sweet taste
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Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 370
May M. Cheung ◽  
Matthew Kramer ◽  
Gary K. Beauchamp ◽  
Sari Puputti ◽  
Paul M. Wise

Sweetness drives the consumption of added sugars, so understanding how to best measure sweet hedonics is important for developing strategies to lower sugar intake. However, methods to assess hedonic response to sweetness vary, making results across studies difficult to integrate. We compared methods to measure optimal sucrose concentration in 21 healthy adults (1) using paired-comparison preference tracking vs. ratings of liking, (2) with participants in the laboratory vs. at home, and (3) using aqueous solutions vs. vanilla milk. Tests were replicated on separate days to assess test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliability was similar between laboratory and home testing, but tended to be better for vanilla milk and preference tracking. Optimal sucrose concentration was virtually identical between laboratory and home, slightly lower when estimated via preference tracking, and about 50% lower in vanilla milk. However, optimal sucrose concentration correlated strongly between methods, locations, and stimuli. More than 50% of the variability in optimal sucrose concentration could be attributed to consistent differences among individuals, while much less variability was attributable to differences between methods. These results demonstrate convergent validity between methods, support testing at home, and suggest that aqueous solutions can be useful proxies for some commonly consumed beverages for measuring individual differences.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Dinithi Vidanage ◽  
Shamini Prathapan ◽  
Priyadarshika Hettiarachchi ◽  
Sudharshani Wasalathanthri

Abstract Background Regular exercise is a key element in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although the importance of regular exercises on glycemic control in people with diabetes is studied extensively, evidence is lacking on its impact on sweet taste perception. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of aerobic exercises on taste perception for sucrose in people with diabetes. Methods A sample of 225 people with diabetes aged 35-60 years was assigned randomly into 3 groups; aerobic exercise, combined exercise and a control group. The outcomes of the combined exercise group is not reported. The aerobic exercise group performed brisk walking 30min/day, 4-5days/week for 6 months. The primary outcome measures were supra-threshold intensity ratings and preference for sucrose assessed at baseline, at 3 and 6 months using ‘general Labeled Magnitude Scale’ and ‘Monell 2-series-forced choice method’ respectively. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level was assessed at baseline and at 6 months to determine glycemic control. Results Aerobic exercise group showed significantly increased ratings (mm) for higher sucrose concentrations at 3 months (mean difference for 2.02M; +6.63±2.50, p=0.048 and for 0.64M; +7.26±2.76, p=0.026) and at 6 months (mean difference for 0.64M; +7.79±4.49, p= 0.044) compared to baseline and also when compared to controls (mean difference for 2.02M between baseline and 3 months; intervention: +6.63±2.50, control: -4.01±1.79, p=0.02 and between baseline and 6 months for 2.02M; intervention: +3.15±0.57, control: -7.96±0.40, p=0.022 and for 0.64M; intervention: +7.79±4.49, control: -8.98±0.99, p=0.003). A significantly reduced preference (mol/L) was seen both at 3 (mean difference; -0.03±0.02, p= 0.037) and at 6 months (mean difference; -0.05±0.12, p=0.011) compared to baseline within the intervention group. Also, a significant reduction was seen in the intervention group compared to controls at 6 months (mean difference; intervention: -0.05±0.12, control: 0.01±0.03, p=0.044). HbA1c was significantly reduced in the intervention group compared to controls at 6 months (mean difference; intervention -0.43±1.6%, control +0.33±1.8%, p=0.018). Conclusion Regular aerobic exercises increase the sweet taste sensitivity, especially for higher concentrations of sucrose and decrease sweet taste preference in people with diabetes . These alterations in sweet taste perception, are likely to contribute to a better glycemic control in people with diabetes. Trial registration This trial was registered at the Sri Lanka Clinical Trial registry on 16/12/2015. (Trial registration number- SLCTR/2015/029, https://slctr.lk/trials/slctr-2015-029).

