated by passively dispersed planktonic stages with contrasting dispersal periods, ranging from a few hours to hundreds of days. These processes exert a major influence on whether threatened populations should be conserved as either isolated units or linked metapopulations. However, the distance scales at which individual MPAs are connected are insufficiently understood. Here, we use a biophysical model integrating high-resolution ocean currents and contrasting dispersal periods to predict connectivity across the Network of MPAs in Western Africa. Our results revealed that connectivity differs sharply among distinct ecological groups, from highly connected (e.g., fish and crustacea) to predominantly isolated ecosystem structuring species (e.g., corals, macroalgae and seagrass) that might potentially undermine conservation efforts because they are the feeding or nursery habitats required by many other species. Regardless of their dispersal duration, all ecological groups showed a common connectivity gap in the Bijagós region of Guinea-Bissau, highlighting the important role of MPAs there and the need to further support and increase MPA coverage to ensure connectivity along the whole network. Our findings provide key insights for the future management of the Network of MPAs in Western Africa, highlighting the need to protect and ensure continuity of isolated ecosystem structuring species and identifying key regions that function as stepping-stone connectivity corridors.


2021 ◽  
Vol 20 ◽  
pp. 115-122
Author(s):  
Radovan Coufal ◽  
Michal Horsák

The Hutě Nature Reserve is located in the central eastern part of the White Carpathians PLA, near the Žítková village. The reserve protects a preserved and topographically heterogeneous area composed of forest groves, meadows, pastures, and spring fens with a high diversity of submontane and thermophilic plant and animal assemblages. The species composition of molluscs (9 out of 10 ecological groups represented) consists mainly of woodland dwellers, which account for the majority of species diversity (30 spp.; 52%), followed by ubiquitous (9; 16%), hygrophilous (5; 9%), hygrophilous woodland dwellers (4; 7%), aquatic (4; 7%) and open-habitat dwellers (3; 5%). Vertigo moulinsiana (EN), internationally protected under Annex II of the EU Habitats Directive, Daudebardia brevipes (VU), Ambigolimax nyctelius (NT), Orcula dolium (NT) and Bythinella austriaca (NT) are species of conservation concern. To retain favourable habitat conservation status, the spring fens with V. moulinsiana occurrence must be managed extensively by grazing or mowing, while the forests must remain in a non-intervention regime.


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