eye movements
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2022 ◽  
Lisa M Kroell ◽  
Martin Rolfs

Despite the fovea's singular importance for active human vision, the impact of large eye movements on foveal processing remains elusive. Building on findings from passive fixation tasks, we hypothesized that during the preparation of rapid eye movements (saccades), foveal processing anticipates soon-to-be fixated visual features. Using a dynamic large-field noise paradigm, we indeed demonstrate that sensitivity for defining features of a saccade target is enhanced in the pre-saccadic center of gaze. Enhancement manifested in higher Hit Rates for foveal probes with target-congruent orientation, and a sensitization to incidental, target-like orientation information in foveally presented noise. Enhancement was spatially confined to the center of gaze and its immediate vicinity. We suggest a crucial contribution of foveal processing to trans-saccadic visual continuity which has previously been overlooked: Foveal processing of saccade targets commences before the movement is executed and thereby enables a seamless transition once the center of gaze reaches the target.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Bhanuka Mahanama ◽  
Yasith Jayawardana ◽  
Sundararaman Rengarajan ◽  
Gavindya Jayawardena ◽  
Leanne Chukoskie ◽  

Our subjective visual experiences involve complex interaction between our eyes, our brain, and the surrounding world. It gives us the sense of sight, color, stereopsis, distance, pattern recognition, motor coordination, and more. The increasing ubiquity of gaze-aware technology brings with it the ability to track gaze and pupil measures with varying degrees of fidelity. With this in mind, a review that considers the various gaze measures becomes increasingly relevant, especially considering our ability to make sense of these signals given different spatio-temporal sampling capacities. In this paper, we selectively review prior work on eye movements and pupil measures. We first describe the main oculomotor events studied in the literature, and their characteristics exploited by different measures. Next, we review various eye movement and pupil measures from prior literature. Finally, we discuss our observations based on applications of these measures, the benefits and practical challenges involving these measures, and our recommendations on future eye-tracking research directions.

2022 ◽  
David Harris ◽  
Tom Arthur ◽  
Toby de Burgh ◽  
Mike Duxbury ◽  
Ross Lockett-Kirk ◽  

Objective: The aim of this work was to examine the fidelity and validity of an aviation simulation using eye tracking. Background: Commercial head-mounted virtual reality (VR) systems offer a convenient and cost-effective alternative to existing aviation simulation (e.g., for refresher exercises). We performed pre-implementation testing of a novel aviation simulation, designed for head-mounted VR, to determine its fidelity and validity as a training device. Method: Eighteen airline pilots, with varying levels of flight experience, completed a sequence of training ‘flows’. Self-reported measures of presence and workload and users’ perceptions of fidelity were taken. Pilots’ eye movements and performance were recorded to determine whether more experienced pilots showed distinct performance and eye gaze profiles in the simulation, as they would in the real-world. Results: Real-world expertise correlated with eye gaze patterns characterised by fewer, but longer, fixations and a scan path that was more structured and less random. Multidimensional scaling analyses also indicated differential clustering of strategies in more versus less experienced pilots. Subjective ratings of performance, however, showed little relationship with real-world expertise or eye movements. Conclusion: We adopted an evidence-based approach to assessing the fidelity and validity of a VR flight training tool. Pilot reports indicated the simulation was realistic and potentially useful for training, while direct measurement of eye movements was useful for establishing construct validity and psychological fidelity of the simulation.

2022 ◽  
Vanessa Maria Loaiza ◽  
Alessandra S. Souza

There is a growing interest in specifying the mechanisms underlying refreshing, i.e., the use of attention to keep working memory (WM) contents accessible. Here, we examined whether participants’ visual fixations during the retention interval of a WM task indicate the current focus of internal attention, thereby serving as an online measure of refreshing. Eye movements were recorded while participants studied and maintained an array of colored dots followed by probed recall of one (Experiments 1A and 1B) or all (Experiment 2) of the memoranda via a continuous color wheel. Experiments 1A and 2 entailed an unfilled retention interval in which refreshing is assumed to occur spontaneously, and Experiment 1B entailed a retention interval embedded with cues prompting the sequential refreshment of a subset of the memoranda. During the retention interval, fixations revisited the locations occupied by the memoranda, consistent with a looking-at-nothing phenomenon in WM, but the pattern was only evident when placeholders were onscreen in Experiment 2, indicating that these fixations may largely reflect random gaze. Furthermore, spontaneous fixations did not predict recall precision (Experiments 1A and 2), even when ensuring that they did not reflect random gaze (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1B, refreshing cues increased fixations to the eventually tested target and predicted better recall precision, which interacted with an overall benefit of target fixations. These results suggest that fixations during instructed, but not spontaneous, refreshing conditions account for additional variance in recall precision. Eye movements, however, do not seem suitable as an online measure of refreshing.

