eye movement
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2022 ◽  
Mélanie Strauss ◽  
Lucie Griffon ◽  
Pascal Van Beers ◽  
Maxime Elbaz ◽  
Jason Bouziotis ◽  

Abstract Sleep is known to benefit memory consolidation, but little is known about the contribution of sleep stages within the sleep cycle. The sequential hypothesis proposes that memories are first replayed during non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM or N) sleep and then integrated into existing networks during rapid-eye-movement (REM or R) sleep, two successive critical steps for memory consolidation. However, it lacks experimental evidence as N always precedes R sleep in physiological conditions. We tested this sequential hypothesis in patients with central hypersomnolence disorder, including patients with narcolepsy who present the unique, anti-physiological peculiarity of frequently falling asleep in R sleep before entering N sleep. Patients performed a visual perceptual learning task before and after daytime naps stopped after one sleep cycle, starting in N or R sleep and followed by the other stage (i.e. N-R vs. R-N sleep sequence). We compared over-nap changes in performance, reflecting memory consolidation, depending on the sleep sequence during the nap. Thirty-six patients who slept for a total of 67 naps were included in the analysis. Results show that sleep spindles are associated with memory consolidation only when N is followed by R sleep, that is in physiologically ordered N-R naps, thus providing support to the sequential hypothesis in humans. In addition, we found a negative effect of rapid-eye-movements in R sleep on perceptual consolidation, highlighting the complex role of sleep stages in the balance to remember and to forget.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 107
Martin Chavant ◽  
Zoï Kapoula

Presbycusis, physiological age-related hearing loss, is a major health problem because it is the most common cause of hearing impairment, and its impact will grow in the coming years with the aging population. Besides auditory consequences, the literature recently found an association between hearing loss and cognitive decline over the last two decades, emphasizing the importance of the early detection of presbycusis. However, the current hearing tests are not sufficient to detect presbycusis in some cases. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms of this association are still under discussion, calling for a new field of research on that topic. In that context, this study investigates for the first time the interaction between presbycusis, eye movement latency and Stroop scores for a normal aging population. Hearing abilities, eye movement latency and the Stroop Victoria test were measured for 69 elderly (mean 66.7 ± 8.4) and 30 young (mean 25.3 ± 2.7) participants. The results indicated a significant relationship between saccade latency and speech audiometry in the silence score, independently from age. These promising results suggest common attentional mechanisms between speech processing and saccade latency. The results are discussed regarding the relationship between hearing and cognition, and regarding the perspective of expanding new tools for presbycusis diagnosis.

2022 ◽  
Dimitrios Mylonas ◽  
Sasha Machado ◽  
Olivia Larson ◽  
Rudra Patel ◽  
Roy Cox ◽  

Abstract Study Objectives Converging evidence from neuroimaging, sleep, and genetic studies suggests that dysregulation of thalamocortical interactions mediated by the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) contribute to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sleep spindles assay TRN function, and their coordination with cortical slow oscillations (SOs) indexes thalamocortical communication. These oscillations mediate memory consolidation during sleep. In the present study, we comprehensively characterized spindles and their coordination with SOs in relation to memory and age in children with ASD. Methods Nineteen children and adolescents with ASD, without intellectual disability, and 18 typically developing (TD) peers, aged 9-17, completed a home polysomnography study with testing on a spatial memory task before and after sleep. Spindles, SOs, and their coordination were characterized during stages 2 (N2) and 3 (N3) non-rapid eye movement sleep. Results ASD participants showed disrupted SO-spindle coordination during N2 sleep. Spindles peaked later in SO upstates and their timing was less consistent. They also showed a spindle density (#/min) deficit during N3 sleep. Both groups showed significant sleep-dependent memory consolidation, but its relations with spindle density differed. While TD participants showed the expected positive correlations, ASD participants showed the opposite. Conclusions The disrupted SO-spindle coordination and spindle deficit provide further evidence of abnormal thalamocortical interactions and TRN dysfunction in ASD. The inverse relations of spindle density with memory suggest a different function for spindles in ASD than TD. We propose that abnormal sleep oscillations reflect genetically mediated disruptions of TRN-dependent thalamocortical circuit development that contribute to the manifestations of ASD and are potentially treatable.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Bhanuka Mahanama ◽  
Yasith Jayawardana ◽  
Sundararaman Rengarajan ◽  
Gavindya Jayawardena ◽  
Leanne Chukoskie ◽  

