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Yuki Yamada ◽  
Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva

AbstractA continued lack of clarity persists because academics, policymakers, and other interested parties are unable to clearly define what is a “predatory” journal or publisher, and a potentially wide gray zone exists there. In this perspective, we argue that journals should be evaluated on a continuum, and not just in two shades, black and white. Since evaluations about what might constitute “predatory” are made by humans, the psychological decision-making system that determines them may induce biases. Considering such human psychological characteristics might shed light on the deterministic criteria that have been used, and continue to be used, to classify a journal or publisher as “predatory”, and perhaps, bring additional clarity to this discussion. Better methods of journal evaluation can be obtained when the factors that polarize journal evaluations are identified. As one example, we need to move away from simply using whitelists and blacklists and educate individual researchers about how to evaluate journals. This paper serves as an educational tool by providing more clarity about the “gray” publishing zone, and argues that currently available qualitative and quantitative systems should be fused to deterministically appreciate the zonation of white, gray and black journals, so as to possibly reduce or eliminate the influence of cognitive or “perception” bias from the “predatory” publishing debate.

Insects ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 80
Eugenia Fezza ◽  
Joe M. Roberts ◽  
Toby J. A. Bruce ◽  
Lael E. Walsh ◽  
Michael T. Gaffney ◽  

Vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an economically important insect pest of horticultural crops. To identify an effective and reliable monitoring system for adult vine weevil, this study investigated the influence of colour, height and entrance position on the efficacy of a model monitoring tool using modified paper cups as refuges. Vine weevil preferences were determined by the number of individuals recorded within a refuge. When provided with a binary choice between black or white refuges, vine weevil adults showed a preference for black refuges. Vine weevils provided with a range of coloured refuges (blue, green, red and yellow) in addition to black and white refuges showed a preference for black and blue over the other colours and white refuges in group choice experiments. Refuge height and entrance position also influenced vine weevil behaviour with individuals exhibiting a preference for taller refuges and those with entrance openings around the refuge base. These results provide insights into refuge selection by adult vine weevils, which can be exploited to improve monitoring tool design. The importance of developing an effective monitoring tool for vine weevil adults as part of an integrated pest management programme is discussed.

2022 ◽  
pp. 036168432110431
Tangier M. Davis ◽  
Isis H. Settles ◽  
Martinque K. Jones

Racial differences in benevolent sexism have been underexplored. To address this gap, we used standpoint theory as a framework to examine race-gender group differences in the endorsement of benevolent sexism and how cultural factors (i.e., egalitarianism, religiosity, and racial identity) and inequality factors (i.e., experiences with racial discrimination and support for social hierarchies) might mediate this relationship. Among 510 Black and white undergraduate women and men, we found racial differences, such that Black women and men had higher endorsement of benevolent sexism than white women and men. Further, there was a gender difference for only white participants, with white men endorsing these attitudes more than white women. For Black women, religiosity and racial identity mediated the relationship between their race-gender group and greater benevolent sexism compared to white women, but only religiosity mediated the relationship for Black men. Neither inequality mediator accounted for benevolent sexism differences; however, both were associated with white women’s lower benevolent sexism, as was egalitarianism. Given these findings, we discuss implications for benevolent sexism theory, the possibility that cultural factors may shape Black women and men’s standpoint by establishing group-based norms and expectations around benevolently sexist behavior, and suggest culturally appropriate methods to reduce sexism.

2022 ◽  
Vol 354 (11-12) ◽  
pp. 27-31
M. V. Dovydenkova

Relevance. The breeding stock and young cattle in the conditions of industrial technology of animal husbandry experience an increased antigenic load, which leads to disturbances in the immune status and the development of inflammatory processes manifested by endometritis and mastitis, diarrheal and respiratory syndromes. It was relevant to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the immunological reactivity of the animal’s body according to the state of resistance in cattle with clinical and subclinical mastitis, depending on the age of lactation. As a result of complex studies, the specific and nonspecific reactivity of the body of cattle in different periods of lactation was studied.Methods. The object of the study were cows of a black-and-white Holstein breed (n = 450). Groups of animals were formed according to the age of lactation:1st lactation, 2–3rd lactation, 3–4th lactation and for health reasons: clinically healthy animals, with subclinical mastitis and clinical mastitis. Milk samples were taken from cows to count the number of somatic cells, and blood to determine the quantitative content of IgG immunoglobulin and indicators of nonspecific resistance.Results. It was found that with mastitis in cows of different lactation ages, almost identical changes in the immune status were observed. Quantitative determination of IgG levels in animal blood serum is the basis for assessing the immunity of cattle. The immune status in clinically healthy animals was characterized by a higher level of the total amount of IgG immunoglobulin in the blood serum (amounted to 22.25 ± 0.70 mg/ml), whereas in cows with a subclinical form of mastitis, the level of IgG immunoglobulin decreased by 12.3%, with a clinical form of mastitis — by 17.2%. The results also showed that in cows of different lactations with subclinical and clinical mastitis, the bactericidal activity (by 10.8%) and the lysozyme activity of the blood increased significantly (by 8.22%). In cows with clinical mastitis — by 8.6% and 9.7% respectively, compared with the indicators in groups of healthy animals. Thus, mastitis, occurring in acute and subacute form, leads to a decrease in the resistance of the cows’ organism.

