Cultural Factors
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2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 21-27
Author(s):  
Neni Sholihat ◽  
Indra Gunawan ◽  
Nia Restiana ◽  
Rosy Rosnawanty ◽  
Saryomo Saryomo

Based on Riskedas data in 2013, the prevalence of mental disorders in Indonesia is about 6% of the population has emotional disorders and 1.7% of serious mental disorders. In West Java the prevalence reaches 1.6%, while in Tasikmalaya City there are 171 sufferers. Mental disorders can be caused by biological, psychological and socio-cultural factors, it can also be caused by inadequate provision of patient care, especially in small towns and villages. Patients with chronic mental disorders need care management that involves various elements in the healing process, such as family, community and caregivers. The role of care giver which is very influential in the patient's healing process, they are in charge of providing emotional support and the necessities of life. The complex problems in patient care caused many of them not to be well cared for. One of the phenomena was found at the Mentari Hati Social Institusion. The caregiver's low educational background, and lack of knowledge in care, are among the factors causing the ineffective treatment provided. For this reason, a mental nursing service management program is needed which is managed in a Community Mental Health Nursing (CMHN) program which aims to empower caregivers by providing consultation and education services, and providing information on mental health principles. The purpose of this community service activity is to improve the care giver's ability to care for mental patients.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 889
Author(s):  
Elanor Colleoni ◽  
Stefania Romenti ◽  
Chiara Valentini ◽  
Mark Badham ◽  
Sung In Choi ◽  
...  

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought several challenges to businesses and societies. In response, many corporations have supported local communities and authorities in the management of the pandemic. Although these initiatives, which can be considered forms of corporate social responsibility (CSR), were highly coupled with explicit CSR communication campaigns, little is known about whether these campaigns were effective. Previous research indicates that culture can shape people’s perceptions of CSR initiatives and communications, suggesting that businesses pay attention to careful consideration of cultural norms for effective CSR communication. However, the COVID-19 pandemic as a new CSR setting may challenge earlier findings. This study empirically investigates whether three cultural factors (individualism/collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, and power distance) affect public perceptions measured as recall of and favorability towards corporate COVID-19 response initiatives across six countries. Findings from a representative survey of adults across these countries show that respondents in individualistic and collectivistic countries recall these CSR communication campaigns about these corporate COVID-19 response initiatives quite differently, and these are related to differences in power distance and uncertainty avoidance. However, no difference was found in overall corporate favorability, indicating that cultural factors did not affect levels of favorability towards such initiatives. This, we argue, can be explained by the global dimension of the COVID-19 pandemic, which is the context of these CSR initiatives. This study contributes to CSR communication literature with empirical findings from a global pandemic setting. It offers businesses and managers empirical grounds to understand the communicative impact of COVID-19 response initiatives, which can inform future CSR actions.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (3) ◽  
pp. 68-86
Author(s):  
O. A. Persidskaya ◽  
F. S. Fomkin

Based on the analysis of contemporary theoretical and practical research in the fields of social philosophy, sociology and social psychology, the author considers trends related to the interpretation of the phenomenon of ethnic identity. A multiple interpretation of this phenomenon is described, which allows us to study its different forms and degrees of manifestation. Network social media, multi-ethnic urban environment and processes in non-systemic politics are considered as socio-cultural factors that influence the transformation of the phenomenon under consideration. It is concluded that the process of ethnic identification cannot be further unambiguously identified with a scale directed from the zero state (identity is not formed) to the positive pole (identity is formed and expressed). Instead of this onedimensional interpretation, a metaphor of space, which includes different forms and degrees of expression of ethnic identity, is proposed.


2022 ◽  
pp. 108482232110722
Author(s):  
Toktam Kianian ◽  
Vahid Pakpour ◽  
Vahid Zamanzadeh ◽  
Mojgan Lotfi ◽  
Ahad Rezayan ◽  
...  

