operating parameters
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Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 310 ◽  
pp. 122366
Pengwei Zhang ◽  
Guangfu Xu ◽  
Yaopeng Li ◽  
Yikang Cai ◽  
Huiquan Duan ◽  

Chaodong Tan ◽  
Hanwen Deng ◽  
Wenrong Song ◽  
Huizhao Niu ◽  
Chunqiu Wang

AbstractEvaluating the productivity potential of shale gas well before fracturing reformation is imperative due to the complex fracturing mechanism and high operation investment. However, conventional single-factor analysis method has been unable to meet the demand of productivity potential evaluation due to the numerous and intricate influencing factors. In this paper, a data-driven-based approach is proposed based on the data of 282 shale gas wells in WY block. LightGBM is used to conduct feature ranking, K-means is utilized to classify wells and evaluate gas productivity according to geological features and fracturing operating parameters, and production optimization is realized through random forest. The experimental results show that shale gas productivity potential is basically determined by geological condition for the total influence weights of geologic properties take the proportion of 0.64 and that of engineering attributes is 0.36. The difference between each category of well is more obvious when the cluster number of well is four. Meanwhile, those low production wells with good geological conditions but unreasonable fracturing schemes have the greatest optimization space. The model constructed in this paper can classify shale gas wells according to their productivity differences, help providing suggestions for engineers on productivity evaluation and the design of fracturing operating parameters of shale gas well.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 562
Yong Wang ◽  
Mingliang Chang ◽  
Long Chen ◽  
Shouxi Wang ◽  
Shihao Fan ◽  

The reinjection of the fire-flooding exhaust is a novel disposal process for handling the exhaust produced by the in-situ combustion technology. For reasonable process design and safe operation, it is of great significance to select an optimum property calculation method for the fire-flooding exhaust. However, due to the compositional particularity and the wide range of operating parameters during reinjection, the state equations in predicting the exhaust properties over the wide range of operating parameters have not been studied clearly yet. Hence, this paper investigates the applicability of several commonly-used equations of state, including the Soave–Redlich–Kwong equation, Peng–Robinson equation, Lee–Kesler–Plocker equation, Benedict–Webb–Rubin–Starling equation, and GERG-2008 equations. Employing Aspen Plus software, the gas densities, compressibility factors, volumetric coefficients, and dew points for five exhaust compositions are calculated. In comparison with the experimental data comprehensively, the result indicates that the Soave–Redlich–Kwong equation shows the highest precision over a wide range of temperature and pressure. The mean absolute percentage error for the above four parameters is 3.84%, 5.17%, 5.53%, and 4.33%, respectively. This study provides a reference for the accurate calculation of the physical properties of fire-flooding exhausts when designing and managing a reinjection system of fire-flooding exhaust.

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 156
Rita Noelle Moussa ◽  
Najah Moussa ◽  
Davide Dionisi

In the context of hydrogen production from biomass or organic waste with dark fermentation, this study analysed 55 studies (339 experiments) in the literature looking for the effect of operating parameters on the process performance of dark fermentation. The effect of substrate concentration, pH, temperature, and residence time on hydrogen yield, productivity, and content in the biogas was analysed. In addition, a linear regression model was developed to also account for the effect of nature and pretreatment of the substrate, inhibition of methanogenesis, and continuous or batch operating mode. The analysis showed that the hydrogen yield was mainly affected by pH and residence time, with the highest yields obtained for low pH and short residence time. High hydrogen productivity was favoured by high feed concentration, short residence time, and low pH. More modest was the effect on the hydrogen content. The mean values of hydrogen yield, productivity, and content were, respectively, 6.49% COD COD−1, 135 mg L−1 d−1, 51% v/v, while 10% of the considered experiments obtained yield, productivity, and content of or higher than 15.55% COD COD−1, 305.16 mg L−1 d−1, 64% v/v. Overall, this study provides insight into how to select the optimum operating conditions to obtain the desired hydrogen production.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 383
Filip Bartyzel ◽  
Tomasz Wegiel ◽  
Magdalena Kozień-Woźniak ◽  
Marek Czamara