2022 ◽  
Raea Rasmussen ◽  
David Levari ◽  
Muna Akhtar ◽  
Chelsea Crittle ◽  
Megan Gately ◽  

Norton and Sommers (2011) assessed Black and White Americans’ perceptions of anti-Black and anti-White bias across the previous six decades—from the 1950s to the 2000s. They presented two key findings: White (but not Black) respondents perceived decreases in anti-Black bias to be associated with increases in anti-White bias, signaling the perception that racism is a zero-sum game; White respondents rated anti-White bias as more pronounced than anti-Black bias in the 2000s, signaling the perception that they were losing the zero-sum game. We collected new data to examine whether the key findings would be evident nearly a decade later, and whether political ideology would moderate perceptions. Liberal, moderate, and conservative White (but not Black) Americans alike believed that racism is a zero-sum game. Liberal White Americans saw racism as a zero-sum game they were winning by a lot, moderate White Americans saw it as a game they were winning by only a little, and conservative White Americans saw it as a game they were losing. This work has clear implications for public policy and behavioral science, and lays the groundwork for future research that examines to what extent racial differences in perceptions of racism by political ideology are changing over time.

2022 ◽  
pp. 003464462110651
Kurt W. Rotthoff

There is a major difference in the drug arrest rate and incarceration rates between Black and White individuals. However, the drug use rate across the two groups is similar (and has been over time). This study estimates the lost productivity over time of people arrested on drug charges because they are Black. Ceteris Paribus, if those using the drugs were White, instead of Black, at the point of arrest and incarceration, what would have been their additional productivity levels over their lives? In this study I estimate this lost productivity to be $53 billion to $220 billion from 1980–2018 (in 2019-dollars), suggesting that the Lucas wedge is substantial for racial drug arrests.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 152
Adriana Ramona Memete ◽  
Adrian Vasile Timar ◽  
Adrian Nicolae Vuscan ◽  
Florina Miere (Groza) ◽  
Alina Cristiana Venter ◽  

In recent years, mulberry has acquired a special importance due to its phytochemical composition and its beneficial effects on human health, including antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic and immunomodulatory effects. Botanical parts of Morus sp. (fruits, leaves, twigs, roots) are considered a rich source of secondary metabolites. The aim of our study was to highlight the phytochemical profile of each of the botanical parts of Morus tree, their health benefits and applications in food industry with an updated review of literature. Black and white mulberries are characterized in terms of predominant phenolic compounds in correlation with their medical applications. In addition to anthocyanins (mainly cyanidin-3-O-glucoside), black mulberry fruits also contain flavonols and phenolic acids. The leaves are a rich source of flavonols, including quercetin and kaempferol in the glycosylated forms and chlorogenic acid as predominant phenolic acids. Mulberry bark roots and twigs are a source of prenylated flavonoids, predominantly morusin. In this context, the exploitation of mulberry in food industry is reviewed in this paper, in terms of developing novel, functional food with multiple health-promoting effects.

Ayoub Hamama ◽  
M. Harrami ◽  
M. Saadi ◽  
A. Assani ◽  
Adeljebbar Diouri

The steelmaking process results in the by-product formation of electric arc furnace slag (EAFS). Slag is recovered at two different stages of the steelmaking process, the first recovery is black and the second is white. The present research focuses on the composition differences between the two types of slag from SONASID-Jorf steel in Morocco. A granular separation of the black and white slag was carried out to monitor the chemical and mineralogical composition. XRD and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy are performed on the samples in this paper. The slags suggest good hydraulic binder properties. It would be useful for research in the field of building materials to correlate the results of the characterization of EAFS with other types of slag with the aim of improving the potential for partial replacement of cement in the matrix. The slag can also be used as binders in mixtures of bio-based building materials. The electric arc furnace slag (EAFS), exhibiting appropriate cementitious activity, can be utilized as mineral admixture in cement and concrete. Black and white slags are studied in this paper in order to determine their characteristics according to their granularity.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Ryan A. Robertson ◽  
Corbin J. Standley ◽  
John F. Gunn III ◽  
Ijeoma Opara

Purpose Death by suicide among Black people in the USA have increased by 35.6% within the past decade. Among youth under the age of 24 years old, death by suicide among Black youth have risen substantially. Researchers have found that structural inequities (e.g. educational attainment) and state-specific variables (e.g. minimum wage, incarceration rates) may increase risk for suicide among Black people compared to White people in the USA. Given the limited understanding of how such factors systematically affect Black and White communities differently, this paper aims to examine these relationships across US states using publicly available data from 2015 to 2019. Design/methodology/approach Data were aggregated from various national sources including the National Center for Education Statistics, the Department of Labor, the FBI’s Crime in the US Reports and the Census Bureau. Four generalized estimating equations (GEE) models were used to examine the impact of state-level variables on suicide rates: Black adults suicide rate, Black youth (24 years and younger) suicide rate, White adult suicide rate and White youth suicide rate. Each model includes state-level hate group rates, minimum wage, violent crime rates, gross vacancy rates, and race-specific state-level poverty rates, incarceration rates and graduation rates. Findings Across all GEE models, suicide rates rose between 2015–2019 (ß = 1.11 – 2.78; ß = 0.91 – 1.82; ß = 0.52 – 3.09; ß = 0.16 – 1.53). For the Black adult suicide rate, state rates increased as the proportion of Black incarceration rose (ß = 1.14) but fell as the gross housing vacancy rates increased (ß = −1.52). Among Black youth, state suicide rates rose as Black incarcerations increased (ß = 0.93). For the adult White suicide rate, state rates increased as White incarceration (ß = 1.05) and percent uninsured increased (ß = 1.83), but fell as White graduation rates increased (ß = −2.36). Finally, among White youth, state suicide rates increased as the White incarceration rate rose (ß = 0.55) and as the violent crime rate rose (ß = 0.55) but decreased as state minimum wages (ß = −0.61), White poverty rates (ß = −0.40) and graduation rates increased (ß = −0.97). Originality/value This work underscores how structural factors are associated with suicide rates, and how such factors differentially impact White and Black communities.

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