In Iran, home healthcare (HHC) is provided in a diverse socio-cultural context. Health professionals’ inadequate knowledge of the socio-cultural factors of the society can lead to poor quality HHC. Even so, the ways these factors influence HHC remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the effects of cultural factors and social changes on HHC in Iran. This qualitative study which follows a conventional content analysis approach was conducted in Tabriz, Iran. Eighteen individuals including nurses, home health directors, physicians, policy-makers, patients, and their families participated in the study. Participants were selected using purposive sampling. Data collection involved focus group discussion (FGD) and 16 semi-structured in-depth interviews. In order to analyze the data, Graneheim and Lundman’s techniques were used and data collection continued until saturation was reached. Five main themes emerged from the data analysis including cultural diversity issues, society’s understanding of HHC, shifting demographics affecting healthcare needs, transitioning from traditional to modern lifeways, and increasing unaffordability of healthcare. Health managers can improve the accessibility and acceptability of HHC services by identifying the socio-cultural needs of the society. Future research should develop and test patients and families’ cultural care models in the HHC setting.


2022 ◽  
pp. 036168432110431
Author(s):  
Tangier M. Davis ◽  
Isis H. Settles ◽  
Martinque K. Jones

Racial differences in benevolent sexism have been underexplored. To address this gap, we used standpoint theory as a framework to examine race-gender group differences in the endorsement of benevolent sexism and how cultural factors (i.e., egalitarianism, religiosity, and racial identity) and inequality factors (i.e., experiences with racial discrimination and support for social hierarchies) might mediate this relationship. Among 510 Black and white undergraduate women and men, we found racial differences, such that Black women and men had higher endorsement of benevolent sexism than white women and men. Further, there was a gender difference for only white participants, with white men endorsing these attitudes more than white women. For Black women, religiosity and racial identity mediated the relationship between their race-gender group and greater benevolent sexism compared to white women, but only religiosity mediated the relationship for Black men. Neither inequality mediator accounted for benevolent sexism differences; however, both were associated with white women’s lower benevolent sexism, as was egalitarianism. Given these findings, we discuss implications for benevolent sexism theory, the possibility that cultural factors may shape Black women and men’s standpoint by establishing group-based norms and expectations around benevolently sexist behavior, and suggest culturally appropriate methods to reduce sexism.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rachael Bailes ◽  
Christine Cuskley

Language is one of only a handful of human cultural systems that is both unique to our species, and universal. This chapter will focus on the cultural evolution of language, situating this alongside the phylogenetic and developmental timescales which also feed into the evolution of language. The chapter begins by outlining the relationship between the emergence of human language and the language faculty and the more rapid, ongoing processes of language change, which are often framed as predominantly cultural. In particular, previous work has emphasised how these timescales interact, and how cultural factors in particular shape which aspects of language exhibit broad cross-cultural variation or stability. This is followed by detailed evidence for this relationship from three domains, focusing on the role of cultural evolution in language as observed in natural language (both historical corpora and cross linguistic data), the cultural evolution of language in agent-based models, and finally, experimental studies of the cultural evolution of language. We conclude that the study of the cultural evolution of language forms an important data-rich model for the study of the evolution of cultural systems more generally, while also providing key insights into the specific dynamics of this uniquely human behaviour.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ekaterina Savel'eva

The monograph presents an extensive study of new forms of labor organization in the context of the development of technical, technological, financial, economic and socio-cultural factors. The distinctive features of digital labor platforms, their classification, as well as the strategies of key players in the global and Russian-speaking distance labor markets are given. Based on the analysis of current international analytical reviews, foreign and domestic scientific publications, current legislation and court decisions, the author gives approaches and methods of regulatory regulation of platform labor. The author does not ignore such controversial issues as: direct and indirect methods of state influence on the activities of digital labor platforms, problems of social responsibility, as well as prospects for the development of platform cooperativism in the world and Russia as an alternative to labor platforms focused on the global level. It is of interest to researchers, government authorities, teachers of higher educational institutions, graduate students and students studying these problems.


