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Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1778
Joanna Kawa-Rygielska ◽  
Kinga Adamenko ◽  
Witold Pietrzak ◽  
Justyna Paszkot ◽  
Adam Głowacki ◽  

The development of craft brewing has spurred huge interest in unusual and traditional technologies and ingredients allowing the production of beers that would fulfil consumers’ growing demands. In this study, we evaluated the brewing performance of traditional Norwegian KVEIK yeast during the production of Foreign Extra Stout beer. The content of alcohol of the KVEIK-fermented beer was 5.11–5.58% v/v, the extract content was 5.05–6.66% w/w, and the pH value was 4.53–4.83. The KVEIK yeast was able to completely consume maltose and maltotriose. The mean concentration of glycerol in KVEIK-fermented beers was higher than in the control sample (1.51 g/L vs. 1.12 g/L, respectively). The use of KVEIK-type yeast can offer a viable method for increasing the concentration of phenolic compounds in beer and for boosting its antioxidative potential. The beers produced with KVEIK-type yeast had a total phenol content of 446.9–598.7 mg GAE/L, exhibited antioxidative potential of 0.63–1.08 mM TE/L in the DPPH• assay and 3.85–5.16 mM TE/L in the ABTS•⁺ assay, and showed a ferric ion reducing capacity (FRAP) of 3.54–4.14 mM TE/L. The KVEIK-fermented bears contained various levels of volatile compounds (lower or higher depending on the yeast strain) and especially of higher alcohols, such as 3-metylobutanol, 2-metylobutanol, and 1-propanol, or ethyl esters, such as ethyl acetate or decanoate, compared to the control beers. In addition, they featured a richer fruity aroma (apricot, dried fruit, apples) than the control beers fermented with a commercial US-05 strain.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2589
Hyeon Eui Oh ◽  
Ara Yoon ◽  
Yoo Gyeong Park

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of light quality on R.hongnoensis growth, physiology, and antioxidant properties. Five light conditions were employed, including white (control), red (R), blue (B), combined LED of R, green (G), and B at 7:1:2 (RGB), as well as combined LED of R, G, B, and far-red (Fr) at 7:1:2:1 (RGBFr). R light had the greatest growth-promoting effect based on plant height, leaf length, leaf width, stem diameter, and leaf area. However, leaf width and root length exhibited the greatest growth under RGB. The fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were highest under R and RGB light. Photosynthesis was highest under RGB and lowest under B. Transpiration was highest in RGBFr. Stomatal conductance and photosynthetic water use efficiency were greatest under RGBFr. Total phenol content and radical scavenging activity were highest under R, while total flavonoid content was highest under RGB. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were upregulated under W, whereas guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activity was highest under RGB. The present results suggest that, among the tested light treatments, R light was most conductive for vegetative growth and antioxidant capacity in R. hongnoensis.

R. Ramasubramania Raja ◽  
Haribabu Y. ◽  
C. I. Sajeeth

Mentha arvensis is a belonging to the family of Lamiaceae; Wild mint is often used as a domestic herbal remedy, being valued especially for its antiseptic properties and its beneficial effect on the digestion. The phytochemical screening of hydro alcoholic extracts presenting the flavonoids, resins, triterpenoids, tannins and phenolic groups. The percentage of antioxidant potential is 91.28, by DPPH method. The estimation value of total phenol content is 936±71, and total flavonoid conent is 479±66. The crude drug evaluated by the various physical methods, and all the results are within the limit of world health organisation prescribed. The antioxidant potential is evaluation by DPPH method. The phyto chemical screening based upon the colour reaction and estimated the chief phyto constituents like phenolic content and flavonoid. This work identification and characterisation of the purity and quality of the monograph of the Mentha arvensis. This work is more useful to further researchers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 94-99
Linda J Kusumawardani ◽  
Ani Iryani

Phenol is one of the essential organic pollutants released into the environment because of its high stability and toxicity. It is harmful to organisms, environment, and posing a serious threat to human health at low concentration. This research investigated the photocatalytic degradation process of phenol using a TiO2-Fe catalyst under visible light irradiation and additional H2O2. The effect of various conditions process was applied, including different catalyst doses (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 g/L), pH (3, 6, 8, and 11), irradiation times (60, 90, 120, 150, and 210 minutes) and the presence of H2O2. The degradation process was studied at an initial concentration of phenol 5 mg/L. This study has been decreasing phenol content (90.51%) with catalyst doses 0.6 g/ L sample solution, pH solution 11, reaction time 210 minutes and H2O2 concentration 30%. This final phenol concentration after photodegradation under halogen light was 0.18 mg/L, while sunlight irradiation was 0.11 mg/L. This result is below government regulation as per Permen LH RI No. 5/2014 i.e. 0.5 mg/L. Therefore, this process possible to remove phenol in aqueous such as industrial wastewater or other resources.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2550
Saeed R. H. A. Al Shamsi ◽  
Gabriel A. Rabert ◽  
Shyam S. Kurup ◽  
Mohammed Abdul Muhsen Alyafei ◽  
Abdul Jaleel