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2110158119
Hsueh-Ling Chen ◽  
Dorsa Motevalli ◽  
Ulrich Stern ◽  
Chung-Hui Yang

Sucrose is an attractive feeding substance and a positive reinforcer for Drosophila. But Drosophila females have been shown to robustly reject a sucrose-containing option for egg-laying when given a choice between a plain and a sucrose-containing option in specific contexts. How the sweet taste system of Drosophila promotes context-dependent devaluation of an egg-laying option that contains sucrose, an otherwise highly appetitive tastant, is unknown. Here, we report that devaluation of sweetness/sucrose for egg-laying is executed by a sensory pathway recruited specifically by the sweet neurons on the legs of Drosophila. First, silencing just the leg sweet neurons caused acceptance of the sucrose option in a sucrose versus plain decision, whereas expressing the channelrhodopsin CsChrimson in them caused rejection of a plain option that was “baited” with light over another that was not. Analogous bidirectional manipulations of other sweet neurons did not produce these effects. Second, circuit tracing revealed that the leg sweet neurons receive different presynaptic neuromodulations compared to some other sweet neurons and were the only ones with postsynaptic partners that projected prominently to the superior lateral protocerebrum (SLP) in the brain. Third, silencing one specific SLP-projecting postsynaptic partner of the leg sweet neurons reduced sucrose rejection, whereas expressing CsChrimson in it promoted rejection of a light-baited option during egg-laying. These results uncover that the Drosophila sweet taste system exhibits a functional division that is value-based and task-specific, challenging the conventional view that the system adheres to a simple labeled-line coding scheme.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 259-272
Ginette Gladys Doue ◽  
Mariame Cisse ◽  
Rose-Monde Megnanou ◽  
Lessoy Thierry Zoue

Child malnutrition is still a public health problem in Côte d'Ivoire, mainly due to poor feeding practice linked to the low nutritional value of the staple foods used for child nutrition. However, the introduction of tigernut, proteins and lipids rich tuber, in the dietary habits of these children could constitute an interesting nutritional alternative to solve this problem. The objective of this work was to valorize the tigernut-based porridges for their use as complementary food in the diet of weaning children. To this end, physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of four formulations AB1, AB4, RB2 and SB3 were studied. The atadjon formulations, especially AB1, presented the highest density in energy (95.70 Kcal/100g), protein (5.37 %), lipids (3.8 %) and the lowest contents in anti-nutrients with 2.17% in fiber, 36.6% in oxalates, 65.54% in tannin and 0% in phytates, contrary to the rice (RB2) and tigernut (SB3) control porridges. In addition, the atadjon formulations AB4 and AB1 were preferred to the control because of their sweet taste, tigernut flavor, brown color and flowability according to PCA analysis. Thus, this study indicates that these traditionally prepared porridges could be suitable for children receiving an average level of breastfeeding and three meals per day.

Kelly L. Buchanan ◽  
Laura E. Rupprecht ◽  
M. Maya Kaelberer ◽  
Atharva Sahasrabudhe ◽  
Marguerita E. Klein ◽  

AbstractGuided by gut sensory cues, humans and animals prefer nutritive sugars over non-caloric sweeteners, but how the gut steers such preferences remains unknown. In the intestine, neuropod cells synapse with vagal neurons to convey sugar stimuli to the brain within seconds. Here, we found that cholecystokinin (CCK)-labeled duodenal neuropod cells differentiate and transduce luminal stimuli from sweeteners and sugars to the vagus nerve using sweet taste receptors and sodium glucose transporters. The two stimulus types elicited distinct neural pathways: while sweetener stimulated purinergic neurotransmission, sugar stimulated glutamatergic neurotransmission. To probe the contribution of these cells to behavior, we developed optogenetics for the gut lumen by engineering a flexible fiberoptic. We showed that preference for sugar over sweetener in mice depends on neuropod cell glutamatergic signaling. By swiftly discerning the precise identity of nutrient stimuli, gut neuropod cells serve as the entry point to guide nutritive choices.

Jin-Young Jeong ◽  
Yeon Kyung Cha ◽  
Sae Ryun Ahn ◽  
Junghyun Shin ◽  
Yoonji Choi ◽  

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 120
Joan Serrano ◽  
Nishita N. Meshram ◽  
Mangala M. Soundarapandian ◽  
Kathleen R. Smith ◽  
Carter Mason ◽  

Background: Saccharin is a common artificial sweetener and a bona fide ligand for sweet taste receptors (STR). STR can regulate insulin secretion in beta cells, so we investigated whether saccharin can stimulate insulin secretion dependent on STR and the activation of phospholipase C (PLC) signaling. Methods: We performed in vivo and in vitro approaches in mice and cells with loss-of-function of STR signaling and specifically assessed the involvement of a PLC signaling cascade using real-time biosensors and calcium imaging. Results: We found that the ingestion of a physiological amount of saccharin can potentiate insulin secretion dependent on STR. Similar to natural sweeteners, saccharin triggers the activation of the PLC signaling cascade, leading to calcium influx and the vesicular exocytosis of insulin. The effects of saccharin also partially require transient receptor potential cation channel M5 (TRPM5) activity. Conclusions: Saccharin ingestion may transiently potentiate insulin secretion through the activation of the canonical STR signaling pathway. These physiological effects provide a framework for understanding the potential health impact of saccharin use and the contribution of STR in peripheral tissues.