2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 31-45
Author(s):  
Alfred Moyo ◽  
Lilian Sankhulani ◽  
Stella Namalima

Most students in community technical colleges dropout before completion of their training course, particularly female students, which is counterproductive with regard to women empowerment. This paper therefore, reports on a study that was conducted at Milonga and Naminjiwa community technical colleges in Thyolo and Phalombe districts respectively. Thus, the study sought to establish probable socio-economic factors that influence dropout of female students from the two colleges, with a view of finding solutions to the problem. The two colleges were earmarked for the study because of their proximity to tea estates where manpower is the main source of labour for the tea industry. In addition, people in the two districts have similar cultural beliefs and economic status. Population of the study covered both female and male students including principals and instructors of the two technical colleges. In addition, identified parents of female students who dropped out of school were also part of the study. Thus, the study was conducted through qualitative research method so as to have an in-depth understanding of people views. Data was collected with reference to objectives of the study and then thematically analyzed. The study revealed several socio-economic factors that contribute to dropout of female students from the two colleges such as: cost of training and poverty, domestic chores and parents’ characteristics, cultural factors, early marriages and gender difference including training environment. However, the relationship among students and instructors showed that it had no effect on dropout as it was cordial and amicable. Recommendations to policy makers and other stakeholders were proposed as follows: Government and Ministry of Labour Skills and Innovation should have a national policy to provide bursaries and loans to needy students. The government should construct hostels at the two colleges to have conducive training environment. Ministry of Labour Skills and Innovation should organize awareness campaign programmes to sensitize the community surrounding the two colleges on the importance of TVET. Ministry of Labour Skills and Innovation should recruit more female instructors to act as role models to other female students.


2022 ◽  
pp. 095935352110477
Author(s):  
Abi Enlander ◽  
Laura Simonds ◽  
Paul Hanna

Theoretical approaches have tended to understand perinatal distress through either individual or socio-cultural factors. In contrast, Natasha Mauthner proposed a relational model that understands perinatal distress in the context of interpersonal relationships. This study aims to build on Mauthner's work to explore how women speak about their relationships in connection to their stories of perinatal distress and recovery. Eight women were interviewed for the study. All women had at least one child under the age of three and self-identified as having experienced distress in the perinatal period. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using Voice Centred Relational Analysis. Four broad themes were identified: (i) the role of practical support, (ii) the role of emotional support, (iii) relational dynamics, and (iv) the role of socio-cultural norms. Whilst some women experienced practical and emotional support in their relationships, those who did not linked a lack of support to their feelings of distress. Relationships were also found to reinforce unhelpful social norms around motherhood and mental health, as well as offering a space to resist norms and create wider discourses about what it means to be a mother. This study suggests that organizations supporting women in the perinatal period should focus on women's relational needs and consider the cultural discourses of motherhood that they perpetuate.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ademe Tsegaye ◽  
Calistus Wilunda ◽  
Fabio Manenti ◽  
Matteo Bottechia ◽  
Michele D'Alessandro ◽  
...  

The COVID-19 pandemic has infected more than 263 million people and claimed the lives of over 5 million people worldwide. Refugees living in camp settings are particularly vulnerable to infection because of the difficulty implementing preventive measures and lack of medical resources. However, very little is known about the factors that influence the behavioural response of refugees towards COVID-19. There is an urgent need for field evidence to inform the design and implementation of a robust social and behaviour change communication strategy to respond to the threat posed by COVID-19 in humanitarian settings. This study examines factors influencing COVID-19-related behavioural decisions in the Nguenyyiel refugee camp located in Gambella, Ethiopia using data collected from focus group discussions and key informant interviews in September 2020. The evidence suggests that while a number of factors have been facilitating the adoption of COVID-19 prevention measures, including good general knowledge about the virus and the necessary preventive strategies and the active engagement by community leaders and non-governmental organisations, important structural and cultural factors have hindered the uptake of COVID-19 prevention measures. These include: difficultly staying at home to minimise physical contact; overcrowding in the camp and within home dwellings; a lack of hand sanitizers and masks and of funds to purchase these; inconsistent use of facemasks when available; COVID-19 denial and misconceptions about the disease, and other cultural beliefs and habits. Overall, the study found that refugees perceived COVID-19 to pose a low threat (susceptibility and severity) and had mixed beliefs about the efficacy of preventive behaviours. This study identified gaps in the existing information education and communication strategy, including a lack of consistency, inadequate messaging, and a limited use of communication channels. While awareness of COVID-19 is a necessary first step, it is not sufficient to increase adoption of prevention measures in this setting. The current communication strategy should move beyond awareness raising and emphasise the threat posed by COVID-19 especially among the most vulnerable members of the camp population. This should be accompanied by increased community support and attention to other barriers and incentives to preventive behaviours.


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