The present investigation was carried out to explore the biochemical changes and antioxidant variations, including non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant variations, in the leaves of different varieties of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) belonging to the early, mid-, and late-flowering categories in the United Arab Emirates. The changes in the protein and phenol concentration; the ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, and α-tocopherol contents; and the activity of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were studied in the leaves during the preflowering, flowering, and postflowering stages of the date palms. Two varieties each from the early (Shaham, Khanezi), mid- (Barhee, Nabthasaif), and late- (Khasab, Fardh) flowering types were used in this study. The protein content in the leaves was higher in the early flowering varieties during the preflowering stage but lower in the other two varieties. The phenol content showed an opposite trend to the protein. There was significant variation in the ascorbic acid content and a reduction in glutathione and α-tocopherol between the leaves of different varieties. Similarly, the activity of the antioxidant enzyme ascorbate peroxidase in the leaves was higher during the preflowering stage in all varieties. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and catalase (CAT) activity was highest in the Bharhee leaves for all the stages. The peroxidase activity (POD) was highest in the Fardh variety of date palm, whereas the Khanezi variety exhibited the lowest activity. This study can be used as a baseline for developing more protocols for understanding the possible roles of biochemicals, antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes, and their interactions in the regulation of flower development in different date palm varieties.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 153-168
T. M. Obuotor ◽  
A. O. Kolawole ◽  
F. O. Adeyanju ◽  
S. S. Adewumi

Increasing level of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens causing Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the most significant public health challenges globally. Hence, the search for alternatives from medicinal plants. This study investigated the efficacy of Phyllanthus amarus (PA), Phyllanthus muellerianus (PM) and Sida acuta (SA) leaf extracts on microorganisms implicated in UTI. Mid-stream urine samples collected from 100 patients clinically diagnosed with UTI were cultured. The microorganisms isolated were identified using their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Methanol leaf extracts of the three plants were obtained by cold maceration in 60% methanol. Crude extract of PM was thereafter purified by solvent partitioning. Antibiotic susceptibility test was determined using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion. Antimicrobial effects of the extracts and oil was ascertained using agar well diffusion. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) were also determined. Rate of kill and mechanism of action of the purified extract of PM on isolates were investigated. Cytotoxicity of plant extracts were assayed on brine shrimps while synergism of the purified extract with ciprofloxacin was ascertained using overlay inoculum susceptibility disc method. Antioxidant and phytochemical analyses of the extracts were conducted using standard methods. Phytochemical analysis of the leaf extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and steroids. Antioxidant assay also indicated SA had the highest total flavonoids and phenol content of 339.86 mgQUE/g and 27.63 mgGAE/g. Microorganisms isolated include: Escherichia coli (24%), Proteus mirabilis (24%), Staphylococcus aureus (19%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (13%), Candida albicans (11%), Enterobacter sp. (5%) and Citrobacter sp. (4%). The crude extract of PA had zone of inhibition ranging from 16.7 ± 1.53 mm to 24 ± 1.00 mm while SA crude extract had 14.7 ± 1.53 mm to 27 ± 2.00 mm. PM crude extract had inhibition zones of 17 ± 1.00 mm to 22.3 ± 2.12 mm. The MIC and MBC ranged from 6.25 mg/ml to 50 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml to 50 mg/ml respectively. Ethyl acetate fraction of PM showed the highest percentage yield and had a zone diameter range from 13.5 ± 1.00 mm to 28 ± 1.53 mm with MIC and MBC ranges of 6.25 mg/ml – 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml to 50 mg/ml respectively. Synergism with ciprofloxacin was observed at 25% of the microorganisms, 50% antagonism and 25% additively. Toxicity analysis showed lethal dose concentrations of 19.05 mg/ml, 25.12 mg/ml and 130.11 mg/ml for PM, PA and SA respectively. The findings of this study suggest that the methanol extracts of the medicinal plants used in this study does possess a potent lead molecule in combating microorganisms causing UTI. Key words: Antimicrobial activity, Phyllanthus muellerianus, Phytochemicals, Toxicity, UTI,

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2844
Joaquín Gómez-Estaca ◽  
Irene Albertos ◽  
Ana Belén Martín-Diana ◽  
Daniel Rico ◽  
Óscar Martínez-Álvarez

The present work shows a procedure to valorize non-commercial boiled shrimp to produce functional ingredients, using a combined treatment based on enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent glycation under mild conditions. Antioxidant and prolyl endopeptidase-inhibiting activities were determined as a function of hydrolysis and glycation times (0–120 min and 0–180 min, respectively). The reaction products were characterized by determining the degree of hydrolysis, browning, fluorescent compounds, free amino acids, phenol content, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and molecular weight of the different fractions obtained. Enzymatic hydrolysis generated hydrolysates with significant antioxidant and prolyl endopeptidase-inhibiting activities. Glycation under mild conditions was used as a strategy to improve the antioxidant and potential nootropic properties of the hydrolysates. During glycation, the free amino acid content decreased, total phenols and fluorescent compounds increased significantly, and low molecular weight melanoidins were formed. The presence of peptide-glucose conjugates was also confirmed by FTIR. Glycation increased the antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates; however, their prolyl-endopeptidase-inhibiting activity was lost. Results showed that compounds with promising antioxidant (hydrolysis and glycation) and potential nootropic (hydrolysis) activities and applications in food systems were obtained from the biotechnological strategy used.