Appetite ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 168 ◽  
pp. 105742
Justine Fam ◽  
Kelly J. Clemens ◽  
R. Fred Westbrook ◽  
Margaret J. Morris ◽  
Michael D. Kendig

2022 ◽  
Vol 105 (1) ◽  
pp. 003685042110676
Shivam Kaushik ◽  
Rahul Kumar ◽  
Sachin Kumar ◽  
Srishti Sanghi ◽  
Pinky Kain

Introduction: Sugar is the main source of energy for nearly all animals. However, consumption of a high amount of sugars can lead to many metabolic disorders hence, balancing calorie intake in the form of sugar is required. Various herbs are in use to control body weight, cure diabetes and control elevated blood sugar levels. One such herb is Gymnema sylvestre commonly called Gurmar (destroyer of sugar). Gurmar selectively inhibits sugar sensation by mechanisms that are still elusive. Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to understand the effect of gurmar on sweet taste feeding behaviour in insects using the invertebrate model system Drosophila melanogaster. Methods: For this study, we used feeding assays, spectrophotometry and Proboscis Extension Reflex (PER) assay to determine how flies detect gurmar. Additionally, life span analysis, egg-laying behaviour and developmental profiles were used to probe the role of gurmar on the overall health of the flies. During the whole study, we used only the raw powdered form of gurmar (dried leaves) to examine its effect on sweet taste feeding behaviour. Results: Our data demonstrate that whole gurmar in a raw powdered form is aversive to flies and inhibits sugar evoked PER and feeding responses. Also, we observed it takes at least 24 h of starvation time to reduce the consumption of sugar in flies pre-fed on gurmar. Flies lay a fewer number of eggs on gurmar media and show developmental defects. Our data suggest that flies detect gurmar using both taste and olfactory cues. Conclusion: Understanding how gurmar reshapes taste curves to promote reduced consumption of sugars in flies will open up avenues to help people with health issues related to high sugar consumption, but our data also highlights that its consumption should be carefully considered since gurmar is aversive to flies and has detrimental effects on development.

Biomedicines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 79
Rebeca Fernández-Carrión ◽  
Jose V. Sorlí ◽  
Oscar Coltell ◽  
Eva C. Pascual ◽  
Carolina Ortega-Azorín ◽  

Taste perception and its association with nutrition and related diseases (type 2 diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular, etc.) are emerging fields of biomedicine. There is currently great interest in investigating the environmental and genetic factors that influence sweet taste and sugary food preferences for personalized nutrition. Our aims were: (1) to carry out an integrated analysis of the influence of sweet taste preference (both in isolation and in the context of other tastes) on the preference for sugary foods and its modulation by type 2 diabetes status; (2) as well as to explore new genetic factors associated with sweet taste preference. We studied 425 elderly white European subjects with metabolic syndrome and analyzed taste preference, taste perception, sugary-foods liking, biochemical and genetic markers. We found that type 2 diabetic subjects (38%) have a small, but statistically higher preference for sweet taste (p = 0.021) than non-diabetic subjects. No statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in preferences for the other tastes (bitter, salty, sour or umami) were detected. For taste perception, type 2 diabetic subjects have a slightly lower perception of all tastes (p = 0.026 for the combined “total taste score”), bitter taste being statistically lower (p = 0.023). We also carried out a principal component analysis (PCA), to identify latent variables related to preferences for the five tastes. We identified two factors with eigenvalues >1. Factor 2 was the one with the highest correlation with sweet taste preference. Sweet taste preference was strongly associated with a liking for sugary foods. In the exploratory SNP-based genome-wide association study (GWAS), we identified some SNPs associated with sweet taste preference, both at the suggestive and at the genome-wide level, especially a lead SNP in the PTPRN2 (Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type N2) gene, whose minor allele was associated with a lower sweet taste preference. The PTPRN2 gene was also a top-ranked gene obtained in the gene-based exploratory GWAS analysis. In conclusion, sweet taste preference was strongly associated with sugary food liking in this population. Our exploratory GWAS identified an interesting candidate gene related with sweet taste preference, but more studies in other populations are required for personalized nutrition.

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