Carlos Alós-Ferrer ◽  
Alexander Ritschel

AbstractWe investigate the implications of Salience Theory for the classical preference reversal phenomenon, where monetary valuations contradict risky choices. It has been stated that one factor behind reversals is that monetary valuations of lotteries are inflated when elicited in isolation, and that they should be reduced if an alternative lottery is present and draws attention. We conducted two preregistered experiments, an online choice study ($$N=256$$ N = 256 ) and an eye-tracking study ($$N=64$$ N = 64 ), in which we investigated salience and attention in preference reversals, manipulating salience through the presence or absence of an alternative lottery during evaluations. We find that the alternative lottery draws attention, and that fixations on that lottery influence the evaluation of the target lottery as predicted by Salience Theory. The effect, however, is of a modest magnitude and fails to translate into an effect on preference reversal rates in either experiment. We also use transitions (eye movements) across outcomes of different lotteries to study attention on the states of the world underlying Salience Theory, but we find no evidence that larger salience results in more transitions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Michael Barz ◽  
Omair Shahzad Bhatti ◽  
Daniel Sonntag

Eye movements were shown to be an effective source of implicit relevance feedback in constrained search and decision-making tasks. Recent research suggests that gaze-based features, extracted from scanpaths over short news articles (g-REL), can reveal the perceived relevance of read text with respect to a previously shown trigger question. In this work, we aim to confirm this finding and we investigate whether it generalizes to multi-paragraph documents from Wikipedia (Google Natural Questions) that require readers to scroll down to read the whole text. We conduct a user study (n = 24) in which participants read single- and multi-paragraph articles and rate their relevance at the paragraph level with respect to a trigger question. We model the perceived document relevance using machine learning and features from the literature as input. Our results confirm that eye movements can be used to effectively model the relevance of short news articles, in particular if we exclude difficult cases: documents which are on topic of the trigger questions but irrelevant. However, our results do not clearly show that the modeling approach generalizes to multi-paragraph document settings. We publish our dataset and our code for feature extraction under an open source license to enable future research in the field of gaze-based implicit relevance feedback.

2022 ◽  
Qi Zhang ◽  
Zhibang Huang ◽  
Liang Li ◽  
Sheng Li

Visual search in a complex environment requires efficient discrimination between target and distractors. Training serves as an effective approach to improve visual search performance when the target does not automatically pop out from the distractors. In the present study, we trained subjects on a conjunction visual search task and examined the training effects in behavior and eye movement from Experiments 1 to 4. The results showed that training improved behavioral performance and reduced the number of saccades and overall scanning time. Training also increased the search initiation time before the first saccade and the proportion of trials in which the subjects correctly identified the target without any saccade, but these effects were modulated by stimulus' parameters. In Experiment 5, we replicated these training effects when eye movements and EEG signals were recorded simultaneously. The results revealed significant N2pc components after the stimulus onset (i.e., stimulus-locked) and before the first saccade (i.e., saccade-locked) when the search target was the trained one. These N2pc components can be considered as the neural signatures for the training-induced boost of covert attention to the trained target. The enhanced covert attention led to a beneficial tradeoff between search initiation time and the number of saccades as a small amount of increase in search initiation time could result in a larger reduction in scanning time. These findings suggest that the enhanced covert attention to target and optimized overt eye movements are coordinated together to facilitate visual search training.

2022 ◽  
Vol 100 (S267) ◽  
Ioannis Dimopoulos ◽  
Lynca Kantungane ◽  
Stuart Coupland

2022 ◽  
pp. 97-125
M. H. Esther Han

The purpose of this chapter is to provide the main indications, background, and procedures when assessing eye movement function in the pediatric patient. The assessment of extraocular motility function includes version and ductions using the H pattern test in order to determine the presence of underaction or overactions of the extraocular muscles (EOM). EOM testing detects abnormalities in the structural and neurological integrity caused by an acquired or congenital disease of the central nervous system. Deficits in eye movement function can also contribute to poor academic performance which requires a developmental approach to the assessment of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to determine if a referral for optometric vision therapy is indicated. For the older child who is reading to learn, an assessment of reading eye movements using objective tests, such as the Visagraph and/or the ReadAlyzer, will guide the direction of the management plan.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 73
Aikaterini Premeti ◽  
Maria Pia Bucci ◽  
Frédéric Isel

Developmental dyslexia is a complex reading disorder involving genetic and environmental factors. After more than a century of research, its etiology remains debated. Two hypotheses are often put forward by scholars to account for the causes of dyslexia. The most common one, the linguistic hypothesis, postulates that dyslexia is due to poor phonological awareness. The alternative hypothesis considers that dyslexia is caused by visual-attentional deficits and abnormal eye movement patterns. This article reviews a series of selected event-related brain potential (ERP) and eye movement studies on the reading ability of dyslexic individuals to provide an informed state of knowledge on the etiology of dyslexia. Our purpose is to show that the two abovementioned hypotheses are not necessarily mutually exclusive, and that dyslexia should rather be considered as a multifactorial deficit.

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