Due to the growing demand for new ecological, low-emission heat sources, there is a need to develop new tools for simulating the operating parameters and costs of the implemented solutions. The article analyses the existing solutions for the simulation of heat pump operation parameters, describes the requirements for a modern building—nZEB and proposes a simulation tool based on thermodynamic parameters of the refrigerant. The script allows for deriving simple linear equations that can be used for the overall simulation of a system in which the heat pump is a key part and the efficiency of the entire system depends on its performance. The developed numerical script allows for reproducing the Linde refrigeration cycle and the parameters of its characteristic points. To calibrate the simulation, historical data obtained from the SOPSAR system were used. These data were pre-cleaned (peaks and other obvious measurement errors were removed). The obtained numerical model in combination with ground and air temperatures, anticipated hot water consumption and energy losses of the building can be used to simulate the annual performance and energy consumption of the heat pump. The obtained linear models have an RSMD error of 8% compared to historical data from SOPSAR system for all sets of simulated temperatures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 215 ◽  
pp. 105227
Bogdan Sheludchenko ◽  
Egidijus Šarauskis ◽  
Savelii Kukharets ◽  
Andrii Zabrodskyi

2022 ◽  
Vol 334 ◽  
pp. 06004
Gema Montaner Ríos ◽  
Florian Becker ◽  
Anna Vorndran ◽  
Christoph Gentner ◽  
Syed Asif Ansar

Durability of proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems under cold weather conditions is essential and a critical challenge for transportation applications. During cold storage the water remaining in the cells can freeze causing damage to the cell components. In order to avoid this degradation, fuel cells are commonly purged with dried gases during shutdown prior to its storage at subzero temperatures. This work investigates cold storage of PEMFC systems at temperatures down to -40°C with the aim of developing a shutdown procedure that leads to minimal degradation due to cold storage, while meets energy efficient and time requirements of aeronautical applications. To that end, several experiments were carried out with two different stacks (a 4 kW liquid cooled and a 100 W air cooled) under a wide range of operating parameters: cathode gas, purge temperature, anode and cathode gas purge flow rates, purge time and cold storage temperature. The fuel cell performance degradation due to ice formation was measured by the polarization curves conducted prior and after every F/T cycle. The effects of these operating parameters on the durability of the PEMFC systems under cold storage are evaluated. The obtained experimental results showed that very long purge process lead to further performance degradation at -10°C than shorter process at -40°C, which indicates that eliminating all remained water in the cells is not only inefficient, but also lead to degradation due to the drying process. Moreover, guidelines to improve shutdown procedure for cold storage of proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems for aeronautical applications are discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 961 (1) ◽  
pp. 012044
Miqdam T. Chaichan ◽  
Noora S. Ekab ◽  
Mohammed A. Fayad ◽  
Hayder A. Dhahad

Abstract The fuel injection timings, equivalence ratio (Ø) and exhaust gas recirculation are considered the most important parameters can effect on combustion process and lower exhaust emissions concentrations. The influence of 15% EGR technology and operating parameters (Ø and injection timing) on NOX emissions and particulate matter (PM) using oxygenated fuel (ethanol and methanol) blends were investigated in this experimental study. The results showed that the NOX emissions concentrations with increasing the equivalence ratio (Ø) and applied EGR for all fuels studied. Besides, the E10 and M10 decreased the PM concentrations compared to the diesel fuel under various equivalence ratios (Ø). The applied EGR increased the PM concentrations, but when combination of oxygenated fuels and EGR leading to the decrease in the PM formation. The NOX emissions concentrations decreased from the combined effect of EGR and oxygenated fuels by 16.8%, 22.91% and 29.5% from the combustion of diesel, M10 and E10, respectively, under various injection timings. It is indicated that NOX emissions decreased with retarded injection timings, while the PM decreased under advanced injection timings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2160 (1) ◽  
pp. 012009
Tian Jin ◽  
Tao Wei ◽  
Zitong Zhang ◽  
Zehao Lei ◽  
Liquan Sun

Abstract There are two kinds of proteins in silk, sericin and silk fibroin. Polypeptide compounds from silk sericin and silk fibroin were prepared by hydrothermal method. The process of silk dissolution was investigated under different solid-liquid ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time. By controlling the operating parameters of hydrothermal method, the temperature, material ratio and time were further optimized, and the best experimental results were obtained, the expected decomposition of silks occurred when the ratio of silks to waters was selected as 1 to 10, at 140 degree in 30 min. The molecular weight of polypeptide was detected by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and analysed by MALDI-TOF-MS. The results showed that the molecular weight of the polypeptide obtained from silks was about 6000-8000Da. After literature research, the polypeptide with such molecular weight could have better performance for some functional additives.

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