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 1819
Alexandra Olmo-Cunillera ◽  
Julián Lozano-Castellón ◽  
Maria Pérez ◽  
Eleftherios Miliarakis ◽  
Anna Tresserra-Rimbau ◽  

To meet the growing demand for high-quality extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) with health-promoting properties and pleasant sensory properties, studies are needed to establish optimal production parameters. Bioactive components of EVOO, including phenolic compounds, carotenoids, chlorophylls, tocopherols, and squalene, contribute to its organoleptic properties and beneficial health effects. The aim of this study was to develop an Arbequina EVOO with high phenol content, particularly oleocanthal and oleacein, on a laboratory scale by analyzing the effects of different temperatures (20, 25, and 30 °C) and times (30 and 45 min) of malaxation. Higher temperatures decreased the levels of the phenolic compounds, secoiridoids, tocopherols, and squalene, but increased the pigments. EVOO with the highest quality was produced using malaxation parameters of 20 °C and 30 min, although oleocanthal and oleacein were higher at 30 and 25 °C, respectively. Overall, 20 °C and 30 min were the processing conditions that most favored the physiological and chemical processes that contribute to higher levels of bioactive compounds in the oil and diminished their degradation and oxidation processes.

Silvia Handayani ◽  
Edy Fachrial ◽  
Adek Amansyah ◽  
I. Nyoman Encrich Lister

The skin is the organ of the body that is frequently exposed to direct UV rays from the sun, which causes the formation of ROS (reactive oxygen species), leading to cell death and tissue damage. This health problem can be overcome by using antioxidants to stabilize the free radicals. Mustard as an organic substance which contains polysaccharide compounds, vitamin C, carotene, quercetin, routine compounds, kaempferol and β-cytostreol, all of these are beneficial to skin health and beauty. Therefore, this study aims to determine the antioxidant activity of the total flavonoids and phenol content of mustard ethanol extract using the DPPH method. Furthermore, the extract at concentrations of 2, 4, and 6% was also tested for its anti-aging activity using the following parameters: moisture and oil content, texture, collagen, wrinkles, pigment, sensitivity, and pores. The results showed that the antioxidant activity of the green mustard had an IC50 value of 170.7839 µg/ml, a total phenol content of 14.471 mg GAE/g extract and flavonoid content of 12.753 mg QE/g extract. The effectiveness of the aging activity of the extract was tested using formulation 6%, which is better than 2%, and 4%. Thus, the percentage of water content recovery, oil content, texture, collagen, wrinkles, stains, sensitivity and pores respectively was 36.41, 39.33, 64.07, 17.65, 65.28, 50.14, 49.10 and 35.09%.  Consequently, it was concluded that the extract has the potential of being developed into a herbal beauty product.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (22) ◽  
pp. 12377
Eun-Ji Go ◽  
Byeong-Ryeol Ryu ◽  
Su-Ji Ryu ◽  
Hyun-Bok Kim ◽  
Hyun-Tai Lee ◽  

Mulberry fruits are rich sources of anthocyanins that exhibit beneficial biological activity. These anthocyanins become instable in an aqueous media, leading to their low bioavailability. In this study, a colloidal dispersion was produced by processing mulberry samples with hot-melt extrusion. In this process, hydrophilic polymer matrices were used to disperse the compound in an aqueous media. Mulberry samples were processed with hot-melt extrusion and in the presence of an ionization agent and sodium alginate to form mulberry-extrudate solid formulations. The particle size of mulberry-extrudate solid formulations decreased, while the total phenol content, the total anthocyanin content, and solubility increased. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed that mulberry-extrudate solid formulations now contained new functional groups, such as –COOH group. We investigated whether mulberry-extrudate solid formulations had a positive impact on the stability of anthocyanins. The non-extrudate mulberry sample and mulberry-extrudate solid formulations were incubated with a simulated gastric fluid system and an intestinal fluid system. The number of released anthocyanins was determined with HPLC. We found that anthocyanins were released rapidly from non-extrudate mulberry extract. Mulberry-extrudate solid formulations contained a large number of available anthocyanins even after being incubated for 180 min in the intestinal fluid system. Thus, hot-melt extrusion enhanced water solubility and stability of anthocyanins with the prolonged release.

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