Our subjective visual experiences involve complex interaction between our eyes, our brain, and the surrounding world. It gives us the sense of sight, color, stereopsis, distance, pattern recognition, motor coordination, and more. The increasing ubiquity of gaze-aware technology brings with it the ability to track gaze and pupil measures with varying degrees of fidelity. With this in mind, a review that considers the various gaze measures becomes increasingly relevant, especially considering our ability to make sense of these signals given different spatio-temporal sampling capacities. In this paper, we selectively review prior work on eye movements and pupil measures. We first describe the main oculomotor events studied in the literature, and their characteristics exploited by different measures. Next, we review various eye movement and pupil measures from prior literature. Finally, we discuss our observations based on applications of these measures, the benefits and practical challenges involving these measures, and our recommendations on future eye-tracking research directions.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 133
Nicolae Goga ◽  
Costin-Anton Boiangiu ◽  
Andrei Vasilateanu ◽  
Alexandru-Filip Popovici ◽  
Marius-Valentin Drăgoi ◽  

In this paper, we describe an actuator-based EMDR (eye movement desensitization and reprocessing) virtual assistant system that can be used for the treatment of participants with traumatic memories. EMDR is a psychological therapy designed to treat emotional distress caused by a traumatic event from the past, most frequently in post-traumatic stress disorder treatment. We implemented a system based on video, tactile, and audio actuators which includes an artificial intelligence chatbot, making the system capable of acting autonomously. We tested the system on a sample of 31 participants. Our results showed the efficiency of the EMDR virtual assistant system in reducing anxiety, distress, and negative cognitions and emotions associated with the traumatic memory. There are no such systems reported in the existing literature. Through the present research, we fill this gap by describing a system that can be used by patients with traumatic memories.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Fatima Isiaka ◽  
Zainab Adamu

PurposeOne of the contributions of artificial intelligent (AI) in modern technology is emotion recognition which is mostly based on facial expression and modification of its inference engine. The facial recognition scheme is mostly built to understand user expression in an online business webpage on a marketing site but has limited abilities to recognise elusive expressions. The basic emotions are expressed when interrelating and socialising with other personnel online. At most times, studying how to understand user expression is often a most tedious task, especially the subtle expressions. An emotion recognition system can be used to optimise and reduce complexity in understanding users' subconscious thoughts and reasoning through their pupil changes.Design/methodology/approachThis paper demonstrates the use of personal computer (PC) webcam to read in eye movement data that includes pupil changes as part of distinct user attributes. A custom eye movement algorithm (CEMA) is used to capture users' activity and record the data which is served as an input model to an inference engine (artificial neural network (ANN)) that helps to predict user emotional response conveyed as emoticons on the webpage.FindingsThe result from the error in performance shows that ANN is most adaptable to user behaviour prediction and can be used for the system's modification paradigm.Research limitations/implicationsOne of the drawbacks of the analytical tool is its inability in some cases to set some of the emoticons within the boundaries of the visual field, this is a limitation to be tackled within subsequent runs with standard techniques.Originality/valueThe originality of the proposed model is its ability to predict basic user emotional response based on changes in pupil size between average recorded baseline boundaries and convey the emoticons chronologically with the gaze points.

Yong Fang ◽  
Wenli Zhang ◽  
Hua Hu ◽  
Jiayi Zhou ◽  
Dianliang Xiao ◽  

The aim of this study was to meet the visual cognition needs of the elderly population for the guidance marks and safety guidance marks of the rail transit connection system. Based on the visual characteristics of the elderly population, this paper firstly determined the visual field and sight range of the marks of the elderly population from three aspects—visual angle, visual distance, and height of the elderly population—and constructed the visual recognition space of the elderly population. Then, from the perspective of the setting position, the setting height, and the deflection angle, an adaptive aging safety design method for the guidance marks in the rail transit connection system is proposed. Then, based on the eye movement data of fixation duration, initial fixation duration, and the number of visits, a visual behavior index model is constructed to iteratively optimize the adaptive aging safety design of guidance marks in a rail transit connection system. A radar map is used to calculate the comprehensive index of visual behavior to determine the optimal scheme. Finally, taking the traffic connection system of Shanghai Songjiang University Town Station as an example, the eye movement data of 37 participants were collected, according to the principle that each connection path should only be taken once per person; the above method was used to design 7 connection path guidance marks for an adaptive aging safety design. The results showed that the comprehensive index of visual behavior of different paths had different degrees of improvement of up to 14.00%, which verified the effectiveness of the design method. The research results have certain theoretical significance and application value for the adaptive aging safety design and retrofit of guidance marks of rail transit connection systems.

Avishek Paul ◽  
Abhishek Chakraborty ◽  
Deboleena Sadhukhan ◽  
Saurabh Pal ◽  
Madhuchhanda Mitra

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